Integrating technology in teaching learning process

teaching and learning frameworks for integrating technology in the curriculum and teaching and learning with technology ebook
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FACULTY GUIDE TO Teaching and Learning with Technology UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURIContents 3 Planning a Technology-Enhanced Course 42 Digital Media: Audio, Video, Animations Introduction WIMBA Voice Tools A Spectrum of Teaching & Learning with Technology Tegrity Examples at Mizzou Creating and Using Graphic and Image Files Planning for Success: Designing Your Course Road Blogs map Digital Audio and RSS Technology Course Management Systems at Mizzou Best Practices to Support Student Digital Media Projects Shooting Tips 10 e-Learning Program Planning Who’s Going to Teach the Course? 53 Assessment How Will the Department Ensure Quality? What is Assessment? Accessing and Coordinating Resources Creating and Using Grading Rubrics Using e-Portfolios as an Assessment Tool 15 Legal Issues: Copyright, Accessibility, and FERPA 56 Building a Community in the Cyber Classroom Copyright Basics The Importance of Interaction Tips and Best Practices Tips for Assembling Discussion or Project Groups American Disabilities Act (ADA) & Accessibility Family Educational Rights & Privacy Issues 61 Course and Program Evaluation Course Evaluation Program Evaluation 22 Developing Course Materials and Documents MoCAT (Missouri Cares About Teaching) Syllabus Writing Lesson or Concept-Related Content Creating Assignments Interactive Teaching Methods & Strategies 64 A Survival Guide to Teaching Online Blogs, Wiki, Case Studies Ten Tips for the First Day(s) of Class Tips for Avoiding & Managing Overload Facilitating Interaction Tips to Encourage Academic Honesty 33 Classroom Technology Academic Honesty/Plagiarism Online Resources Student Response Systems at Mizzou 68 Appendices 37 Customizing your Blackboard Course Site Helpful Links: Mizzou Resources Course Menu Sample Personal Release Agreement Assignments Granting Permission Content Digital Media Scoring Guide and Rubrics Communication Tools Sample Syllabus Control Panel Ed. Tech Tools and Tips Grade Center ETMO distributes this material for departmental training. It is intended for noncommercial, informational purposes only. Educational Technologies at Missouri Phone: (573) 882-3303 Printed August 2011 249 Heinkel Building Fax: (573) 884-6796 Columbia MO 65211 E-mail: etatmomissouri.edu 2Chapter 1 Planning a Technology-Enhanced Course Introduction This guide is designed to help you plan, design, develop and teach technology-assisted courses and programs. To give you the best and most up-to-date information, we’ve compiled recommendations and suggestions from our staff of educators and technology professionals as well as from faculty who have been through the process. We’ve included guides that illustrate pedagogical design issues; tips on planning, developing, and writing course content; as well as planning and facilitating online interaction. We’ve also included a description of various technologies to assist you in the process. We’ve designed this guide to provide an overview of the entire process, from planning to implementation. When you’re ready to begin and want more specific information, we’ve attached an appendix that gets you up and running, including sample forms, references and rubrics. If you have any questions or concerns, or would like to discuss your unique course dynamics, feel free to call or e-mail us at any time, at etatmomissouri.edu or (573) 882- 3303. Why use web-assisted instruction? Technology offers solutions to a diverse set of instructional problems and instructors augment courses with the Internet and other instructional technologies for a whole host of reasons. Some examples include: large lecture courses managing hundreds of students or dozens of sections, introductory courses providing access to significant amounts of basic materials throughout the semester, courses that shift in-class quizzes to an online format allowing for more class discussion time, or courses and programs using the Internet to reach a nonresident, national, or international audience. The following three areas are those we most often encounter on campus. Instructors want to better manage time and resources, provide engaging learning opportunities to students outside of class, or want to offer a course to a nontraditional or off-campus audience. Although there are many themes and recommendations in common, you will find specific strategies through this guide to prepare for a variety of challenges these unique set of circumstances may present. 3Planning Technology-Enhanced Course Logistics and Management Practice, Practice, Practice From Mizzou to the World Instructors use technology to Introductory courses are full As Internet access has better manage non-content of basic facts and concepts become common in homes related factors. Course that serve as a foundation and businesses across the Management Systems (CMS) for subsequent courses in nation and the world, the such as Blackboard offer an that discipline. Instructors reach of institutions of higher online grade book, freeing up from a variety of disciplines learning has increased far class time to focus on content have shifted some of that beyond what their “bricks and discussion instead of how material online through and mortar” have afforded. everyone did on the test. traditional lecture notes, Some departments offer Multi-section courses can use handouts, practice quizzes, entire e-learning degree a CMS to easily distribute etc. Students learn the basics programs while others offer a common set of practice online through these guided a few key courses. Either exercises, study guides, and exercises, simulations, or way, the Internet allows for practice quizzes allowing for tutorials, allowing for in-class a broader audience base a consistent curriculum and time to focus on discussion engaged through online student outcomes, in addition and processing of concepts. lessons, interactive and to better allocation of limited collaborative assignments, resource. instructional CD-ROMs, and online discussions among a community of learners. A Spectrum of Teaching & Learning with Technology At a basic level, the spectrum of teaching and learning with technology can be illustrated by comparing instructional technologies used in a face-to-face classroom with those in an online environment. Historically, classroom courses have used technology to make classroom management easier and not necessarily to enhance teaching and learning (e.g., overhead transparencies are easier to use than a chalkboard but don’t necessarily enhance the quality