Dictionary of social work and social care

social work dictionary 5th edition online and the social work dictionary pdf
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Published Date:11-07-2017
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What is the purpose of this social work dictionary? Professional programs like the BSW and MSW Programs at The University of Montana utilize many terms and professional language, some of which can be confusing and difficult to understand. This dictionary offers students and faculty a DICTIONARY OF common definition of professional terms in a structure that is readily understood and organized for cross referencing of overlapping ideas and terms. SOCIAL WORK This dictionary will help you integrate terms into your understanding of academic material as well as help you apply what you are learning in the practicum experience. It will also help you as you prepare your BSW Competency Examination and your MSW Professional Portfolio. There may be times when terms used in textbooks, journals and the classroom are not in sync with each other, which reflects the ongoing development of knowledge in the profession of social work. Try not to let this confuse you, and use this resource as a way of providing a conceptual framework for your very important profession. SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK BSW AND MSW PROGRAMS Cindy Garthwait, MSW October 2012 1 BSW Bachelors (baccalaureate) of social work. Section 1 BSW Program Director Faculty member responsible for the administration of the BSW Program. Social Work Academic BSW Student Handbook The compilation of School of Social Work policies, procedures, guidelines, and curriculum description for BSW students. Terms http://www.health.umt.edu/schools/sw/documents/BSWStudentHandbook_201 0-2011.pdf Chair of School of Social Work The faculty member responsible for the administration of the BSW and MSW Academic advisor programs at the School of Social Work. Faculty member responsible for meeting with individual students to provide academic planning and mentoring. Citation Written documentation of the source of content or quotes included in an Academic misconduct academic assignment, following the APA style of writing and documentation. The violation of the UM Student Conduct Code in regard to academics, Improper citation, including representing another’s work as one’s own, is including (1) plagiarism, (2) misconduct during an examination or academic considered plagiarism. exercise, (3) unauthorized use or possession of examination, (4) tampering with course materials, (5) submitting false information, (6) cheating, (7) submitting Competency work from previous courses, (8) inappropriately influencing conduct to obtain Possession of the knowledge, skills, and values necessary for social work grade. http://life.umt.edu/vpsa/student_conduct.php practice, as measured against the University of Montana School of Social Work Competency Catalogue, NASW standards for practice, and Council on Social Accreditation Work Education’s Educational Policies and Academic Standards core Recognition and certification of a school of social work by the Council on Social competencies. Work Education, providing students a degree that will be recognized by state licensing authorities and that educates students in line with accreditation Competency examination guidelines for BSW and MSW programs. The written summative paper completed by students that integrates classroom learning with practicum experiences, done during both semesters of practicum, Agency field instructor and accounting for half of the weight of the overall practicum grade. Social worker within a practicum agency assigned to provide or arrange for the day-to-day supervision of practicum students and to evaluate student Continuing education performance in coordination with faculty supervisor. The requirement by professions that licensed professionals continue to receive training and education to further their professional knowledge and skills, APA style of documentation described in written guidelines that vary by state. In Montana, licensed social The style of academic writing and documentation of the American workers must complete 20 hours of continuing education units (CEU’s) per year. Psychological Association and required by the School of Social Work. Council on Social Work Education Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning The accrediting body for both BSW and MSW programs nationwide. A classification of levels of learning from memorization of information to the utilization, integration, synthesis and critique of information Faculty supervisor Faculty member assigned to provide academic supervision to practicum students, in coordination with the agency field instructor. 4 5 Foundation courses Practicum Required courses for the BSW program, including SW 100, SW 200, SW 300, SW The internship (BSW = 450 hours, MSW = 900 hours)completed during the senior 310, SW 350, SW 360, SW 400, SW 487, SW 488, and SW 489. year that provides students with learning agreements, faculty and social work supervision, and integrative experiences that prepare graduates for entry level Internship social work practice. Placement in a social services agency that provides experiential learning and academic credit for students in their freshman, sophomore, or junior years. SW Practicum Coordinator 198 or SW 398. Faculty member responsible for the administration of the practicum program, assisted by the Assistant Practicum Coordinator. MSW Master of Social Work Professional Portfolio The summative, integrative assignment for MSW students which demonstrates MSW Student Handbook their academic learning and its application to integrated practice The compilation of School of Social Work policies, procedures, guidelines, and curriculum description for MSW students. UM Student Conduct Code http://www.health.umt.edu/schools/sw/documents/MSWStudentHandbook2011 The written rights and responsibilities of students at The University of Montana, -2012forWeb.pdf and the policies governing student academic and nonacademic conduct. MSW Program Director Faculty member responsible for the administration of the MSW Program. Montana Board of Social Work Examiners The state board under the Montana Department of Labor responsible for the licensing of social workers in Montana. http://bsd.dli.mt.gov/license/bsd_boards/swp_board/board_page.asp Montana –National Association of Social Workers The Montana Branch of the NASW, located in Helena, Montana. http://www.naswmt.org NASW Code of Ethics The written guide for ethical behavior for social workers, published by the National Association of Social Workers. Plagiarism The representation of another’s work as one’s own, or the inadequate citing of sources. Practice course A social work course that prepares students for generalist practice, including SW 200, SW 350, SW 360. 