Gmat exam success pdf

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Your guide to success with the iWhy should you take ® the GMAT exam? The GMAT is the most widely used exam for graduate business degree admissions. Laura Mattioli Where did you grow up? Lugano, Switzerland What do you love? Writing, writing, writing Last live event? Disclosure concert in London What one piece of advice can you give to others who are thinking about taking the GMAT? Take your time to study: don’t be lazy and leave it all for the end, start preparing yourself earlier. This will make your journey to the exam much more relaxed. 4 5You’ll gain a competitive advantage The GMAT exam levels the playing field Unlock scholarship funding ® As a globally recognised, standardised The GMAT exam is the most widely used Many business schools and universities test, your GMAT score puts you on a level indicator of academic success in graduate offer scholarships to their graduate business playing field with candidates from around the business degree programmes. Taking the students, on the basis of need, diversity world. It also allows you to compete fairly test clearly signals to admissions managers or merit. A good GMAT score is often part against other candidates with widely varying that you are serious about earning a degree of the qualification criteria for scholarships academic and professional backgrounds. and succeeding on their programme. and bursaries, which should be applied for early in the admissions cycle. Find out more Elevate above the rest Secure a place on your programme of about funding your programme by visiting choice A graduate business degree empowers GMAT questions measure your critical you to succeed by increasing your reasoning skills, the skills that are highly earning potential and unlocking a world of relevant to the world’s best graduate opportunities. The journey starts with the business programmes. When you perform GMAT exam. well on the GMAT exam, you demonstrate the commitment, motivation, and ability Help the right programmes find you to succeed in business school. ® Choose to opt-into the GMASS (Graduate ® Management Admission Search Service ) Open doors with a strong score database and your strong GMAT score Applying to a programme with a strong can help you get noticed by the business GMAT score gives you confidence that schools and universities that are the right fit you’ll be studying alongside equally talented for you. This opens you up to new options, When should I take the GMAT as finding time to fit in test preparation can students. Upon graduation, they will become from programmes you may have counted exam? be hard when you’ve started working. If you a valuable part of your network throughout yourself out from or those that are delivered are an experienced professional considering your career. in formats or locations you might not have Check the admissions deadlines for your a part-time programme or an Executive MBA, considered. target programme(s) well ahead of time studying for the GMAT gives you valuable and work back from there, accounting for insights into how you can balance work how much time you need to prepare. We and study with a busy social and family life. recommend preparing for the GMAT at least Why should I take the GMAT process up front, admissions managers Remember, admissions managers appreciate six months ahead of time to give yourself exam if it’s not compulsory for the may still ask you to supply a score later candidates who have taken their test early the chance to achieve the score you want, programme I am applying for? in the process if your application is not and have prepared well for it. It means they or to re-take if you want to aim for a higher as competitive as others in their applicant don’t have to wait for your score to come We highly recommend that you speak score. Your GMAT score is valid for five years. pool. Also consider whether the GMAT is through or for you to schedule a resit. It with the admissions team for your chosen If you are currently studying, preparing for required for your second or third choice shows them that you are committed, know programme well ahead of the admissions the GMAT while you are still in an academic programmes if you are not able to secure what you need to do and are prepared to deadline. Even when the GMAT is not a mindset can make your life significantly a place on your first choice programme. work hard to achieve success. compulsory part of the application easier. Take advantage of your study routine 6 7® How is the GMAT relevant to business school and beyond? Over six decades, the GMAT exam has been enhanced and refined so that it continues to measure the key indicators of success that are prized by admissions managers, professors and employers. Djae Aroni Where did you grow up? Nairobi, Kenya What do you love? Playing guitar and discovering new music. And cats, I love cats. Best gig? Rocktoberfest Nairobi, 2012 Your favourite quote? ‘When things get heavy just call me helium, the lightest gas known to man.’ Jimi Hendrix 8Sharpen the skills required for It’s not rocket science… success in school GMAT questions are based on the The GMAT is developed and updated with mathematic concepts and English-language input from the world’s leading business skills you would have learnt in secondary schools. By sharpening your skills as you school to the age of 16. For example, you prepare for the exam, you’ll be able to will likely be required to use arithmetic, earn a strong score and thrive in business elementary algebra and geometry as part of school and the business world. the test. The GMAT does not evaluate your The exam provides an accurate and business knowledge, job skills, motivation or objective measure of your ability to: interpersonal skills. It is also not designed to test your command of the English language. • Think critically and apply your higher You already have what it takes to achieve order reasoning skills a good result on the GMAT. It’s essential that • Analyse and make decisions based on you understand that preparation is crucial. data from multiple sources • Write clearly and effectively …but you need to prepare • Study and perform academically • Remain focused for an extended The GMAT is not impossibly challenging. period of time However, it is exceedingly difficult to get • Solve problems a good, balanced score that truly represents • Evaluate arguments and take an your abilities without knowing what to informed position expect by reviewing practice questions and • Prioritise time and effort, and perform preparing for the test conditions. under intense time pressure While the English and mathematics involved are not especially difficult, the By developing these abilities through your GMAT is measuring your ability to reason GMAT prepa rations, you’ll be equipping and make complex judgments using critical yourself with a highly marketable set of skills thinking, analysis of information, and that you’ll be able to draw on again and again. problem solving under timed conditions. Aram Karakas Where did you grow up? Vancouver, BC What do you love? Hockey, food Best job? Researcher at British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. What one piece of advice can you give to others who are thinking about taking the GMAT? Study hard, have fun, enjoy it and think big picture. 10 11® The GMAT exam structure The Graduate Management Admission Test is unlike any test you have taken before. Knowing what to expect and what is being assessed is a key part of your preparation. Ekaterina Voloshchenko Where did you grow up? Moscow, Russia What do you love? Reading, ice skating What superpower would you have? Levitation What one piece of advice can you give to others who are thinking about taking the GMAT? Prepare as much as you can in good time before the test. 12 13 k a e r b t r a t s ® 1. The GMAT exam structure Analytical 91 questions 200–800 points 4 hrs approx Writing fi Duration: 00:30 1 question 0–6 points 4. 2. Verbal Integrated Reasoning Reasoning Duration: 01:15 Duration: 00:30 41 questions 12 questions 0–60 points 1–8 points computer adaptive 3. Quantitative Reasoning The GMAT exam is conducted entirely in To ensure fairness, all test takers around Visit for English and is administered on a computer at the world: more insights into the format a GMAT approved test centre. You will only • are evaluated on the same number and timing Duration: 01:15 see one question at a time and you cannot of questions 37 questions skip or go back. The questions are divided • answer the same type of questions 0–60 points into four compulsory, separately timed • are subject to the same time limits computer adaptive sections, with two optional timed breaks. • are tested in similar conditions. 15 h s i n k a e r b1. Analytical Writing world that demands managers synthesise Advanced statistical and spreadsheet choice questions. You have approximately data from multiple sources to identify manipulation skills are not necessary. two minutes to answer each question. It is The GMAT exam begins with the Analytical patterns, make decisions and solve business A basic on-screen calculator is provided also the first computer adaptive section of Writing Assessment. This 30-minute writing problems. for this section, but is not available on the GMAT exam. task measures your ability to analyse the There are 12 multiple response questions the Quantitative section. The questions in this section are a mix complexities of an argument and formulate in the Integrated Reasoning section using of problem solving and data sufficiency a well-reasoned critique. four different question formats: The Integrated Reasoning section is questions, and require common knowledge You will be asked to write an essay in not computer adaptive and does not of concepts related to arithmetic, elementary response to one Analysis of an Argument Multi-Source Reasoning Using data from count towards your Total GMAT score. algebra, geometry and word problems. question. The question will concern a multiple sources, you answer multiple topic of general interest and may relate to choice or yes/no and true/false questions. 3. Quantitative Reasoning 4. Verbal Reasoning a business topic or some other subject. Table Analysis Using a sortable table However, it presupposes no specific After a short break, you move on to the After the Quantitative Reasoning section, you containing numeric data, you must knowledge of business or any other Quantitative Reasoning section. This section can have another short break before moving determine if a set of statements are content areas. Only your capacity to write of the exam tests your ability to reason, solve on to the final section of the GMAT exam, true or false. analytically is assessed. problems and interpret data. It measures Verbal Reasoning. The Verbal Reasoning Graphic Interpretation Using a chart or In the Analytical Writing Assessment, the skills you will use in quantitative-based section assesses your ability to comprehend graph, you find or extrapolate a value to you should demonstrate your ability to: subjects such as finance, accounting and and draw inferences from written