or effectiveness of the content being presented). As one might expect, the tips and tricks at this end of the technology spectrum are fairly basic. In comparison, Internet-based courses use technology instead of a classroom to reach students and subsequently, this other end of the spectrum has many tips, tricks, advantages, and possible pitfalls to be planned around (e.g., plan ahead, identify target audience attributes, facilitate online interaction and create an online learning community, use small group assignments effectively). Over time, this simple differentiation has become less distinct. We have seen a blurring of the boundaries between time and distance, credit and noncredit, on-campus and off-campus course needs. As students and faculty come to campus with more sophisticated technology skills and expectations, courses have become more and more technology-enhanced allowing faculty to redefine the use of in-class time and re-calibrate student expectations of homework and assignments that take place outside of class. Increasingly, traditional face-to-face courses are adopting innovative approaches and redefining the lecture hall course entirely. For example, a chemistry course might use multimedia technology to visually demonstrate chemical reactions by allowing students to manipulate atomic particles in a 3-D rendering. Alternatively, a journalism course may employ a real-time chat while the instructor lectures. Both examples integrate highly innovative uses of technology into a familiar lecture hall format. Why does any of this matter? The short answer is that sophisticated uses of instructional technology require planning, adopting new teaching strategies, rethinking and reevaluating assignments and interaction, and redefining what’s done in and out of the classroom. Ideally, there would be a discrete set of rules, a sort of checklist, to teaching with technology, but unfortunately there are too many variables. The tools, tips, and recommendations in this guide should provide you the necessary background to ask the right questions, formulate complete answers, and plan accordingly. http://etatmo.missouri.edu 4Planning Technology-Enhanced Course The Spectrum of Technology-Enhanced Courses at a Glance… Web-Assisted Hybrid e-Learning/Online Delivery Face-to-face meetings with Significant use of Instruction and interaction instructional technologies instructional technologies, are delivered primarily via supporting classroom supplementary online computer, video, and/or management and logistics. learning opportunities, audio. Instructional content, For example, courses in and potentially a reduced guidance, and instructor/ which the students and number of face-to- peer interactions occur instructor meet regularly in face meetings. For mostly online. Occasionally, a lecture hall but students example, students may students may be required access the syllabus and have Web access to the to have one or more face course management tools course syllabus, lecture to-face meetings with the (e.g., grade book) on the management tools, online instructor (e.g., physical Web when outside of class. practice quizzes, and online assessments in an online This level of the spectrum group discussions but still nursing course). This requires fairly minimal have weekly classroom level requires significant amounts of course redesign meetings for application redesign, planning, and to accommodate the activities or in-depth preparation. technology. discussions. May involve significant course redesign. Examples at Mizzou Agricultural Economics – Jan Dauve increased student engagement in his economics course by integrating student response systems (“clickers”) into his lectures. In addition to his pedagogical revisions, Jan’s subsequent research on the experience has advanced the scholarship of teaching by demonstrating best practices in using the response system. Art History & Archaeology – With increased enrollment pressure, the need for consistency among discussion sections, and concerns about the effective delivery of course materials, Anne Stanton and a team of faculty and graduate students recognized their challenges. Their solution was to develop a digital image repository for use in lectures, discussion sections, and online. Student engagement outside the lectures and section meetings increased through the use of quizzes with embedded terminology and images. Biology – Bethany Stone and a team of colleagues designed interactive animations of complex biological systems to help students visualize processes and relationships between biological substances and sub-cellular processes. Deployable across several courses, from General Biology to Genetics, these animations were story boarded, planned, and created by the team using multimedia authoring software. Journalism – Technology resources and redesigned assignments were integrated into J2100, a foundation course in the School of Journalism. The basics of interviewing, previously covered in a paper and pencil-style assignment now involves students using digital audio-video equipment and software to produce interviews that demonstrate their skills and competencies. These video interviews provide a more authentic, “real world” demonstration of student understanding. Learning, Teaching & Curriculum – Working with Academic Transformation and a departmental grant, Linda Bennett’s project focused on preparing students for digital citizenship. Collaborating with the eMINTS National Center and the Missouri Bar, she led a group of elementary school teachers in developing lesson plans to share with others who wished to help elementary students use online tools successfully and appropriately. Additionally, she created classroom projects for her own university classes – requiring students to create learning objects that infused technology and guided elementary students to be respectful and responsible digital citizens. Educational Technologies at Missouri 5Planning Technology-Enhanced Course Mathematics – Using several educational technologies, including Camtasia Studio and a tablet PC, Jason Aubrey produced narrated animation tutorials which provide a review of basic algebra concepts as well as introduce new material such as finite mathematics and calculus. These tutorials give students an opportunity outside of class to improve their understanding through enhanced explanations, follow along with narrated practice problems, and take knowledge- check quizzes. Nursing – Kristen Metcalf-Wilson and a team of nursing faculty replaced traditional paper- based professional nursing portfolios, a capstone requirement, with e-portfolios. Students now may store and comment on exemplary course work, professional logs, and demonstrated