6 7 Advance directives Written guidelines regarding end of life care developed by a client while competent. This term can include living wills and the designation of a health care representative to make medical decisions for the client if needed. Section 2 Advisory board See organization Social Work Practice Terms Advocacy Representing others individually or in groups in order to protect them or advance their cause Agency policies and procedures The written guidelines of an agency that describe the ways in which services will be provided, and which provides guidelines that dictate certain processes that will be used. Absolute poverty Assessment The lack of income and/or assets which prevents one from obtaining a The process of examining a problem to determine its cause, severity, and course subsistence level of functioning which is necessary to design an effective intervention plan. Assessment is done at all levels of practice. ACSW (Academy of Certified Social Workers) A credential offered by the National Association of Social Workers based on Attachment disorder meeting a set of criteria for advanced practice Inability to form emotional bonds with caretakers, often the results of negative early childhood experiences. Accessibility The opportunity to obtain or receive services Action research (see research) Active listening The process of attending to a client through the use of clinical skills in order to understand the client’s concerns Behavioral model The practice theory / model based on learning theory which focuses on the Activist process of shaping and changing behavior through the use of rewards and A social worker or other person whose goal is to achieve social change reinforcement Activities of daily living Behavioral rehearsal Basic self care activities that allow an individual to live independently, including Demonstration of a desired behavior by a social worker or therapist, followed by bathing, eating, and toileting. role play and rehearsal of the behavior which can then be employed in real life See instrumental activities of daily living settings and situations Adult Protective Services (APS) Behavioral theory The system of services provided to adults vulnerable to abuse, exploitation, or Orienting / explanatory theory in which human behavior and development are neglect seen as responses to antecedent stimuli and consequences, both positive and negative 8 9 Benchmark A standard of performance against which to measure Beneficence The desire to act for the benefit and welfare of others Capacity building Process of developing the abilities, attributes, resources and will to set and reach Benign neglect goals by a client, group, organization, or community Withholding help based on a belief that harm may be caused by providing such help Case finding Process of seeking out persons eligible to receive services provided by an Bias agency, often done through outreach activities Negative attitudes or beliefs about individuals or groups Case management Bio-psycho-social theory Securing, implementing, and monitoring services needed by a client Orienting / explanatory theory about how holistic theory of human development that attempts to explain the ways in which biological, psychological, and social Case manager development are interactive in terms of influencing development Social worker whose role is to oversee and coordinate a client’s services in keeping with the client’s goals and needs Block grant A practice of allowing a community or state to determine how best to use a Caseload block of funding The group of clients or client systems for which a social worker is responsible to serve Board of directors The policy-making committee that is responsible for the operation of an Centralization organization in terms of funding, staff, mission, and programs. See organization The consolidation of power in an organization that has administrative responsibility for its operation Brawner Rule The standard by which a person is deemed to be not guilty by reason of insanity, Change agent including the inability to behave in accordance with law or understand that A social worker working toward change at the micro, mezzo or macro level of his/her conduct is wrong practice Brief therapy Chaos theory Psychotherapy practiced for a limited number of sessions and with clear goals Orienting / explanatory theory that describes how rapid and sudden changes and objectives may occur in social systems, may appear to be chaotic and random, but may be the result of positive feedback loops (both positive and negative) and Broker change efforts that suddenly impact the entire social system and creative A professional role played by a social worker by which clients, families, groups or change organizations are linked in order to receive services or support each other Child Protective Services (CPS) Bureaucracy The system of services provided to children and youth vulnerable to abuse, See organization neglect, exploitation or neglect Child welfare The field of practice responsible for monitoring and promoting the rights and welfare of children and youth 10 11 Civil rights Cognitive behavioral model Rights of citizens given by a government that protect them from abuse by The practice theory / model based on behaviorism and social learning theory individuals, organizations, social policies, or governments that helps clients recognize the impact of self-defeating or erroneous cognitive beliefs or perceptions on their behavior Classism Negative stereotyping about people based on their socioeconomic status Cognitive dissonance The simultaneous existence of contradictory beliefs and actions which can Client cause discomfort and lead the individual to change either the behavior or the Micro belief Individual or family which is seeking or being provided social services Mezzo Cognitive restructuring Group, organization or community that is seeking or being provided social The therapeutic process of assisting an individual to see cognitive errors and self- services defeating beliefs and develops more positive thoughts and beliefs Macro Society, social policy, social change, or research as the entity being Cohort served or targeted A group of people who were born at approximately the same time and/or who share a certain characteristic or experience Client system The client and the facets of the client’s social environment which impact the Community client and which are the target of social work intervention A group of individuals, families, or groups that share geographic location, identity, values, experiences or interests Client centered model The model of social work practice that assumes clients are capable of dealing Community organization with their problems in social functioning, and in which the social worker partners An area of social work which focuses on social change within a community with the client to encourage him/her to take the lead in devising interventions based on an identified need Closed system Competency A social system that is not open to feedback or input from other sources, has Possession of the knowledge, skills, and values necessary for social work rigid boundaries, is self-contained, and tends to resist change practice, as measured against the University of Montana School of Social Work Competency Catalogue, NASW standards for practice, and the Council on Code of ethics Social Work Education’s Educational Policies and Academic Standards core A written set of ethical and value-based principles for a profession, providing competencies. guidance in ethical decision-making. The National Association of Social Workers’ Code of Ethics guides the social work profession in terms of ethics. Conceptual framework A way of organizing ideas, concepts, and