Innovations in learning technologies for English language teaching

Innovations in learning technologies for English language teaching 13
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Edited by INNov ATIoNS SerIeS: Innovations in BRITISH COUNCIL Gary Motteram learning technologies for English language teaching INNov ATIoNS SerIeS Innovations in learning technologies for English language teaching edited by Gary MotteramInnovations in learning technologies for English language teaching Edited by Gary MotteramISBN 978-0-86355-713-2 © British Council 2013 Brand and Design/C607 10 Spring Gardens London SW1A 2BN, UK www.britishcouncil.org Contents 1Contents Foreword Martin Peacock ...........................................................................................................................................2 Acknowledgements Gary Motteram ............................................................................................................................................4 Introduction Gary Motteram ............................................................................................................................................5 1 Emer ging technologies, emerging minds: digital innovations within the primary sector Chris Pim ..............................................................................................................................................15 2 Integr ating technology into secondary English language teaching Graham Stanley ................................................................................................................................ 43 3 T echnology and adult language teaching Diane Slaouti, Zeynep Onat-Stelma and Gary Motteram .................................................. 67 4 T echnology-integrated English for Specific Purposes lessons: real-life language, tasks, and tools for professionals Nergiz Kern ......................................................................................................................................... 87 5 English for A cademic Purposes Jody Gilbert .......................................................................................................................................117 6 A pr actice-based exploration of technology enhanced assessment for English language teaching Russell Stannard and Anthony ‘Skip’ Basiel .........................................................................145 7 De veloping and extending our understanding of language learning and technology Gary Motteram ................................................................................................................................175 Contributors ............................................................................................................................................193 Acronyms .................................................................................................................................................196 Contents 1Foreword Martin Peacock I remember as a fledgling teacher in the British Council teaching centre in Hong Kong listening to the Director of Studies giving a welcome speech to teachers at the start of the new academic year. The centre had begun investing heavily in computers and had just opened its ‘Classroom of the Future’ – a classroom with specially adapted furniture which gave students relatively painless access to computers built into desks. The Director of Studies was talking about the role of technology in the future of language learning and rather dramatically made his point by closing with the following epithet: ‘The British Council needs teachers who are confident with technology. You are either into technology or you are in the way and had better start looking for a new job.’ Strong words indeed – and at the time quite a wake-up call for a number of teachers in the room who looked nervously around at their colleagues and no doubt made mental notes to get to grips with this new-fangled email malarkey. Times have changed, teachers have evolved, and we now have a new breed of learning technologists. As in Hong Kong, the first changes began in the classroom itself – new technologies such as overhead projectors, interactive whiteboards, laptop computers and wireless internet have opened up the classroom to the outside world. Teachers who spent their lives managing with a textbook, a tape recorder and a blackboard are now adept at using PowerPoint to present grammar, playing podcasts to practise listening skills, pulling texts off the world wide web to introduce reading skills and perhaps most ground-breaking of all – empowering students by giving them access to a wide range of web-based tools that allow them to publish work and engage with live audiences in real contexts. And that is just the beginning – because just as technologies have begun to change the way that English is learned in the classroom, even bigger changes seem to be taking place outside it. In fact, the digital revolution in learning now threatens to undermine the classroom completely as a place of study. Learning English through mobile devices gains credibility every day and the increasing popularity and rapidly diminishing cost of tablet devices reinforce this by providing a format that really is capable of delivering courseware. Factor in the growing interest in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), providing large-scale (and free) learning interventions, and it is clear that technology still has much to offer ELT. 2 ForewordThis is why I am delighted to introduce Innovations in learning technologies for English language teaching, the latest volume in the