competencies. Nursing faculty as well as outside adjudicators review and evaluate student performance via this system, which streamlines the evaluation process and allows students to be more active and reflective in their learning. Physical Therapy - Using a customized digital media station, Connie Blow created multimedia artifacts (e.g., digital video, audio) that were integrated into physical therapy and interdisciplinary case studies enriching the existing curriculum and encouraging more integrated approaches at teaching between physical, occupational, and speech therapies. Connie also serves as an in-house expert to other members of the department by orienting and supporting their efforts to produce and incorporate such artifacts into their curriculum. Planning for Success: Designing Your Course Road Map As with any new enterprise, planning is key to successfully implementing innovative components into your course, and this is especially true of e-learning courses, which require significant up-front effort. We recommend talking with your fellow faculty members, department chair, and support staff in order to develop a comprehensive strategy that will make your planning and expectations consistent with other courses in your discipline as well as better prepare students to learn via technology. For e-learning courses, plan ahead and allow at least 4-6 months for content development or adapting existing materials to online delivery. Also, make certain you take advantage of all that the campus offers. There are many excellent services available to support e-learning, please see the appendix for a complete listing of services available to instructors and students. The Course Road map The first step to planning your course is to create a development plan that will outline the essential components of your course. The goal of this planning exercise is to identify the scope and purpose of the course, necessary resources, types of technology (and training) needed for successful development, and advanced planning for multimedia development or collaborative course development needs. Key Questions to Consider in Developing Your Plan • What elements of this course are well-suited for the Internet? • Do I have the expertise to develop all of the necessary content components or will I need additional support from peers or colleagues? • Is there a need for additional multimedia materials (video, audio, etc.)? • Who’s my “audience”? Keep in mind that when it comes to the Internet, students come with a variety of experiences and levels of technological understanding. • How will students connect to the Internet? This greatly influences the speed at which students can download pages or video clips. • How can I ensure students achieve a comfort level with the technology? Keep in mind more experienced students may be able to provide additional resources and support for you and/ or their fellow students. • How can I design my course for adult learners who may have additional demands on their time than traditional students? • Should I have scheduled events (e.g., chat) that may be influenced by time zone differences? http://etatmo.missouri.edu 6Planning Technology-Enhanced Course Identify Course Goals and Learning Outcomes In addition to guiding your course development process and decisions, this process can help you inform students how the course fits into a program or curriculum. In addition, you may identify: • The nature, purpose, and significance of the course • The curriculum objectives • Your personal or professional goals for developing the course • Potential applications of what students will learn Identify Course Materials and Resources In order to begin developing specific materials for the course, first assemble all the resources you intend to use in your course. You may need to make arrangements in advance for reading packets, document availability through the library’s electronic reserve system (E-Res), or copyright permissions. Identify Instructional Content Your readings, assignments, and learning activities are all dependant on the nature of your course content. Certain methods and approaches work best for a seminar-style course and others for a capstone or graduate course. Naturally, most of these decisions are guided by your course goals and instructional objectives but by incorporating technology into your course, you may decide to explore new methods or completely revise existing activities. Here are some additional points you might want to keep in mind about what to include in your course content and how you want to present it. What Do I Want Students to Know? What Teaching Strategies Will Work? A content outline might include the Based on content and the needs of your following: audience, determine the most appropriate instructional strategies to convey your » Cover the key messages you want to message. For example, the “lecture” present or emphasize method might be used to provide an online tutorial about the assigned subject matter. » Determine the progression or sequence Other strategies include: of content to be presented » Small and large group work » Decide what resources you will use to support key messages » Self-study » Develop content details, specific notes » Small group discussion and outlines, and activity possibilities » Problem-based learning » Demonstrations (photographs or other graphics, audio and/or video) Identify Your Teaching and Interaction Style No matter which technology you select, how you facilitate interaction is going to depend largely on your teaching style and preferences as well as your general philosophical orientation to teaching. Another factor likely to influence interaction is the general style of your discipline. Especially if you will be teaching nontraditional or adult students, the nature of some professions require significant interaction with peers or clients which may make online interaction easier for you to facilitate. Keep in mind, there is no right or wrong teaching style. Antonio Grasha (1996), whose research area is in college teaching, discusses the following five primary teaching styles. Educational Technologies at Missouri 7Planning Technology-Enhanced Course Expert Instructor is a content expert conveying detailed knowledge and challenging students to enhance their competence. Instructor transmits information and insures that students are well prepared. Advantages: Instructor information, knowledge, and skills are transmitted to students. Disadvantages: If overused, this method may intimidate less-experienced students. Works best: For guest speakers, online lecturers. Formal Authority Instructor provides positive and negative feedback and establishes learning goals, expectations, and rules of conduct, and