theories of social work practice. Co-dependency Includes perspectives, orienting / explanatory theories, and practice theories / A relationship between people that is generally considered an unhealthy way of models meeting the individual emotional and social needs of those in the relationship Conduct disorder Cognition A disorder usually found in children and youth in which there is repetitive and The intellectual process of dealing with information, including understanding, consistent behavior that violates the behavioral norms and values for that age processing, remembering, and evaluating group Confidentiality The ethical stance that a professional can only release or share information about a client with their consent 12 13 Conflict of interest Cost benefit analysis A conflict between a professional’s personal and private interests that may The weighing of the costs and resources associated with providing a service impact practice against the benefits or providing that service Conflict theory Cost sharing Orienting / explanatory theory which states that individuals and social systems The division of financial responsibility for a program between two or more are often in conflict, and this conflict between and within families, groups, organizations or entities communities and other social systems impacts human behavior and development Counseling See interviewing/counseling Consensus approach The process of coming to agreement about issues and approaches for dealing Counter-transference with them. Arising from the feminist perspective on social work practice, Emotional reactions by a professional toward a client that originate in the consensus organizations are those which commit to consensus, in at least a professional’s personal experience and which may be projected onto a client general sense, in order to share power and commit to a course of action as a group. See organization. Crisis intervention model The practice theory / model which focuses on helping clients deal with Conservatism overwhelming crisis situations by drawing upon their strengths and resources to The political belief in traditional values, societal structures and mores that get them through the crisis and return to a normal level of functioning, and in commonly lead to a commitment to decreasing governmental influence in and which a professional may take a more directive role because of the client’s funding for public issues and programs inability to proceed Constituency Crisis theory A group of people, including clients, customers, or citizens who are represented Orienting / explanatory theory about how individuals and families who or served by a social program or an elected official experience significant crises may exhibit fairly predictable behaviors, responses and patterns of recovery Continuing education units The requirement by professions that licensed professionals continue to receive Critical incident stress debriefing training and education to further their professional knowledge and skills, The process of debriefing with those who have experienced a crisis, conducted described in written guidelines that vary by state. In Montana, licensed social with the goal of allowing individuals and groups to express their feelings, gain workers must complete 20 hours of continuing education units (CEUs) every year. support, and use coping skills to deal with the crisis. Often done with professionals who have experienced a trauma or crisis in their work. Continuum of care The spectrum of services available to clients which should ideally fill all gaps and Critical theory minimize duplication The orienting / explanatory theory that critiques positivism as the only accepted way of knowing, questions underlying assumptions of individual, theoretical and Control group scientific understandings, recognizes structural and political contributors to See research social problems and oppression, and suggests that personal choice and power can transform the social environment Construct validity See research Cross cultural competence The ability to be knowledgeable about, accepting of, and empathetic with Co-payment diverse clients and populations, resulting in culturally appropriate and effective The amount a client needs to pay for a service covered by insurance, assessment and interventions. sometimes a percentage of the total cost and sometimes a specified dollar amount 14 15 Culture Deconstruction Customs, beliefs, ideology, world-view, and values common to a group of Analysis of theories and models that involves examining and questioning the people and which guide their individual and social behavior. beliefs, values, and assumptions of those theories or models, allowing for critique, clarification, and revision Cultural theory Orienting / explanatory theory about how individuals and groups which Deductible experience oppression or discrimination will be impacted in their development The amount an individual is required to pay for a health or other insurance claim by these experiences, both positively and negatively before the insurer pays their share of the claim. Culture of poverty Defense mechanism The belief that poverty is perpetuated because poor people’s values, Thought processes, often considered to be unconscious and which serve to experiences, and motivations prevent them from becoming financially shield individuals from powerful negative emotions, including denial, independent. rationalization, projection, minimization, and intellectualization Custody Deinstitutionalization The legal right to protect, make decisions for, and be a guardian for an The practice of returning institutionalized individuals to the community to receive individual who is deemed incapable of living independently. services or to function on their own. Cycle of change theory (Prochaska and DiClemente) Delphi method The orienting / explanatory theory on individual change which posits that A method of research for social planning that uses a survey / questionnaire with people change in a cyclical way rather than a linear one, that the stages of a group of experts in order to determine the feasibility and potential impact of a change are distinct from each other, and that relapse is common. The proposed intervention Motivational Interviewing practice theory / model is built upon the cycle of change theory. Delusion An erroneous belief that persists despite evidence to the contrary. Examples include delusions of grandeur and persecution. See also hallucination. Dependent variable See research Desensitization Decentralization A systematic process of exposing an individual to stimuli or experiences that The practice of distributing power to those who are closely involved with the cause anxiety, with the idea that exposure will lessen anxiety and fear. issue at hand rather than delegating power to the upper levels of an organization Developmental disability A condition that is congenital or that is exhibited before adulthood that limits an Decision tree individual’s ability to function independently. This condition may be genetic or A process of using yes and no questions to make a decision, whereby a yes a result of disease or other causation. answer leads the respondent to a different series of questions than does a no answer. Developmental theory The orienting / explanatory theories