material, to complete fill-in-the-blank statements from managerial statistics. evaluate arguments, and to make corrections a drop-down list. • Identify and think critically about The Quantitative Reasoning section lasts to conform to standard written English. Two-Part Analysis Using quantitative the key elements of the argument for 75 minutes and includes 37 multiple You have 75 minutes to complete the and/or verbal information, you must weigh • Communicate your ideas clearly and trade-offs and make decisions logically with more than one variable. Possible • Formulate an appropriate and answers are presented in a table and constructive response What is Computer Adaptive Testing? This is why you only see one question at you should choose the correct options. • Use your command of the English a time and you cannot skip or go back. The GMAT is more than just a computerised language. You are also severely penalised if you do In the Integrated Reasoning section of version of a written test, it is computer not complete all questions in the time the GMAT, you should demonstrate your adaptive. This means it automatically adapts The Analytical Writing Assessment does not test provided. It is therefore better to eliminate ability to: the question you see in the Quantitative and for perfect English, only your ability to use English as many options as you can, before making Verbal Reasoning sections based on a real- to analyse the argument presented and to write a your best guess and moving on to the next • Understand and evaluate multiple time assessment of your performance as well-articulated response. Additionally, you are not question. It is important to remember that sources and types of information – you are taking the test. The Quantitative and asked to present your own views on the topic. if you get a question that seems easier than graphic, numeric and verbal – as they Verbal sections both start with moderately the last one, it does not necessarily mean relate to one another difficult questions. The more questions you answered the last question incorrectly. 2. Integrated Reasoning • Use quantitative and verbal reasoning you answer correctly, the more difficult We include additional questions in your set to solve complex problems the questions become and the higher your The Analytical Writing Assessment is for calibration and quality purposes that • Solve multiple problems in relation to potential score can be. The opposite is followed by the 30-minute Integrated are not subject to the adaptive process. one another also true. Reasoning section. This part of the GMAT exam is designed to mimic today’s business 16 17Verbal Reasoning section, which includes logical relationships between elements 41 multiple-choice questions. You have of the content roughly one and three quarters of a minute to Critical reasoning measuring your ability answer each question. Like the Quantitative to draw conclusions from short arguments Reasoning section, this part Sentence correction choosing the phrase of the GMAT exam is computer adaptive. that completes a sentence with the most This section features a mixture of three grammatical accuracy. types of multiple choice questions: While the GMAT is not designed to test your Reading comprehension passages of up to 350 English language skills, you will require a words are followed by a set of questions good understanding of standard written testing your ability to interpret the text, English to be able to understand and answer to draw inferences from it, and to identify the questions in this section. Adeyemi Gafaar Where did you grow up? Lagos and Abuja, Nigeria What do you love? Travelling with my family Best gig? Ed Sheeran Favourite quote? ‘I am the master of my fate, I am the captain of my soul.’ William Ernest Henley What one piece of advice can you give to others who are thinking about taking the GMAT? Relax Especially the night before; have a good nights rest. 18What to expect on test day Prepare to take the GMAT with confidence by learning what to expect on the day of the exam. Jenny Tran Where did you grow up? Germany What do you love? Dancing Best gig? Rave in a bamboo forest near Shanghai What one piece of advice can you give to others who are thinking about taking the GMAT? Study hard, but don’t stress out too much – it will all turn out fine. 20 21Arriving at the test centre In the test room permitted at any time while you are in the previewing your score. If you change your test centre, even during breaks. mind after leaving the test centre, With the exam lasting three and a half hours GMAT exam rooms have a number of private You are not permitted to leave the you can access your account online and plus additional time for travel, check-in, computer workstations and may be subject testing room without the test administrator’s cancel up to 72 hours after you complete breaks, and check-out, your GMAT test day to audio/video recording. You will be logged permission, even during breaks. You are your exam or reinstate your scores up to can be a long one. Make sure you come well into a terminal by a test administrator and generally required to provide a digital palm 4 years and 11 months after your exam date. prepared, consider, perhaps bringing some noteboards, pens and ear plugs will be vein pattern any time you enter the testing Cancelling or reinstating your scores online healthy snacks to eat during the breaks to provided. room to verify your identity confirmed during will incur a fee. keep your energy and concentration Before you can start the test, you must check-in. Once you accept your score, you