is concerned with “correct, acceptable, and standard” ways to do things. Provides students with structured learning. Advantages: Focus is on clear expectations and acceptable ways of doing things Disadvantages: This style can lead to rigid, standardized, and less flexible ways of managing students and their concerns. Works best: As a means to communicate and present foundational knowledge in online tutorials, or a sequence of video lectures. Personal Model Instructor oversees, guides, and directs by modeling for students and encouraging them to observe and emulate that approach. Teaching by personal example. Advantages: Emphasis on direct observation and following a role model. Disadvantages: Instructors may believe their approach is the best approach, or perhaps the only approach. Works best: In facilitating student development through discussion and application of course content. Facilitator Instructor guides and directs by asking questions, exploring options, suggesting alternatives, and encouraging students to develop criteria to make informed choices. Overall goal is to develop capacity for independent action, initiative, and responsibility. Advantages: Personal flexibility with focus on students’ needs and goals. Disadvantages: Style is time-consuming and sometimes is used when a more direct approach is needed. Works best: As a method to guide deeper understanding of concepts and encourage student-student interaction and personal growth. Delegator Instructor is concerned with developing students’ capacity to function in an autonomous fashion. Students work independently on projects or as part of autonomous teams, with the teacher available as a resource person. Advantages: Helps students perceive themselves as independent learners. Disadvantages: Some students may not be ready for independent work and may become anxious when given autonomy. Works best: Provides environment that encourages students to take ownership of their learning and growth. http://etatmo.missouri.edu 8Planning Technology-Enhanced Course Course Management Systems (CMS) at Mizzou Blackboard is a CMS that offers online collaboration and communication tools, online grade book, quizzing, and a host of other features. In addition, Sakai is open-source collaboration and learning environment software designed by and for the higher education community and currently being explored on the MU campus. MU’s partnership in the Sakai project will give the campus a better understanding of next generation online teaching and learning tools. ETMO has developed a sample Blackboard course site for faculty to see a content-rich, pedagogically- sound example of how a course site may be constructed. We also recommend you work with an Instructional Designer to help assess the needs of your students, instructors, and content. Reference Grasha, A. (1996). Teaching with Style: A Practical Guide to Enhancing Learning by Understanding Teaching and Learning Styles. Pittsburgh, PA: Alliance Publishers. Instructional Design Models can assist in visualizing instructional problem and breaking them down into discrete, manageable units. An instructional design model can provide structure and meaning to an instructional design problem. The University of Colorado at Denver has a sample model online: http://www.cudenver.edu/mryder/itc_data/idmodels.html. Educational Technologies at Missouri 9Chapter 2 e-Learning Program Planning E-learning is currently driving a confluence of complex issues facing higher education institu - tions, students, and faculty. Institutions are concerned with increasing access and revenues through increasing enrollments. Students are concerned with access to increasingly more convenient and flexible course configurations. Faculty are concerned with their role in course creation and delivery, governance and curricular oversight, and allocation of increasingly scarce resources including compensation. This section addresses the motivations and needs of these various stakeholders and suggests specific strategies in balancing administration of an e-learn - ing program in a constantly changing landscape. The State of e-Learning What’s driving institutions? Higher education institutions have identified online courses as one avenue to increase access, expand market share, and increase revenues. Werf and Sabatier (2009) suggest for colleges to thrive in this technologically changing environment and to ad- dress the needs of “New Millennials,” institutions should adopt policies to enhance their ability to attract and retain students through innovative redesign of face-to-face instruction and an enhanced focus on e-learning (p.7). What’s driving students? Pastore and Carr-Chellman (2009) suggest the primary motivation for student enrollment in online courses is the flexibility and convenience afforded with such delivery. Student acceptance of e-learning as a legitimate and convenient way to access higher education is one additional factor driving increased enrollments in online courses. Students lo- cated on a residential campus may, for a variety of reasons including scheduling conflicts, prefer an online alternative to a face-to-face course. What are faculty concerns? Faculty perceptions of e-learning greatly influence the diffusion of innovation and acceptance of online programs. A study by Baiyun (2009) identified concerns about faculty workload as a significant obstacle to e-learning adoption. Elevated concerns over online program costs and faculty participation showed statistically significant correlations with institutional adoption of distance online courses. The author concluded that fewer concerns about cost or faculty participation, controlling for a variety of institutional characteristics such as Carnegie classification, would ultimately enhance e-learning adoption. How to plan an effective e-learning program The following recommendations for departments and individuals developing online courses and programs have been compiled from course instructors and student evaluations in addition to years of “lessons learned” and best practices. They are designed to help guide you in selecting an instructor and planning resource allocation. An article titled “Is Your Psychology 102 Course Any Good?” published on The Chronicle of Higher Education website suggests a few key points of interest: • Is the instructor full-time or part-time? Part time faculty can have difficulties relating curricular consistency with broader departmental culture and initiatives, accessing 10 10eLearning Program Planning university resources like the library, and having a general familiarity with the university as a workplace. Hiring part-time instructors is certainly a scalable reaction to market pressures but one key