at the micro, mezzo and macro level of Decompensation practice that suggest that individuals, families, groups, communities, societies, The gradual or rapid decline in the level of an individual’s mental functioning and social policies proceed through somewhat predictable stages in their and cognitive processing ongoing development 16 17 Diagnosis Disenfranchisement The process of identifying a condition and assessing the causes and contributors The real or felt experience of not having the power or ability to exercise one’s to that condition, based on symptoms and course, and allowing for a plan of rights care. Disregards Diagnosis of convenience The process used by a funding source to not count certain income or assets The process of assigning an inaccurate or minimally accurate diagnosis to a when determining eligibility for services or benefits client in order to receive insurance payments because insurance companies may ay only for certain diagnosed conditions. Disposable income Available funds after all expenses are paid DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) The manual of the American Psychiatric Association which describes and Double blind classifies mental disorders based on prescribed symptoms, severity, and length. See research Clients are assessed on Axis I (syndromes or conditions not related to mental illness), Axis II (personality disorders and mental retardation), Axis III (physical Dual diagnosis diseases and conditions), Axis IV ( psychosocial and environmental problems), Two co-existing, overlapping, and mutually interacting conditions. Also referred and Axis V (global assessment of functioning). to as co-existing disorders or co-morbidity. Differential diagnosis Dual relationship Diagnosis of disorders or social issues by analyzing and comparing the The co-existence of a professional and personal role between a social worker characteristics of similar conditions. and client, often considered to be unethical because of the power differential between social worker and client. Discharge planning Process of planning for the discharge and placement of an individual following Due process hospitalization or residential care that allows for a smooth transition and The practice of ensuring rights, fair processes, and adherence to laws when an whatever supports will be needed to maintain the client’s level of functioning. individual is accused of misconduct or a crime Discouraged worker Durable power of attorney An unemployed individual who has ceased seeking employment following A legal document / process by which an individual gives another individual the unsuccessful attempts to find employment, and who is not usually counted in legal power to make decisions on his/her behalf should that individual become labor statistics related to unemployment. incompetent or incapacitated. Discrimination Duty to warn The practice of treating people differently and negatively based on a The legal obligation to report a client’s threats or danger to another person difference such as gender, age, religion, political orientation, sexual orientation, based on the Tarasoff ruling of 1976 or ability. Disease theory / medical theory of human development Orienting / explanatory theory which focuses on human development as primarily a result of internal factors, including genetics, personality traits, biological conditions, and other individual factors. It also posits that there is a set of symptoms for conditions, a predictable course for the disease, and a generally agreed-upon protocol for treatment 18 19 Ethical dilemma A situation in which two strongly held values are in conflict, and in which action to support one value violates the other. Ethics audit Ecosystems / ecological perspective A process by which the values and ethics underlying an organization and Professional view of clients / client systems in which the interaction between the played out in real life situations are assessed, evaluated and monitored against client and the social environment is examined the NASW Code of Ethics, for the purpose of ensuring ethical treatment of all clients. Efficacy Belief in one’s ability to be effective and capable Ethics committee A group of individuals within an organization given the responsibility to analyze Eligibility criteria and make recommendations or decisions in situations in which expert ethical The qualifications and specific requirements utilized to determine if one is eligible decision-making is required or when ethical dilemmas are present. to receive benefits or services Evidence based practice Empathy Professional practice based on empirical studies of practice approaches and The therapeutic technique of communicating to a client that their situation, models, combined with professional ethics, best practices, and practice reactions, and emotions are appreciated and understood, which builds rapport wisdom. and sets the foundation for a helping relationship Etiology Empowerment model The underlying causes of a social problem, condition, or behavior Intervention needs to employ methods that encourage individuals and families to recognize, claim, and use their power to enhance the quality of their lives Evaluation of practice Systematic analysis of the effectiveness of an intervention, program, or policy, Enabler conducted at all levels of practice The social work role of assisting a client to attain the ability to deal with issues and situations Micro level practice examples Evaluation of individual and family change Endowment Evaluation of social worker effectiveness A fund that is built on donations and fund-raisers that is permanent and which produces income based on investments and / or interest. Mezzo level practice examples Evaluation of group or organization change efforts Entitlement Evaluation of social worker effectiveness Funds or services for which individuals qualify based on their membership in a particular classification or their status Macro level practice examples Evaluation of program effectiveness, community change efforts, and Equilibrium policy change efforts The tendency of a social system to maintain balance, and which can be either Evaluation of social worker effectiveness positive or negative Process versus outcome evaluation Erikson theory of psychosocial development The form of evaluation that analyzes the step-by-step actions taken in an Orienting / explanatory theory that outlines general stages of psychosocial intervention for their effectiveness as compared to the identifiable results development for age / life stages of an intervention, both of which are necessary in evaluation or interventions. 