can levels up. read and digitally sign the Testing Rules and pick up a printed copy of your unofficial Arrive at least 30 minutes before the start Agreement for the country in which the test After your test score report at the front desk. Your unofficial of your test to give you plenty of time to is being delivered. By doing this, you agree GMAT score report includes your Verbal, pass through our secure check-in process. to promise to not share anything you see Once you have completed the GMAT and Quantitative and Integrated Reasoning Our high level of security and standardised with anyone else and that you are taking the see your unofficial score you have an scores, as well as your Total score. You will testing conditions are some of the reasons test for the purposes of applying to graduate opportunity to cancel it if it isn’t what you be able to access your official score within the GMAT is so well trusted by admissions management programmes. were aiming for. You have two minutes 20 days of taking your test. managers around the world. Finally, you are asked to select up to five to decide and if the time expires before Within three weeks of your test date, On arrival, you will be asked to present programmes that you would like to have your you make a decision, your score will be you will be able to view your Official Score your photo ID. Acceptable forms of ID GMAT score sent to, free of charge. If you automatically cancelled. Report online using your date of birth to include a passport or driving licence. For want to have your score sent to more than If you cancel your score, you won’t be authenticate your access. some test takers, a passport is the only five programmes, or if you wish to choose able to obtain an official score report to send Use your unofficial score to determine allowable ID. See for a full and the programmes later, you will be required to to schools but you can find out how you if you are a competitive applicant for your up-to-date list of accepted ID in your test pay an additional 28 per programme. did by purchasing the new GMAT enhanced chosen programme(s) or if you should retake country. Your name and date of birth on Score Report for 24.99. See for the exam. If you are planning to take the test your ID must match their records and your During your test information. Your cancelled score will not very close to the application deadline, you appointment confirmation letter exactly. be shown on any future GMAT score reports You have three and a half hours in which to may wish to send your unofficial score report An administrator at the test centre then generated by GMAC, which means that complete the GMAT, but you should plan to the relevant admissions team as evidence takes a digital photograph and/or signature, the schools you apply to will not know you to be at the test centre for approximately that you have taken the test by the deadline. as well as digital scans of your palm vein have taken the GMAT and then cancelled four hours in total. You can take two However, this report cannot be accepted as pattern. These are used for fraud detection your score. You have the option to accept optional, eight minute breaks and we highly part of your formal application. and prevention purposes. or cancel your score at the test centre after recommend that you use these. If you You will be allocated a locker prior to exceed the time allowed for these breaks, entering the testing room where you can the excess time is automatically deducted store your belongings, including your coat, from the time you have left to complete the bag, watch and mobile phone. You are not Where can I take the GMAT exam? next section of the test. permitted to take anything into the test You are not allowed to eat or drink in the You can take the GMAT exam in major cities and at almost any time of the year. room, other than prescription glasses and test room, but you can access food and The test is offered worldwide at Pearson VUE test centres approved by the Graduate a cardigan or jumper. drink during the scheduled breaks. Access Management Admission Council. Visit to identify your closest test centre. Visit for more insights into the to electronic devices, such as mobile phones GMAT test experience or calculators, or your study notes, is not 22 23After the exam, you must not record, copy or disclose in any fashion any exam questions or answers, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means (orally, in writing, online, via SMS/text, or otherwise). Eivydas Rackauskas Where did you grow up? Klaipėda, Lithuania What do you love? To pursue new activities and challenge myself to the edge of failure Last live event? Music festival in Lithuania (Grenades 2015) What one piece of advice can you give to others who are thinking about taking the GMAT? Plan and prepare way ahead. Try not to cram your head with too much information. Don’t revise on the last day, just relax. Filter out only the most valuable study materials. 