British Council’s Innovations series. The volume provides a systematic and comprehensive overview of the current use of technologies to support English teaching and learning. Systematic in the sense that each chapter looks at a key segment of the ELT market – young learners, adults, English for specific purposes, English for academic purposes, assessment and teacher training and provides a view on the current state of technological intervention. Comprehensive because the view is a wide one, supported by numerous case studies which serve to keep the volume grounded in the realities of practising teachers using technologies in innovative and exciting ways. I am sure that this volume will be of practical interest to teachers and researchers in search of teaching ideas and examples of good practice, and provide food for thought for policy makers and school administrators studying the potential of learning technologies in transforming the ELT sector. I would like to finish by thanking all the contributors who have written chapters for the volume and the teachers and researchers who have contributed case studies. And a special thanks to Gary Motteram for his tireless work, both as a contributor and volume editor, in making this publication a reality. Martin Peacock Head of English Product Development, British Council Foreword 3Acknowledgements I would first like to thank the British Council for giving me the opportunity to work on this book and particularly Adrian Odell for his support when it took longer than we had both anticipated. I would also like to thank all the writers for working with me and helping to make what I believe is a novel and exciting contribution to the field of CALL. All of us would like to thank the teachers who have generously supplied all of the case studies that are the core of what we have written about. All of the case study contributors who wanted to be named are included in a summary of the chapters in the Introduction. Very special thanks from me should go to Juup Stelma, my colleague at Manchester University, who has helped enormously to make my own chapters better, and has also given professional advice on another. Gary Motteram Senior Lecturer in Education (TESOL) University of Manchester 4 AcknowledgementsIntroduction Gary Motteram In this early part of the 21st century the range of technologies available for use in language learning and teaching has become very diverse and the ways that they are being used in classrooms all over the world, as illustrated in this book, have become central to language practice. We are now firmly embedded in a time when digital technologies, the focus of this book, are what Bax has referred to as ‘normalised’ (2003, 2011) in daily life in many parts of the world, although not amongst all people as there are digital divisions everywhere (Warschauer, 2003), and still not always in the world of education. However, digital tools, or what I will describe in Chapter 7 as ‘technical cultural artefacts’ have long been a feature of the world of education (Bates, 2005), and particularly language education (Salaberry, 2001). These digital tools are, of course, central in what I would argue is the established and recognised field of computer assisted language learning (CALL), but are also increasingly a core part of English language teaching (ELT) in general. People continue to debate the use of the term CALL itself, asking whether it is still relevant. Levy and Hubbard making the argument for (2005), whilst Dudeney and Hockly (2012) are rather less convinced. In a world where we increasingly see laptops, tablet computers, or mobile phones as the technology of choice, it might be argued that we are at a tipping point when this common term will soon disappear. However, in this chapter at least I will refer to the discipline as CALL, because along with the names of the different special interest groups and the predominant journals in the field, this continues to be the most common referent. A useful definition of CALL comes from Levy: ‘the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning’. (1997: 1) and this is what this book presents, albeit in a new way of thinking about the field. This fresh approach sees it as one that has significantly diversified, illustrates real practice with a considerable number of authentic case studies and then in the final chapter shows how CALL makes an increasingly significant contribution to the general world of ELT. CALL has its origins in the development of the first mainframe computers (Levy, 1997; Beatty, 2010; Davies et al., 2013) and articles about the use of computers in language education started appearing in earnest in the 1980s, over 30 years ago, at the same time as early desktop computers started to make an appearance. At the time of going to press there are 11 organisations listed in the entry on CALL on Wikipedia starting with the Asia Pacific Association for CALL (APACALL) and ending with WorldCALL, an umbrella group which runs an overarching conference every five years (in 2013 in Glasgow). There are also a number of dedicated journals that focus on the field of technology and language learning including: CALICO, CALL, International Journal of Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, Language Learning and Technology and ReCALL. CALL is also written about in journals that take a more general focus on technology in education, for example, Computers in Education, or the British Journal of Educational Technology and arguably more significantly for the general acceptance of the discipline, there Introduction 5are a number of journals in the language teaching field that also regularly