suggestion from departments is to have a permanent faculty member develop the course and/or mentor part-timers during course delivery to guide instructors with institutional policies, resources, and support. • Is the instructor tenure-track or contingent? Adjunct and graduate instructors provide a scalable solution to short term staffing issues but over the long term, having permanent faculty assigned to develop and/or teach online courses is critical to ensuring curricular consistency and connection with the department teaching philosophy. Keeping faculty engaged through professional development actives supporting effective online teaching is critical. • Did the instructor receive pedagogical training during graduate school? Santilli and Beck (2005) found that while two-thirds of online faculty received training on specific technology tools to develop courses on their own, only one-quarter reported having received training in online course design and pedagogy (p. 158). ETMO provides instructional design support and consultation throughout the design, development, and teaching processes (see http://etatmo.missouri.edu for more information). Key Considerations in Selecting an Instructor There are some key issues to consider when selecting faculty to develop and/or teach an online course. Clearly, experience with and knowledge of course content is critical. The following is a checklist of “what to look for” in a good online instructor. • A basic understanding of the Internet, word processing, and e-mail (there is a significant learning curve to teaching online, and a foundation in basic technology is highly encouraged) • Some background or experience in teaching or training • Reliable Internet access at work or home (depending on where they intend on doing the most work on the course) • Prior experience teaching the course in a face-to-face setting or experience with the content • Significant time to devote to course development and ability to complete initial drafts of course content prior to the course open date (if developing the course) • The ability to devote 10-15 hours per week to teach the course (for a 3-credit hour or equivalent), depending on the level of interaction and volume/length of assignments • The ability to express ideas, concerns, suggestions, and answers to students succinctly and clearly, in writing • A willingness to modify and adapt teaching methods and strategies based on student or participant feedback Instructors are encouraged to adopt best practices, such as the American Association for Higher Education’s Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, available at http:// www.tltgroup.org/programs/seven.html. How Will the Department Ensure Course and Program Quality? Plan Your Program Curriculum High quality e-learning courses and programs are critical to on- and off-campus students, faculty, and administrators. Kaye Shelton reviewed 13 national program review paradigms and subsequently created a Quality Scorecard for the Administration of Online Education Programs (2010) available online (http://sloanconsortium.org). The metrics address a comprehensive set of factors: institutional support, technology support, instructional design, course structure, teaching and learning, student engagement, faculty and student support, and evaluation and assessment. Educational Technologies at Missouri 11eLearning Program Planning For e-learning programs, it is highly recommended that units identify an academic coordina- tor for managing the program. This individual may help to develop the courses, identify course authors and instructors, review completed courses, and check-in on courses from time to time. When planning a new program, other key considerations include: • Does your program have a mission statement and curricular outcomes? • How will the online program connect with an existing residential program? Will there be reciprocity? • Is the online program targeting a different student population (e.g., nontraditional students, working adults) than a residential program? • Will you have special hardware (e.g., laptop, web-camera, microphone), software (e.g., web or video editing), or Internet access (i.e., broadband/high speed) requirements to enroll in the program? • Will you have required campus visits for presentations, demonstrations, etc? • Will permanent faculty oversee curriculum design and development? • What are the plans for continuous improvement, growth in program offerings, completed course reviews, and revision to existing courses? • Will there be a consistent course design among all courses in the program? Who will monitor course development? • How will academic advisement be coordinated? Will there be a special academic advisor for online students? • What plans are in place to acculturate adjuncts? How will they be connected to the department and the institution? • How will research activities be coordinated with distance students? How will faculty mentor students in scholarship? Encourage Quality Course Reviews There are national initiatives to provide a consistent approach to assuring quality online courses such as the University of Maryland’s Quality Matters project (http://www.qualitymatters.org). Partially funded through a U.S. Department Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Educa- tion (FIPSE) grant, Quality Matters is an inter-institutional quality assurance and course im- provement process to certify online courses and components. Several of the annotated rubric tools can be found on the Quality Matters website at http://www.qualitymatters.org/Rubrics. htm. This tool assesses the: • Overall design of the course website • Instructional materials and resources including navigational features • Learner interaction • Use of learning objectives • Course technology • Assessment strategies, policies, and • Learner support tools • Accessibility The Mizzou e-Learning site (http://elearning.missouri.edu) offers Quality Course Peer Re- views—a service to teaching faculty to encourage peer-review, exchange of constructive feed- back on online and hybrid courses, as well as advancing the scholarship of teaching. Measuring Effective Curriculum Design Through Student Outcomes One of the most rewarding parts of working on new e-learning programs and initiatives is to inform and shape an entire curriculum, from an introductory overview course to the capstone experienceensuring outcomes build on one another. Below are three areas most impacted by curriculum planning. http://etatmo.missouri.edu 12eLearning Program Planning • How well prepared were students to take subsequent courses in the department? This goes to the very heart of curriculum planning and a comprehensive approach to program design. Are we