24 25® Your GMAT score Achieving your target GMAT score is a great feeling and can help you unlock further success with a career defining management programme. Syed Muhammad Raza Ali Where did you grow up? Lahore, Pakistan What do you love? Music Who would play you in the film of your life? Robert Downey Jr. Best gig? Arranged a charity concert 26 27How is the GMAT scored? and areas for development. For example, The score report sent to admissions teams your analytical writing score gives them for your chosen programmes also includes There is no pass or fail. Your Total GMAT an indication of your ability to write under your entire GMAT history for the last five score is based on your performance on the timed conditions and admissions teams years and your full Analytical Writing Quantitative and Verbal Reasoning sections can access your Analytical Writing Assessment essays. They may also request and ranges from 200 to 800. Around two Assessment essay with your score report. your test day photo. thirds of all test takers score between 400 Likewise, your Integrated Reasoning and 600, and the mean score typically falls score provides information on your ability to Visit to see a sample score report. between 540 and 550. Only around 50 analyse and make sense of complex people each year achieve a perfect score data sets. of 800. Your Analytical Writing Assessment Your Official Score Report and Integrated Reasoning scores are computed and reported separately from Within three weeks of taking the test, you the Quantitative and Verbal Reasoning will receive an email to let you know that sections and do not contribute to your Total your official scores are available. This email GMAT score. In addition, each section of includes instructions for accessing your your GMAT score report includes percentile scores online. Your Official Score Report rankings, which illustrate how you have includes your: performed against other GMAT takers over the past three years. • Analytical Writing Assessment, While your Total score is important, Integrated Reasoning, Quantitative, all sections of the GMAT are compulsory and Verbal and Total scores admissions teams may also use your • scores from GMAT exams you have full score report to determine your strengths taken within the past five years What score do I need to get into a Don’t rule out programmes based on your Should I retake the GMAT exam? You should register to retake the exam top ranked programme? test score alone, especially if it is by visiting, but must leave at least Retaking the GMAT could significantly close to the published range. Your GMAT 16 days between tests and you cannot take Most programmes do not have an explicitly improve your score. score will be one part of your application, more than five tests in any 12 month period. stated minimum GMAT score requirement. However, this is usually only the case and you may have considerable strengths Instead they tend to publish an average or if you were initially unprepared to take the in other areas. Contact the admissions a range of GMAT scores achieved by their exam, and you then go on to undertake team for your chosen programme to seek most recent class. This can provide a useful considerable preparation for your second their guidance and be prepared to retake benchmark, however, they are generally attempt. On average, we see a 31 point the exam. looking for candidates with a well-balanced increase in the Total score of those taking the set of scores across all sections. GMAT for a second time. 28 29Prepare to succeed However much preparation you require and whichever method you decide to use, the key to success in the GMAT exam is a matter of believing in yourself, developing a preparation plan and sticking to it. Gabriela Grzywacz Where did you grow up? Poland What do you love? Food, travelling, books, new challenges What superpower would you have? Reading people’s minds Favourite quote? ‘If you can dream it you can do it.’ 30 31How should I prepare for the GMAT How much time do I need to prepare? Sample study plan (20 hours a week): You can also purchase study materials exam? such as: You are the best judge of how long you need Mon 7 pm – 9 pm to prepare for the GMAT. You should take You may decide to study for the GMAT on ® Tue 1 hour during lunch break The Official Guide for GMAT Review into account the time you have available to your own or in a study group, and perhaps Wed 7 pm – 9 pm commit to study and the amount of work you • A comprehensive guide that covers each with the help of an independent GMAT Thur 1 hour during lunch break must do to achieve your target sore. section of the test, including extensive preparation course or coach. Or you might Fri 7 pm – 9 pm According to our research, GMAT takers online material written by the creators use a combination of these. Simply choose Sa 8 am – 2 pm who achieve scores of between 600 and 700 of the test the approach that best suits you as there’s Sun 8 am – 2 pm report having undertaken an average of 90 to • Includes 900 GMAT questions taken from no one route that works best for everyone. 100 hours of preparation. Ideally, you should real, retired exams, plus their answers Become familiar with the test format, GMAT preparation resources from start your preparation at least six months • A diagnostic section helps you assess the types of questions and the techniques the makers of the test before the application deadline where to focus your efforts for answering them before you sit the of your target programme. ® exam. The GMAT is a timed test with severe Free GMATPrep software can be ® The Official Guide for GMAT Review penalties for not completing all questions. downloaded from and Develop your preparation plan Mobile App You therefore want to practice answering test this allows you to simulate the actual GMAT questions under timed conditions to help you Your study plan should help you stay on test experience. The software uses the same • Comes with review modules and 50 GMAT pace yourself. track week in week out as you progress adaptive technology as the real test to adjust questions, plus the ability to purchase Your goal is to reach a point where you through the material. GMAT preparation the difficulty