20 21 Qualitative versus quantitative evaluation Family reunification model The form of evaluation that analyzes the subjective, individual, and non- Approach that offers services to families who have been separated and / or quantifiable aspects of intervention compared to the form of evaluation alienated in order to reconstitute them as a family with the resources and skills to that measures and describes the quantifiable aspects of intervention address their problems as a family External locus of control Family systems theory The belief that one’s situation is controlled by external forces and that one’s Orienting / explanatory developmental theory that focuses on the mutual personal ability or power to change a condition is limited or non-existent interactions between parts of the family and which forms the basis for family systems interventions Feasibility study Formal assessment of an organization or community’s ability to complete a certain objective or task, including the resources required to do this Fee for service Facilitator The charges to a client / client system for a unit of service provided See social work roles Feminist social work model Factor analysis Practice theory / model that advocates for gender equality and addresses See research gender discrimination of the micro to macro levels False negative Feminist theory When test results falsely show the absence of a condition or factor Orienting / explanatory theory that describes how the dominance of males over females in societies causes oppression and injustice toward females in terms of False positive relationships, treatment, policies, and social institutions When test results falsely show the presence of a condition or factor Feminization of poverty Family cap Vulnerability of women to experience poverty which exceeds that of men A provision in social programs which suspends benefits at a certain point in time or when there is a particular change in family status Fiduciary Individual who serves as a trustee for another in financial affairs Family life cycle developmental theory Orienting / explanatory theory that describes how family developmental tasks Field study can be identified in terms of generally agreed-upon stages and phases, and are See research influenced by the psychosocial developmental stages and processes of the individuals in the family Fields of practice The range of social work practice arenas and settings, each of which require Family of origin specific knowledge and techniques A group of people related by blood and genetics, and often referring to one’s parents and siblings First order change Dynamic of change which describes temporary or surface level change. See Family preservation model second order change Approach that offers support and resources while supporting families in acquiring the skills and knowledge necessary to remain intact and meet the Fiscal year mutual needs of their members A business year of 12 months that is not the same as a calendar year but which is used for the purposes of accounting 22 23 Fiscal welfare For-profit organization Policies of the Internal Revenue Service which offer deductions, tax credits, and See organization exemptions to individuals and families Force field analysis 501 (c) 3 Organization A technique by which the potential resistance or openness to proposed change A non-profit, tax-exempt organization as designated by the Internal Revenue is assessed, and by which interventions are designed to increase the forces for Service change and decrease the forces that impede change 501 (c) 4 Organization Formal operations stage A lobbying organization as designated by the Internal Revenue Service which is According to developmental theorist Piaget, the stage of intellectual / cognitive not exempt from paying federal taxes development at which an adolescent can use deductive reasoning, make hypotheses, and consider ideas from several points of view 501 (c) 5 Organization A political action committee (PAC) as designated by the Internal Revenue Foundation Service which is not exempt from paying federal taxes A private organization operated by an individual, family, organization or community that provides funding for the social welfare of specific groups, often 504 Student for education, research, social systems, humanities, and innovative programs A public school student eligible for education, services, and accommodations based on Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Free floating anxiety Overarching anxiety not related to specific circumstances, but which pervades Flat affect a person’s daily emotional state Lack of emotional expression, even in the face of experiences that would usually result in expressions such as joy or sadness Frequency distribution See research Flight into health When a client’s problems appear to cease with little or no intervention possibly Functional assessment due to the fear of further disclosure, lack of support, or inability to continue the Examination of a client’s ability to perform necessary tasks and to care relationship adequately for themselves Flight into illness Furthering response When a client reveals or exhibits new problems just prior to termination of a A helping technique of deepening the helping relationship in order to assist helping relationship or intervention in order to maintain the helping relationship clients in understanding his/her problems and strengths in more detail, acquiring insight, and making progress in deeper levels of interaction. See also following Following response (also called attending skills) skills and interviewing/counseling. A helping technique in which the social worker communicates to the client that they have been heard and their concerns understood. Examples include empathy, active listening, and paraphrasing. See also furthering responses and interviewing / counseling. Focus group See research Food security Experience of a family, group or community that allows them to provide adequate nutrition to ensure health 24 25 Geriatrics Practice in the medical aspects of aging Gerontology Study of the social, psychological, cultural, biological and spiritual aspects of Gatekeeper aging An individual in a community or other social system who is in a position to allow or obstruct access to the community by someone from outside the community, Gilligan theory of moral development or an individual other than a social worker who can observe the welfare of Orienting / explanatory theory of moral development which focuses on the clients unique development of women Gender equity Global assessment of functioning (GAF) The fair distribution of income, resources, and responsibilities among men and A tool used to assess a client’s ability to function rated on a scale from 0 women (danger of harming oneself or others, inability to care for oneself) to 100 (superior functioning in numerous areas and without symptoms) Gender role Societal expectations for behavior and social roles based on gender Globalization Process of moving economic and social activities from the local or national level Generalist to an international or global level. This process may increase efficiency, raise A social worker who possesses a broad range of knowledge and skills for work in competition, lower costs of production, and may also lower wages and various fields of practice, who can move from one level of practice to another protections for workers as needed, draws from a variety of theories and perspectives, and uses a variety of models and techniques in interventions Goodness of fit The degree to which there is a good match between an individual’s needs and Generational equity resources and the social environment with which that individual interacts The fair distribution of income, resources, and responsibilities among all age groups Group development theory Orienting / explanatory theory that focuses on how groups of all types proceed Genetic theory of human development through fairly predictable stages as they move through the processes