developing knowledge and skills over the program of study that capitalize on prior knowledge? Keeping an eye on the big picture is critical to program success. • How do student perform on their senior capstone projects? Provide opportunities for faculty to consult one another on courses, assessments, and outcomes. Introducing basic writing skills early in a program, then in a subsequent course building on writing competencies by developing research skills, followed by advanced data analysis and peer review, and finally at the end of the program, a highly illustrative capstone project that demonstrates student competency. • How well do students perform on institutional general education learning outcomes? e-Learning can be, on occasion, this “other world” for campus faculty conducted out of sight in the anonymity of cyberspace. It is critical that online students feeling as though they are part of the Mizzou community by mainstreaming e-learning with other campus initiatives, services, programs (e.g., the Writing Intensive Program), and outcomes. Student E-Portfolios at Mizzou From a program development perspective, you may want to consider developing an e-portfolio requirement into your online program. The potential of e-portfolios providing a common plat- form for assessment of your students may lend additional validity and marketability of your program as well as effectively promoting and documenting student competencies. There is ad- ditional information, as well as some examples of programs using e-portfolios at Mizzou, in the Assessment section of this guide. See Appendix for a list of campus resources and information on E-Portfolios. Accessing and Coordinating Resources Online courses require significant up-front effort. For a whole host of reasons, most online course content should be developed prior to a course’s start date. Planning ahead and provid- ing, on average, 4-6 months for an instructor to develop content for an online course is rec- ommended. Finalizing faculty assignments and planning departmental resource allocation in advance also helps encourage “buy-in” and a sense of ownership from support staff, teaching assistants, and instructors. ETMO offers a variety of support services from program and course planning to Blackboard training and support. The Instructional Design Team and Academic Technology Liaisons work one-on-one with faculty to plan online courses, interaction strategies, and develop online as- signments. The Learning Technologies Team supports Blackboard in addition to other educa- tional technologies. The META Team offers faculty one-on-one office visits to assist in using educational technologies in addition to some multimedia development services. Feel free to ar- range a consultation with ETMO via our website if you need assistance with your department’s technology efforts. As you build an online program, make certain you are taking advantage of all that the campus offers. There are many excellent services available to support student success. References Baiyun, C. (2009). Barriers to adoption of technology-mediated distance education in higher- education institutions. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(4), 333-338. Glenn, D. (2010). Is Your Psychology 102 Course Any Good? Chronicle of Higher Education, De- cember 12, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/Is-Your-Psychology-102-Course/125698/. Educational Technologies at Missouri 13eLearning Program Planning Pastore, R., & Carr-Chellman, A. (2009). Motivations for residential students to participate in online courses. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(3), 263-277. Santilli, S., & Beck, V. (2005). Graduate faculty perceptions of online teaching. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 6(2), 155-160. Retrieved from Academic Search Alumni Edition data- base. Shelton, K. (2010). Quality Scorecard for the Administration of Online Education Programs. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Retrieved from the Sloan Consortium website: http://sloancon- sortium.org/ Shelton, K. (2011). A review of paradigms for evaluating the quality of online education programs. Online Journal of Distance Education 1(4). Retrieved from http://www.westga. edu/distance/ojdla/spring141/shelton141.html Werf, M. van der, & Sabatier, G. (2009). The College of 2020: Students. Retrieved from the Chronicle Research Services website: http://research.chronicle.com/asset/TheCollegeof2020Ex- ecutiveSummary.pdf Yick, A. G., Patrick, P., & Costin, A. (2005). Navigating distance and traditional higher educa- tion: online faculty experiences. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 6(2). http://etatmo.missouri.edu 14Chapter 3 Legal Issues: Copyright, Accessibility, and FERPA There are a variety of legal issues that impact instructors in the classroom. The Internet and other digital technologies in education have impacted these same laws and our understanding of how they apply to teaching and learning. The following information is a guide to consider when distributing materials online. Feel free to contact ETMO for additional information or with assistance in contacting university officials or departments who regularly deal with these issues. Copyright Basics The creator of any original work owns the copyright, and the work does not have to be registered for copyright to be effective. There also can be joint ownership for collaborators who create work together. Work also can be made for hire by an employer or person for whom the work is prepared. In this case the employer may hold the copyright. However, there is a difference between who holds the rights to contributions to a collective work versus who may hold the right to the collective work as a whole (i.e., anthology, edited volume with chapters by different authors). Copyright Owner Rights Consequences of Infringement By law, a copyright owner has specific rights to The consequences for copyright infringement his or her work. These include the right to: may include penalties for actual and statutory damages. The extent of the penalties often will » Reproduce be determined by whether it is judged to be innocent or willful infringement. Other factors » Perform or display publicly influencing outcome include the following: » Distribute (sale, lease, rental, gift) » Does a registration exist? » Prepare derivative works or adaptations » Is owner contact information obtainable? These rights are transferable in whole or in » Did the use fall under the special nonprofit part if the copyright owner chooses to do so. education and library remission rule? However, if rights are transferred this does not necessarily mean the ownership of the work (material object) is also transferred. Who Owns Your Course Site and Related Materials? If created as a part of a faculty member’s employment, the e-learning course should be copyrighted to the University of Missouri Board of Curators. We recommend that you discuss creating an agreement for use of content prior to creating a Web-based course and most importantly, communicate in advance with your department regarding your course. • Come to an agreement in advance regarding who owns the intellectual property rights for the course materials you develop as an MU instructor. • Come to an agreement regarding how the department may use the course after you are no longer the instructor. 