of the questions and score your more questions if required are quickly and confidently able to focus plans can range from a couple of weeks results. • Practice your pace for the real exam using on answering each question, rather than to many months, with test takers studying The software contains 90 free questions, the app’s built-in timer. spending time decoding what is being anywhere up to 10 hours per day. comprising 30 quantitative, 45 verbal and ® asked. You also want to become confident One method for constructing your plan 15 integrated reasoning questions. It also Extend on the free GMATPrep software by in your approach to selecting your answers is to plot your typical week, highlighting the features answers and explanations as well as purchasing additional questions or exams as second guessing yourself will cost you time slots that you have available for study. two full-length practice exams with detailed valuable time on exam day. With an estimate of how much time you can results and performance reports to help A commonly recommended approach is commit to study each week, you can then you review your progress and focus your to focus your preparation on your problem calculate how many weeks of study you preparation. areas. Make sure you also pay moderate need. attention to your stronger areas to ensure As part of your study plan, you should Visit to view the full catalogue of that you don’t lose easy marks by becoming allocate plenty of time to both answering official GMAT preparation materials complacent and making avoidable errors. the questions and thoroughly reviewing the Take full, scored practice exams regularly answers. This will enable you to build your to benchmark your process and to identify understanding of the relevant concepts so areas of strength and weakness. Replicate you can solve similar problems in the future. actual test conditions as much as you can so you don’t use a calculator or refer to your notes. 32 33Sample questions ® The GMAT exam features a diverse set of question types and demands that you employ a range of techniques to solve them. Familiarising yourself with these questions is the key to success. Ashutosh Ved Where did you grow up? India What do you love? Meeting people, connecting with them and maintaining long-term relationships Best gig? Coldplay/Coke Studio Favourite quote? ‘A good day gives you joy, a bad day gives you experience.’ What one piece of advice can you give to others who are thinking about taking the GMAT? Be confident; imagine success before you attempt GMAT. During the exam, patience and a cool mind are the keys to success. 34 35Reading Comprehension Question most contraband CFCs originate in India Verbal and China. This does not imply that the illicit The passage suggests which of the following The Montreal Protocol on Substances that trade in CFCs could not continue without about the illicit trade in CFCs? Deplete the Ozone Layer, signed in 1987 Reasoning manufacturers in those countries. Choice by more than 150 nations, has attained its B is not correct because the passage does Answer choices short-term goals: it has decreased the rate of not provide information about the beliefs duration: 01:15 increase in amounts of most ozone-depleting A It would cease if manufacturers in India of participants in the illicit CFC trade. 41 questions chemicals reaching the atmosphere and and China stopped producing CFCs. Choice C is incorrect because the passage 0–60 points has even reduced the atmospheric levels B Most people who participate in such trade states only that the United States Customs computer adaptive of some of them. The projection that the do not believe that CFCs deplete the Service considers the illicit CFC trade to ozone layer will substantially recover ozone layer. be a problem second only to the illicit drug from ozone depletion by 2050 is based C It will probably surpass illicit drugs as the trade; there is no suggestion in the passage on the assumption that the protocol’s largest contraband problem faced by the that the illicit CFC trade is expected to regulations will be strictly followed. Yet United States Customs Service. develop into a larger problem than the illicit there is considerable evidence of violations, D It is fostered by people who do not want drug trade. Choice E is incorrect because particularly in the form of the release of to pay the price of CFC substitutes. the passage attributes the growth of the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons E It has grown primarily because of the illicit trade in CFCs to the high cost of (CFCs), which are commonly used in the expansion of the refrigeration, heating, CFC substitutes, not to an expansion of refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning and air-conditioning industries refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning industries. These violations reflect industry in foreign countries. industries in foreign countries. attitudes; for example, in the United States, 48% of respondents in a recent survey of Answer subscribers to, an industry trade journal, D said that they did not believe that CFCs damage the ozone layer. Moreover, some in Explanation the industry apparently do not want to pay This question asks what the passage for CFC substitutes, which can run five times implies about the illicit trade in CFCs. The the cost of CFCs. Consequently, a black best answer is D. The passage states that market in imported illicit CFCs has grown. some industry members appear not to Estimates of the contraband CFC trade want to pay the price of CFC substitutes, range