specific to Orienting / explanatory medically-based theory that suggests that human their function development is a result of genetic factors that influence biological and psychological development Group dynamics theory Orienting / explanatory theory in which dynamics and social interactions Geneva Convention between embers of groups are described in terms of types, positive and A document agreed to by a majority of the world’s nations specifying the negative behaviors, membership and leadership acceptable and unacceptable treatment of individuals in times of war, including civilians, the wounded, and prisoners of war Genogram A diagram used in assessment and counseling to illustrate a family’s structure over generations and which uses symbols that can reveal patterns, important events and traumas within the family over time Genuineness Quality of sincerity in a social worker that includes real, believable responses, humility, honesty, and a commitment not to elevate oneself above the client, all in order to build rapport and strengthen the helping relationship 26 27 Group work Committee A group of individuals which assumes responsibility for overseeing a Group work with clients specific project or portion of a program and which may be a The realm of social work practice in which a small number of clients work standing/ongoing committee or a short term ad hoc committee. together toward a common goal Planning group Advocacy group A group of individuals charges with the responsibility for planning a A group of individuals which works together to further a shared project, developing a program, or securing funding for a project, interest or cause, advocate for themselves and others, build often made up of individuals with a variety of skills that contribute to coalitions and power, and strategize in order to effect social the success of the planning project change and empower themselves Task force Educational group A temporary, time-limited group that works within an organization or A professionally taught group which focuses on teaching and group of organizations to achieve an identified goal of the learning concepts, methods, and skills organization Mutual aid group Guardian Informal group of people who have a shared experience, A person appointed by a court to assume responsibility for the custody and condition, or situation which meet to provide support, information, welfare of an individual who is a minor, incapacitated, or incompetent or other forms of assistance to each other, and which may have a professional facilitator Guardian ad litem A person appointed by a judge to protect the interests of a vulnerable or Psycho-education group incompetent individual who may be subject to some form of legal action, only A professionally facilitated group that combines education about a for the time that the individual’s case is under consideration shared concern or topic with mutual support and attention to psycho-social issues associated with that concern Psychotherapy / counseling group A professionally facilitated group that assists participants to deal with their psycho-social issues in a group setting, using a particular therapeutic approach and techniques Hallucination An inaccurate but persistent belief or perception not based in reality, including Group work with professionals auditory hallucinations, visual hallucinations, and others. See also delusions. The realm of social work practice in which a small number of professionals work together toward a common goal Halo effect The overrating of an individual on most or all aspects of performance or ability Advisory board based on his/her performance in ability in one or a few areas A group of individuals chosen for their knowledge or expertise to provide advice, information or suggestions to an agency. Hard-to-reach client Client eligible for services but who does not know about them, does not want Board of directions services, or is resistant to intervention efforts The policy-making body of an organization that is responsible for meeting the mission of the organization through setting policy, hiring Harm reduction model and supervising staff, securing resources, and evaluating programs Practice theory / model in social work and public health whose goal is to decrease harm and consequences of a behavior pattern instead of to cure or eradicate the problem 28 29 Hate crime Human rights Crime against an individual or group based on characteristics such as gender, Rights in all areas of human life that all individuals are believed to deserve sexual orientation, ethnicity, or religion regardless of race, gender, religion or other social status Hawthorne effect Humanistic theory of human functioning The tendency of people to behave differently when they know they are being As individuals and families search for meaning and make life choices, they have observed strengths to utilize and freedom of action. Helping network Hypothesis A group of people, organizations and groups that are linked in order to provide See research services and support to an individual or family Heterosexism Bias against members of a sexual orientation minority Hidden inflation Phenomenon in which quality or quantity of a good or service declines while the Immigrant price remains the same An individual who has voluntarily moved to another country Holistic model Implied consent Practice theory / model which sees clients in total context rather than only as an Statements, actions, or silence by a client that make them appear to be giving individual with specific symptoms, and which advocates for interventions that consent to treatment are multi-faceted and comprehensive Informed consent Homeostasis Permission given by a client to a social worker or agency to provide intervention Tendency of a social system to seek and maintain a balance or steady state or treatment, based on full disclosure of the efficacy and risks of treatment as which can be positive or negative well as on the client’s understanding of the intervention Homophobia Incidence rate Fear or intense dislike of people who belong to a sexual orientation minority The number of new cases of an illness, problem or condition within a particular population within a particular time frame. See also prevalence rate. Host setting An organization with one mission that allows specialized professions such as Incrementalization social work to provide services within that setting Gradual changes over time in social policies, programs, and behavior Human capital Indirect practice Collective resources within a society that are developed through that society’s Realm of social work practice that does not include direct contact with clients, provision of education, family connections, health care, and other services and but that impacts them through research, program development, administration, social institutions and policy practice Human development In-service training The biological, social, cultural, emotional, and spiritual changes in individuals Training provided to employees of an agency that helps them acquire the which occur over time, are somewhat predictable, but which are also subject to knowledge and skills needed for their work individual variation 30 31 Institutional racism Following Techniques / Skills Discrimination and unequal treatment in institutions