15Legal Issues: Copyright, Accessibility, and FERPA Fair Use: the moral of the story... Under Fair Use guidelines, instructors may use a portion of a copyrighted work once in their classroom teaching during a course (Fair Use must stand the tests of brevity, spontaneity for teaching effectiveness, and avoiding cumulative effect that impacts a single work or author). For e-learning courses, fair use under the TEACH Act applies (see below). As a first step, always check the distributor’s “terms of use” to be sure your plans comply. If you plan to use the copyrighted work more than is allowed under Fair Use, then you will either need to find a new resource, secure copyright clearance, use E-Res through MU Libraries, or package the work in a course packet compiled and cleared through the University Bookstore. What Should I Know About the TEACH Act? As described in the previous paragraph on Fair Use, current copyright law gives educators the ability to use certain copyrighted works for educational purposes without securing permission or license. The Technology, Education & Copyright Harmonization Act (or simply TEACH Act) is intended to carry the spirit of these exemptions into the digital age, making it possible for an instructor to provide content online that would otherwise be provided in a classroom. Main points of the act include: • Both digital and analog transmission of a work will be covered by the educational exemption from copyright law. • Current law requires transmission of a work to be sent to a classroom or other place normally used for instruction. The TEACH Act will simply require that the transmission be made by or at the direction of an instructor as part of a class. • To minimize the risk of copyright infringement through unauthorized distribution, digital works should be safeguarded from being copied. To the extent technologically feasible, transmissions of copyrighted works should be limited to students officially enrolled in the course. • An educational institution must have nonprofit status in order to take advantage of the exemptions. Tips and Best Practices Campus Copyright Resources The University Bookstore provides a service for faculty needing permissions for copyrighted materials to be included as readings within a course packet (this service is called Mizzou Media and details are online at http://www.mubookstore.com). MU Libraries provides a service for faculty needing permission to display copyrighted materials on their Web sites or courses. Each of these resources utilizes a national Copyright Clearance Center that charges a fee. Faculty also may request permission directly from copyright owners. Electronic Reserves (E-Res) allows individual documents to be password protected so a professor can have students outside the class view one resource but not have access to other materials. More information about electronic reserves, a listing of liaison librarians, and information about a new copyright clearance service for MU faculty can be found at: Library Services for Faculty- http://eres.missouri.edu. MU’s Information Security & Access Management team in the Division of IT addresses the campus’s role regarding the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Check out their detailed site at https://doit.missouri.edu/about/policies/dmca.html. Secure Permission to Use Personal Contributions When you seek permission to use personal contributions from other faculty, students, presenters or guest lecturers, make sure you request permission to display, copy, or distribute an individual’s likeness, words, talent, actions, photographs, illustrations, and/or graphics. http://etatmo.missouri.edu 16Legal Issues: Copyright, Accessibility, and FERPA • For what work are you seeking permission? • Who will “own” the permission? • Who is seeking the permission? • What is the purpose for your seeking permission? • Who will be granting the permission (with signature line)? • Date of the permission signature (with signature line). A sample permission form is included in the Appendix. Be a Role Model for Your Students In addition to following the legal guidelines yourself, teach your students how these issues also may apply to them. Demonstrate how to legally use others’ published and unpublished materials and student contributions. Discuss the concepts of plagiarism and intellectual property rights. Help students understand the difference between citing or showing sources in the classroom versus copying/publishing materials in print or on the Internet. Take Advantage of Existing Options and Resources • Do the MU Libraries already own or license the material (e.g., full-text articles)? • Could this be handled through E-Res? • Is this a situation with which the Libraries’ Copyright Clearance Center could assist? • Do your textbook publishers already provide the material you need in an electronic format, or would they allow you to scan the material for use in an access-controlled environment online? (Contact your publisher’s representative. The ETMO Learning Technology Team provides assistance in conversions and adapting existing course materials to work with publisher-provided materials.) • Is online distribution the best means of getting this material to your students? • If you are using student-developed materials, do you have a release form from them to re- use their work? Safeguard Materials for which you have permission, or for which you’re claiming fair use. • Is all the material on a password-protected site? • Are you using conditional release features in the software to prevent guest access or access by former students? • Are you posting the requisite copyright notice? Post Copyright Protection Notice on Your Site In addition to such notices as the owner of the copyright might require, recent changes in the law require a notice be posted on the course site and placed in distributed materials. We recommend you place an appropriate disclaimer in your syllabus, the Announcements section of a Blackboard course. Your statement could read like this: “Materials used in connection with the course