from 10,000 to 22,000 tons a year, and that consequently a black market in with most of the CFCs originating in India cheaper CFCs has emerged. This implies and China, whose agreements under the that the black market is fostered at least in Protocol still allow them to produce CFCs. part by those industry members who are In fact, the United States Customs Service unwilling to pay the higher price of CFC reports that CFC-12 is a contraband problem substitutes. Choice A can be eliminated second only to illicit drugs. because the passage states that only that 36 37Sentence Correction Critical Reasoning in shopping centers that attract relatively wealthy shoppers. Even their most ardent champions concede Passage E Computer-industry analysts believed that no less than a technical or scientific To persuade consumers to buy its personal before the SuperComp campaign began breakthrough is necessary before solar cells computers for home use, SuperComp has that most consumers who already owned can meet the goal of providing one percent enlisted computer dealers in shopping home computers were not yet ready to of the nation’s energy needs. centers to carry its product and launched replace them. a major advertising campaign that has A that no less than a technical or scientific already increased public awareness of Answer breakthrough is necessary the SuperComp brand. Despite the fact C B that nothing other than a technical or that these dealers achieved dramatically scientific breakthrough is needed increased sales of computers last month, Explanation C that a technical or scientific breakthrough however, analysts doubt that SuperComp’s is necessary The passage states that the stores through products accounted for much of that D the necessity for an occurrence of a which SuperComp is selling its computers increase. technical or scientific breakthrough are experiencing dramatically increased E the necessity for a technical or scientific sales. Analysts doubt, however, that Question breakthrough occurring SuperComp’s plan for selling its computers Which of the following, if true, best supports for home use is really working. The question the claim that the analysts’ doubt is well Answer asks you to identify a fact that justifies the founded? analysts’ doubt. C Choice C is the best answer. If consumers Answer Choices who are drawn to a SuperComp dealer find Explanation A In market surveys, few respondents less expensive alternatives that the dealer C is the best choice. The word that functions who had been exposed to SuperComp’s has a strong incentive to sell to them, the grammatically to introduce the clause that advertising campaign said they thought analysts’ doubt is justified, since it is likely describes the point that champions of solar there was no point in owning a home that the increase in the dealer’s sales is due cells concede. Choices A and B needlessly computer. not to sales of SuperComp’s computers, but lengthen the statement by expressing the B People who own a home computer often rather to sales of these other brands. idea through negation: no less than and buy a second such computer, but only nothing other than could be dropped without rarely do people buy a third computer. loss of meaning. In D and E, the preposition C SuperComp’s dealers also sell other for is less idiomatic than of in expressing brands of computers that are very similar necessity. Futhermore, both choices to SuperComp’s but less expensive and present an awkward and wordy noun-plus- that afford the dealers a significantly prepositional phrase instead of a that clause higher markup. that would express meaning more exactly D The dealers who were chosen to sell and concisely. SuperComp’s computers were selected in part because their stores are located 38 39Data Sufficiency Problem Solving Quantitative What is the average (arithmetic mean) of Dick and Jane each saved 3,000 in 1989. a, b, and c? In 1990 Dick saved 8 percent more than in Reasoning 1 a + 2b + 3c = 10 1989, and together he and Jane saved a 2 3a + 2b + c = 14 total of 5,000. Approximately what percent Duration: 01:15 less did Jane save in 1990 than in 1989? 37 questions Answer choices 0–60 points A 8% A statement 1 alone is sufficient but computer adaptive B 25% statement 2 alone is not sufficient. C 41% B statement 2 alone is sufficient but D 59% statement 1 alone is not sufficient. E 70% C both statements together are sufficient, but neither statement alone is sufficient. Answer D each statement alone is sufficient. E statements 1 and 2 together are not C sufficient. Explanation Answer The best answer is C. In 1990 Dick saved C 8 percent more than the 3,000 he saved in 1989, which amounted to (1.08)(3,000), or Explanation 3,240. In 1990 he and Jane together saved 5,000. Thus, Jane must have saved only The best answer is C. The average of a, 5,000 – 3,240 = 1,760, which is 1,240 b, and c is a + b + c / 3. Statement 1 says less than she saved in 1990. Therefore, in that a + 2b + 3c = 10, but there is not 1990 Jane saved approximately 1,240 / enough information to determine the value 3,000 = 41% less than she saved in 1989. of a + b + c. Thus, statement 1 alone is not sufficient. Similarly, the equation statement 2 also fails to give enough information, so statement 2 alone is not sufficient. If the equations in statements 1 and 2 are added together, term by term, the result is 4a + 4b + 4c = 24, which means that a + b + c = 6. The average is therefore 6 / 3 = 2. Thus, both statements together are sufficient to answer the question. 40 41

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