feature articles on CALL. English Language Teaching Journal (ELTJ), arguably one of the most influential practitioner oriented journals in the TESOL field, in a recent special issue has an article by Dudeney and Hockly (2012) in which they review the 30 years of technology in language teaching, and Nicky Hockly continues a tradition started by David (Diana) Eastment in each issue of producing a short article on technology in language learning. In the special issue of ELTJ just mentioned, the topic is mobile learning. You will also see other general language journals referenced throughout this book. CALL has then moved from being a niche field practised by a few early adopters, to being mainstream and arguably having significant impact with two of the journals mentioned above, Computers in Education and Language Learning and Technology being ranked in the top 20 most influential journals in education. The diversification of CALL CALL is no longer one subject; in fact, Arnó-Macià (2012) has argued that we are now in the realm of a definite division between computer mediated communication as one branch of the world of educational technology and ELT and CALL, as another. I would argue for further sub-divisions of CALL, for the teaching and learning of specific purposes languages as well as CALL for younger learners, and you will find chapters on each of these areas in this book. We can also appreciate these developments in the creation of special interest groups in organisations like EuroCALL and CALICO. In very recent times we have also seen a growth of overview articles in journals that address these very specific domains. In Language Teaching there has been a recent review of CALL for young learners (Macaro, Handley and Walter, 2012); in the Modern Language Journal there was an overview of ESP (Arnó-Macià, 2012), which acted as an introduction to a special issue. We have seen for a while more specificity in books too, with Kern and Warschauer starting the trend with Network Based Language Teaching (2000), Dudeney on the Internet and the Language Classroom (2000 and 2007), an ESP book on technology (Arnó, Soler and Rueda, 2006), O’Dowd on online intercultural exchanges (2007), a book on social media in language learning (Thomas, 2009), Mawer and Stanley on digital games (2011) and an expected glut around mobile learning in the next few years. However, there are still influential general books in the field, for example, Levy and Stockwell (2006), Thomas, Reinders and Warschauer (2013), this latter forming part of a series which is always a good sign of a healthy field, as are second editions, for example Beatty (2010). Most of the books that have been published so far are general introductions, collections of more formal reports of research conducted by a series of writers, or resource books for teachers which give ideas about how teachers can engage with technology often based only on classroom practice, with little or no connection to language teaching theory. Teachers then take these ideas and adapt them to their own classrooms, but we very seldom hear how these adaptations went, or what happened to the teachers when they tried out these ideas. This is where the reports that were created for the Cambridge University Press project that are discussed in 6 Introduction Introduction 7Chapters 3 and 7 and the case studies that have been assembled for this book differ. In the chapters here we find actual descriptions of practice, we see the technological choices that the teachers make in the different contexts of activity. In some cases we see why they choose to do what they do, in some cases we learn more about the role of the institution or other colleagues. Issues of methodology and technology Since computers started to be introduced in language learning (and in education in general) people have rightly asked whether the investment we are making in these technologies gives us value for money. As digital technologies have taken a hold in society in general, this particular question is not asked quite so often, but it is still important to make sure that the technologies that we have available are used effectively. People are always tempted to try to make an argument for technology having an impact on the development of pedagogy and in many cases we can see that the use of technology has enabled teachers to re-think what they are doing. We also see people trying to populate this domain by talking about notions like the ‘flipped classroom’, ostensibly a methodology that sees input as occurring at ‘home’ and physical classrooms being used as spaces to explore what has been presented in the input. This is far from being a new idea, but these agendas are pushed for a while and then disappear again. What is a contender for a methodology that is central to the world of technology and language learning is that of blended learning (Motteram and Sharma, 2009). We see this methodology still being developed, but when handled best it is the most likely candidate for a starting point for getting teachers to work with technology in their practice. It is still the case that most teachers work in physical classrooms and looking at ways that these spaces can be augmented with digital technologies is a very good starting point. In our recent project for Cambridge University Press, Diane Slaouti, Zeynep Onat-Stelma and myself added the idea of the extended classroom to the notion of blended learning (see Chapter 3 for further discussion). An extended classroom is one that allows learners to engage in material beyond the regular class period, so while a blended classroom is looking at ways that an activity might be enhanced