and organizations through (see following techniques and furthering techniques) policies, practices, and exclusion Active listening Instrumental activities of daily living The therapeutic technique of purposefully and carefully listening to Those activities of self-care for individuals that include higher level tasks than client statements, attending to what is not being said, and “activities of daily living”, and which include managing finances, using reflecting this back to the client in order to build rapport, help the transportation, cooking, and household tasks client feel understood, and allow for further reflection Integration of theory and practice Empathy Bringing together of academic and research knowledge with applied The therapeutic technique of communicating to a client that their professional skills, resulting in theory-informed practice and practice-informed situation, reactions, and emotions are appreciated and theory understood, which builds rapport and sets the foundation for a helping relationship Internal locus of control An individual’s belief that his/her life is not within his/her control, but rather than Engagement external factors and systems control outcomes The therapeutic technique of aligning oneself to clients and bringing them into the helping relationship Intervention The overall term used to describe all activities by social workers on behalf of and Open-ended questions in collaboration with their clients, including activities at the following levels of The therapeutic technique of using questions that cannot be practice. See levels of practice answered with a yes or no, but which require clients to expand, explain and direct the conversation Micro level intervention Interventions on behalf of and in collaboration with individuals and Prompts families in which social workers play a variety of roles. See social work The therapeutic technique of using short words or sentences rather roles and theory. than questions to encourage clients to continue to communicate Mezzo level intervention Rapport-building Interventions on behalf of and in collaboration with groups and The development of a strong working relationship between social organizations in which social workers play a variety of roles. See social worker and client built on trust, mutual respect, genuineness, and work roles and theory. motivation for growth Macro level intervention Furthering Techniques / Skills Interventions on behalf of and in collaboration with communities and (see furthering techniques and following technique) societies in which social workers play a variety of roles Confrontation Interviewing / counseling techniques The therapeutic technique of pointing out to clients what they may The range of helping approaches and techniques used with individuals, families not see in themselves or need to change, such as distorted thinking, and groups that help these clients understand themselves and others better, negative behavior patterns, and ineffective communication improve social functioning, gain skills in fulfilling social roles, and making necessary or desired changes in their lives Interpretation The therapeutic technique of helping clients see meaning in their behaviors and thoughts, develop insight, and identify the ways in which their choices and experiences are connected to their current situations 32 33 Paraphrasing The therapeutic technique of using different words to re-phrase client statements, allowing clients to better understand and analyze what they have said Learned helplessness Reflection Passive or ineffective responses to abuse or problems based on an individual’s The therapeutic technique of mirroring and expanding upon what experiences and beliefs that nothing can be done to improve their situation clients say and fell in order to help them recognize issues, develop deeper understandings, and make connections Least restrictive environment A legal and best practice of placing an individual in an environment that places Reframing the fewest restrictions on that individual while simultaneously providing the The therapeutic technique of helping a client see a situation or level of support and services required to maintain that individual’s social behavior in a different light in order to make progress functioning Summarizing Levels of practice The therapeutic technique of consolidating gains made by a client, The term that refers to the micro, mezzo, and macro arenas of practice at which listing evidence of progress, and pointing out additional work that social workers can target their interventions based on needs, resources, and could be done by the client likelihood of success in achieving needed change (see intervention) Involuntary client Liability insurance A client who does not wish to receive services but is required to do so either by a Insurance purchased by a social worker or provided by an agency that provides legal system, employer, social agency with power over the client certain limits of financial protection in the event that the social worker is sued for malpractice, but will not cover a social worker who is negligent in some way Liberalism The political and social belief in opportunities for individuals, supported at least in part by government entities through social programs and policies Just cause License (social work) Legal justification for a decision or action that has an impact or an individual Authorization to provide services specified by state statute and regulated by standards of care, qualifications, and credentials Life cycle The systematic development of individuals through defined phases and stages over time related to age, but also influenced by social and cultural forces Linear perspective Kinship The professional view that emphasizes the cause-and-effect phenomenon of A group of people bound together by genetics, or in some cases, by choice change as opposed to the view that emphasizes the more cyclical nature of change Kohlberg theory of moral development Orienting / explanatory theory of how moral development may be described in Linkage terms of somewhat predictable stages and levels The connecting of resources, services, groups or organizations to serve a client or client system 34 35 Longitudinal study Means test See research A method for determining eligibility for service based on one’s financial status and income Median See research Medicaid The federal program that provides health and medical care to those without the Macro social work practice financial resources to pay for their own care, based on eligibility criteria See social work roles Medical model Malfeasance The practice theory/model that focuses on the individual, including making a Illegal and wrongful behavior by a professional or public person diagnosis based on internal factors with less attention given to the social environment of the client. Also referred to as the disease model Malpractice Negligent actions on the part of a professional that violates professional ethics, Medicare standards of care, and which causes harm The federal program of providing health care to older adults (and several other specific groups of people) based on age rather than income. Recipients must Malpractice insurance have worked a prescribed length of time while contributing to Medicare, and Insurance obtained by a professional