by a technology, we also see technologies being used to make it possible to cover areas of the curriculum that there is just not enough time for in the busy world of formal education, particularly in primary and secondary schools. Thorne and Reinhardt (2008) have also proposed the notion of ‘bridging activities’, which simplistically is about getting learners to talk about how learners are using technology in their ‘out of class lives’ in the classroom. Thorne and Reinhardt (2008) are interested in fan fiction, the sort of narrative material that is created around digital gaming. What they propose is that teachers encourage learners to bring this activity into the classroom with them and they use it as the foundations of lessons. I explore this idea of the transformations of language learning through technology further in the final chapter (Chapter 7). The range of technologies At the beginning of this introduction I talked about the range of technologies that are now regularly used in classrooms throughout the world. In the research that I mentioned above: Motteram, Onat-Stelma and Slaouti (2008), we surveyed teachers Introduction 7of adults about the technologies that they use with their learners and we saw a very wide range. What we found was that it wasn’t always the case that new technologies replaced old ones. In some cases, when a newer technology is not always available, what drove teachers’ choices was the needs of the lesson and the perceived needs of the learners. This diversity of technologies is replicated in this book in the chapters that follow and in Table 1.1 I have listed all of the technologies that are presented in the cases studies discussed in the chapters. Some of the chapters do feature discussion of further digital technologies, but these are not listed in Table 1.1, although links to these technologies and descriptions of their use are provided in the body of the chapters. Table 1.1: Cases and technologies, chapter by chapter Case study title and context Technologies discussed Chapter 1: Primary education Case Study 1.1: Travelling through arts – Blogs (e.g. www.wordpress.com; Spain and Canada – Melinda Dooly and www.blogger.com) Dolors Masats Wikis (e.g. www.pbworks.com; www.wikispaces.com) Second Life – virtual world Online exhibition via Glogster (www.glogster.com) Case Study 1.2a: Developing spoken language Video conferencing (Polycom) with skills and cultural understanding – Japan and whiteboard facility Australia – Nagata Shigefumi and Hiroko Arao PowerPoint (Google now offers its own presentation software and on Apple machines there is Keynote) Case Study 1.2b: Picture book reading – Video conferencing (JoinNet) Taiwan – Jane Chien Case Study 1.3: Cross curricular story writing – Interactive books (Adobe Creative Suite) Turkey – Özge Karaoğlu iBook – Bubble and Pebble (www.bubbleandpebble.com) Case Study 1.4: Talking books – Hampshire Talking pens and stickers (Mantra Lingua) Ethnic Minority and Traveller Achievement Service – England – Anwen Foy Case Study 1.5: Edugaming – Barcelona – No5 (3wish – www.3wish.com) Kyle Mawer Case Study 1.6: WriteOnline – England – WriteOnline Chris Pim Case Study 1.7a: Mobile games – England Anspear Case Study 1.7b: Lifeplayer – South Africa – Lifeplayer (Lifeline Energy) Caroline Grant and Phil Sambati 8 Introduction Introduction 9Chapter 2: Secondary education Case Study 2.1: Telecollaboration at a Teacher’s own laptop secondary school – Egypt – Ayat Al-Tawal Projector Skype (www.skype.com) Private Facebook group (www.facebook.com) Photopeach.com – photo-based slide shows MP3 Skype recorder (www.voipcallrecording.com) Edmodo (www.edmodo.com) Voxopop (www.voxopop.com) Case Study 2.2: Sharing the experiences Learner podcasts of webtools – Brazil – Ana Maria Menzes Teacher feedback videos (www.educreations.com) Voki (www.voki.com) Edmodo (www.edmodo.com) used as a portfolio or PLN Songify – iPad app Case Study 2.3: Digital storytelling – Argentina Wiki for project work (www.wikispaces.com) – Vicky Saumell Windows Movie Maker Zimmer Twins (www.zimmertwins.com) Case Study 2.4: Mobile learning inside Learners own mobile phones and outside of the classroom – Turkey – School Wi-Fi Karin Tıraşın Website creation tool: Doodle Kit (www.doodlekit.com) Fotobabble (www.fotobabble.com) for uploading pictures Animated cartoons using Go Animate (www.goanimate.com) Cartoon strips using Toon Doo (www.toondoo. com) and Bit Strips (www.bitstrips.com) Voki (www.voki.com) Quick Response (QR) codes Audio blog software VocalPost (www.vocalpost.com) Online grammar quizzes Dictionary app Chapter 3: General adult language education Case Study 3.1: ESOL in further education – Interactive Whiteboard England – Susan Blackmore-Squires PowerPoint VLE – Moodle (www.moodle.org) Google (www.google.com) Audacity Word processing (Word is now just one example of many ways of making text on digital devices) (http://audacity.sourceforge.net) Introduction 9Case Study 3.2: English for Sociology – Moviemaker Slovenia – Vida Zorko Wiki (www.pbworks.com) Case Study 3.3: General intermediate level Materials printed from the web, tracked down English at a University – Czech Republic – using Google image search Ivana Pekarova YouTube Learn English website (http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org) Online dictionary Moodle (www.moodle.org) Chapter 4: English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and Business English (BE) Case Study 4.1: English for politicians – Teleconferencing – Skype (www.skype.com) Germany – Cornelia Kreis-Meyer Audio and video conferences and text chat Sound Studio for recording Skype conversations Telephone Case Study 4.2: Business English – Uruguay – Skype (www.skype.com) Mercedes Viola Email Virtual conferencing rooms Online dictionaries Case Study 4.3: English for advertising – Yahoo Groups Taiwan – Ayden Yeh A blog PowerPoint Slideshare Google Drive (Formerly Docs) Document archiving service (www.thinkfree.com) Video servers (Blip TV and YouTube) Digital audio and video recorders Media Player Windows Movie Maker Chapter 5: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Case Study 5.1: Concordancing in the Concordancers classroom – Canada – Andy Corpora www.lextutor.ca Case Study 5.2: Using a wiki to provide Wiki (www.wikispaces.com) additional cultural support to EAP learners – Canada – Beth Case Study 5.3: Using an LMS in an EAP Learning Management Systems (LMS), classroom – Germany – Sarah e.g. Moodle or Blackboard Chapter 6: Assessment Case Study 6.1: Recorded group discussions – VoiceThread (www.voicethread.com) Peru – Antonio 10 Introduction Introduction 11Case Study 6.2: Using a virtual learning Virtual Learning Environment Moodle environment to support reflective writing (www.moodle.org) assessment – Turkey – Yrma G Case Study 6.3: Developing written fluency Edmodo (www.edmodo.com) through discussion topics – Tunisia – Mouna Case Study 6.4: Improving presentation skills myBrainshark (www.brainshark.com) with PowerPoint – England – Russell Stannard PowerPoint Case Study 6.5: Developing speaking skills – Vocaroo (http://vocaroo.com) England – Russell Stannard Case Study 6.6: Language improvement for Blogs (www.wordpress.com; language teachers – England – Russell Stannard www.blogger.com) In many of the teaching resource books that are produced, we do not get a real insight into how teachers actually make use of the technologies to support the learning outcomes of the classes. What we tried to do in the Cambridge project and what we have tried to do here is to provide good examples of teacher practice embedded in a broader understanding of what happens in the classrooms, so the Cambridge project produced a series of detailed case studies of teacher activity that you can find and read on the web (http://blogging.humanities.manchester. ac.uk/CUP/). This book continues this trend, but it broadens the database of cases on display. The CUP project focused on the adult world, whereas this book includes chapters that discuss a wider and more detailed view of the world of ELT, which also reflects the broader uses of technology in the world. The chapters in this book cover the following more specialist topics: Chapters 1 and 2 are concerned with those who in ELT are often referred to as ‘young learners’. For many years most learners only started languages once they left basic education. This is no longer the case and primary language learning has become a central focus of language teaching and learning. This is not only the case in ELT, but in the teaching of other languages all over the world. Chris Pim covers the primary area and Graham Stanley covers secondary. Chris, who works as a freelance teacher and teacher trainer in the UK, provides a useful overview of language teaching in the primary sector and presents a large group of case studies covering a broad range of technologies. Graham, who has spent many years working with learners face-to- face in Barcelona, but in recent years also online with both learners and teachers, shows how the secondary sector has developed to include an increased emphasis on technology in language education. His chapter also shows how teachers can collaborate through digital technologies to provide better access to language for their learners, or who re-think the whole process of the way that languages should be developed in the classroom across a whole school. Chapter 3 takes us on to the adult world and Diane Slaouti, Zeynep Onat-Stelma and myself provide a chapter that shows teachers using technology in interesting and effective ways in the language classroom. This chapter also acts as a bridge to the subsequent adult chapters by providing an overview of how adults learn with an introductory discussion of ‘andragogy’. Introduction 11Chapter 4 is concerned with ESP and Business English. Nergiz Kern defines what we mean by ESP and Business English, but also explores three cases that illuminate the increasing role that technology plays in this area of ELT. Because of the very specialist nature of ESP, it is inevitable that teachers have had to create their own materials and we can see in this chapter how helpful digital technologies can be in this respect. EAP is the focus of Chapter 5, and Jody Gilbert gives us an insight into what is a core activity for many teachers in the further and higher education sectors around the world. With the increasing role that technology plays in academic life in general, its growing use in EAP is inevitable and here we see case studies reflecting typical activity in this sector of ELT. Chapter 6 is concerned with assessment in language teaching and Russell Stannard and Anthony Basiel approach this topic not from the perspective of the electronic summative test, but the role of assessment to promote language development in the classroom. Chapter 7, my own chapter, provides a final summation, but also approaches technology and language teaching in its role of providing tools that can develop language teaching. Technology is no longer at the periphery of the ELT field, but at its centre, providing teachers with the means to enhance the teaching of languages in classrooms all over the world. References Arnó Macià, E (2012) The Role of Technology in Teaching Languages for Specific Purposes Courses. The Modern Language Journal 96 s1: 89–104. Arnó