to protect her/himself against financial pay a premium while receiving it. losses based on an allegation of malpractice Mental status exam Managed care The assessment of a client’s cognitive, intellectual and emotional functioning The practice of utilizing third parties to facilitate, monitor, and evaluate the based on instruments, tools, and observation. services provided by an organization to a client / client system, often used with the purpose of maintaining quality and reducing costs Micro social work practice See social work roles Mandated client A client who is required to seek and utilize services Mezzo social work practice See social work roles Marcia theory of personality development Orienting / explanatory theory of personality development through stages and Mission statement differentiation of levels of personality development achievement See organization Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory Model Orienting / explanatory developmental theory of human development See theory of practice / model proposed by Abraham Maslow that suggests that people have a particular order to their needs, from basic physiological needs to self-actualization and Mood disorder that further suggests that these needs are usually met in that order A mental disorder in which the client experiences elevated, lowered, or varying moods according to an established pattern or for prolonged periods of time Mean See research Morbidity rate The proportion of individuals in a certain group that have a particular condition or disorder during a specific time period 36 37 Mortality rate / death rate Networking The proportion of deaths in a certain group during a specific time period Working to establish, maintain and improve the relationships between social systems such as individuals, groups, organizations, or communities Motivational interviewing model Clinical model that builds upon the Cycle of Change orienting / explanatory Nominal group technique theory, recognizes clients’ ambivalence to change, sees change as cyclical, A technique used in organizations and groups whereby problems, issues and recognizes that relapse is normal, and uses specific techniques to build goals are listed by participants for the group to discuss, prioritize, and organize motivation to change for potential interventions Multi-causal theory Nonprofit organization Orienting / explanatory theory that social conditions and problems experienced Organizations which provide services based on motivation to do so rather than at the micro, mezzo and macro levels are a result of the combination of a on the basis of profit complex set of interacting factors on multiple levels Null hypothesis Mutual aid group See research See group work with clients Mutual aid model A practice theory/model in which an informal group of people who have a common experience, condition or situation meet to provide each other with support and assistance, and which may have a professional facilitator Object relations theory Orienting / explanatory theory that describes how the inability to form and develop positive and enduring attachments are based on early life experiences of separation or lack of connection with significant caregivers Objective Narrative therapy A measurable activity or task that is set in order to reach a more overarching, The practice theory / model of clinical practice in which clients are given general goal assignments to write about their experiences, problems, thoughts, values, and coping, and in which therapists/ counselors may respond to these stories and Objectivity accounts Assessing a person or situation without bias or prejudice and without injecting one’s own values and beliefs into that assessment National Association of Social Workers The professional association of social workers in the United States Ombudsperson An advocate for the clients of an agency with the responsibility to mediate Needs assessment disputes between clients and the agency, and to make sure that services The process of identifying certain needs and resources of a population or provided are of high quality community, combined with the opportunities and challenges for meeting those needs, often completed prior to taking on a mezzo or macro level intervention Open system A social system which interacts openly with other social systems surrounding it Negligence The failure to provide adequate service or protect the rights of clients which results in harm or damage to clients 38 39 Organization Organizational development model An organized agency or program whose focus is on the provision of services to Approach to promoting effectiveness and efficiency within organizations by an identified group focusing on problem solving, human interactions, communication, planning, assessment, learning culture, and fostering the ability to accomplish their Advisory board missions A group of individuals chosen by an agency for their knowledge or expertise to provide advice, information or suggestions Organizational development theory Orienting / explanatory theory that describes how organizations proceed Board of directors through fairly predictable stages as they move through time and efforts to The policy-making body of an organization that is responsible for meeting achieve their mission, based on both internal and external factors the mission of the organization through setting policy, hiring and supervising staff, securing resources, and evaluating programs Outcome evaluation See research Bureaucracy An organization characterized by hierarchy, division of labor, defined rules, channels of communication, standardization of services, and a focus on efficiency Consensus model The model that works to achieve general or full agreement among all Paradigm parties and staff in regard to program direction, priorities, and services A world view or set of beliefs that influence an individual’s approach to life, work and relationships, or one that informs a professional approach to practice For-profit organization A social services organization which makes a financial profit for its Parens patriae stockholders while providing services to clients A legal term describing the need of the state to ensure the welfare of others or to act as guardian for those in need of care Mission statement The broad written statement of an organization’s main focus, including Parity what it hopes to provide to its clients A concept of equality between two entities or policies, such as the equality of insurance coverage for health care and mental health care Non-profit organization An organization which operates without making a financial profit, which Peer review uses its proceeds to further develop the program, and which is recognized An evaluation of performance and competence done by professional peers to by the Internal Revenue Service determine whether a professional or organization is meeting the needs of its clients and abiding by professional standards Organizational chart A visual representation of the structure of an organization, including chain Personality disorder of command and levels of power A mental disorder characterized by patterns of interactive behavior and beliefs that impair social functioning Organizational culture The informal operating processes within an organization that influence its operation 40 41