Macià, E, Soler Cervera, A and Rueda Ramos, C (eds) (2006) Information technology in languages for specific purposes: Issues and prospects. New York: Springer. Bates, AW (2005) Technology, e-learning and distance education. London: Routledge. Bax, S (2003) CALL – Past, present and future. System 31/1: 13–28. Bax, S (2011) Normalisation revisited: The effective use of technology in language education. IJCALLT 1/2: 1–15. Beatty, K (2010) Computer Assisted Language Learning. London: Longman. Davies, G, Otto, SEK and Rüschoff, B (2013) ‘Historical perspectives in CALL’, in Thomas, M, Reinders, H and Warschauer, M (2013) Contemporary computer assisted language learning. London: Bloomsbury. Dudeney, G (2000 and 2007) The Internet and the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dudeney, G and Hockly, N (2012) ICT in ELT: how did we get here and where are we going? English Language Teaching Journal 66/4: 533–542. 12 Introduction Introduction 13Kern, R and Warschauer, M (2000) Network-based language teaching: concepts and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Levy, M (1997) Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Oxford: Clarendon. Levy, M and Hubbard, P (2005) Why call CALL ‘CALL’? Computer Assisted Language Learning 18/3: 143–149. Levy, M and Stockwell, G (2006) CALL dimensions: Options and issues in computer- assisted language learning. London: Routledge. Macaro, E, Handley, Z and Walter, C (2012) A systematic review of CALL in English as a second language: Focus on primary and secondary education. Language Teaching 45/1: 1– 43. Mawer, K and Stanley, G (2011) Digital play: Computer games and language aims. Peaslake Delta Publishing. Motteram, G and Sharma, P (2009) Blending learning in a web 2.0 world. International Journal of Emerging Technologies & Society 7/2: 83 – 96. Motteram, G, Onat-Stelma, Z and Slaouti, D (2008) Technology in ELT: Survey report. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. O’Dowd, R (2007) Online intercultural exchange. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Salaberry, MR (2001) The use of technology for second language learning and teaching: A retrospective. The Modern Language Journal 85/1: 39–56. Thomas, M (ed) (2009) Handbook of research on web 2.0 and second language learning. Hershey, PA., New York and London: Information Science Reference. Thomas, M, Reinders, H and Warschauer, M (2013) Contemporary computer assisted language learning. London: Bloomsbury. Thorne, SL and Reinhardt, J (2008) ‘Bridging activities’, new media literacies, and advanced foreign language proficiency. CALICO Journal 25/3: 558 –572. Warschauer, M (2003) Demystifying the digital divide. Scientific American, 289/August: 42 – 47. Introduction 13 14 IntroductionEmerging technologies, emerging minds: digital innovations within the primary sector 16 Emerging technologies, emerging minds Emerging technologies, emerging minds 171 Emerging technologies, emerging minds: digital innovations within the primary sector Chris Pim Introduction With English reportedly the most commonly ‘learned’ second language around the world (Crystal, 1997; Special Eurobarometer, 2006: 243), this chapter explores how information and communication technologies (ICT) can be used to support the process of English language learning for those in the very early stages of education. It asks: what innovative approaches to language development can be employed to meet the needs of a new generation of young technocrats growing up within an increasingly globalised world? This chapter examines exemplary use of technology for primary English language teaching and learning around the world and, like the other chapters in this volume, makes use of case studies to illustrate why these approaches are effective within the contexts in which they are used. Evidence suggests that there can be significant variability in practitioner and pupil confidence with ICT (Wild, 1996; Lam, 2000; Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010, Ertmer et al. 2011), although this is a rapidly changing picture as new generations of pupils who have grown up in a digital world come into classes, and graduates who don’t remember a time when they didn’t have a mobile phone train to be teachers and enter the school systems around the world. There is also unequal access to the technology itself and while there is increasing access to technologies throughout the world there are still ‘digital divides’, both in, and between, countries (Warschauer, 2003). Throughout the chapter, it is accepted that a ‘one size fits all’ approach to using technology is neither desirable nor practical. Each situation demands a specific approach to English language learning and these circumstances dictate not only when technologies are introduced to young learners, but how they are implemented. It is also apparent that whilst technology has the power to utterly transform learning, there are occasions where it can actually serve to reinforce linguistic, social and cultural hegemonies, rather than challenging them (Rasool, 2000). It is not surprising, however, that an examination of exemplary practice in the use of ICTs throws up some common themes. For example, technology-mediated language learning seems to be most successful when the technology is seamlessly integrated into the overall activity and where it is used as a cross-curricular tool (Leask, 2001), rather than being an additional skill-set that must be acquired prior to, or during, learning. Practitioners frequently comment how ICTs facilitate collaboration whilst Emerging technologies, emerging minds 17

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