maybe subject to copyright protection.” Practice Common Courtesy When using colleagues’ work, reinforce good working relationships by communicating clearly. When considering intellectual property issues that are more related to professional ethics rather than law, try reversing positions and see how you would feel if you were in the shoes of the other party. Although the Board of Curators co-owns most course materials developed throughout the University of Missouri System, remember that almost all materials are co-owned by their creator. Asking the creator of the materials for permission to copy or modify them can save a lot of upset feelings between individuals, departments, and even campuses. Specific details to facilitate your copyright request: Educational Technologies at Missouri 17Legal Issues: Copyright, Accessibility, and FERPA • When asking others for use of their intellectual property in Blackboard or other systems such as E-Res, stress that you will credit them in a copyright notice. • Make it clear that you will display their property in a password-protected environment. This can sometimes tip the scales in your favor, particularly with publishers. Campus Copyright Resources The University Bookstore provides a service for faculty needing permissions for copyrighted materials to be included as readings within a course packet (this service is called Mizzou Media and details are online at http://www.mubookstore.com). MU Libraries provides a service for faculty needing permission to display copyrighted materials on their Web sites or courses. Each of these resources utilizes a national Copyright Clearance Center that charges a fee. Faculty also may request permission directly from copyright owners. Electronic Reserves (E-Res) allows individual documents to be password protected so a professor can have students outside the class view one resource but not have access to other materials. More information about electronic reserves, a listing of liaison librarians, and information about a new copyright clearance service for MU faculty can be found at: Library Services for Faculty- http://eres.missouri.edu. Information Security & Account Management, University of Missouri Division of Information Technology: https://doit.missouri.edu/security. Accessibility Federal legislation, like the American Disabilities Act, Section 504 and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, outlines the requirements for federal agencies to accommodate people of all abilities. For faculty, it is important to understand how these civil rights laws affect higher education and impact university services. At the course level, these laws can affect how content is delivered in the traditional or online class. Section 504 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination of people with disabilities when attending any organization or institution that receives federal funding. This means that students of all abilities have an equal right to attend classes or programs that are physically or electronically offered on campus. Section 508 Section 508 is the portion of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that addresses the need for Federal Agencies, like the University of Missouri, to make electronic information accessible to people with disabilities. Section 508 most often applies to web accessibility, but also includes web services offered by the university such as course management systems or electronic library resources. American Disabilities Act (ADA) The 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that U.S. programs and services be accessible to individuals with disabilities. There are a total of 11 laws that protect persons with disabilities. A 1996 Department of Justice ruling makes it clear that ADA accessibility requirements apply to Internet resources. An individual with a disability is defined by the ADA as a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a person who has a history or record of such an impairment, or a person who is perceived by others as having such an impairment. The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered. http://etatmo.missouri.edu 18Legal Issues: Copyright, Accessibility, and FERPA Missouri Information Technology Accessibility Standards (MITAS) The Missouri HB 201 bill requires the Missouri Technology Council and the Office of Information Technology ensure the accessibility of information technology for individuals with disabilities. The Missouri Information Technology Accessibility Standards (MITAS), http://oa.mo.gov/itsd/ cio/standards/ittechnology.htm, are based on the same standards used to implement Section 508 and identify criteria specific to the accessibility of software, hardware, multimedia and documentation. Sample Syllabus ADA Statement If you need accommodations because of a disability, if you have emergency medical information to share with me, or if you need special arrangements in case the building must be evacuated, please inform me immediately. Please see me privately after class, or at my office. Office location: _______________ Office hours: ______________ To request academic accommodations (for example, a notetaker or extended time on exams), students must also register with the Office of Disability Services, (http://disabilityservices. missouri.edu), S5 Memorial Union, 882-4696. It is the campus office responsible for reviewing documentation provided by students requesting academic accommodations, and for accommodations planning in cooperation with students and instructors, as needed and consistent with course requirements. For other MU resources for students with disabilities, click on “Disability Resources” on the MU homepage. Tips and Best Practice • When choosing electronic resources for your class, such as ebooks or courseware, ask how their product complies with accessibility legislation. • Become familiar with the faculty page at MU’s Disability Services website, http:// disabilityservices.missouri.edu/faculty/index.php. • Visit the Adaptive Technology Center, http://actcenter.missouri.edu, to learn how adaptive technologies might be used to access your course materials. • Include information about students’ rights and responsibilities in your syllabus and be aware of the rights and responsibilities of students with accommodation requests. New students may not be aware of these requirements and will need to register with Disability Services, http://disabilityservices.missouri.edu/, to receive academic accommodations facilitated by the Office of Disability Services. Resources for More Information • MU’s Adaptive Computing Technology Center - http://actcenter.missouri.edu • MU Office of Disability Services - http://disabilityservices.missouri.edu • ETMO (syllabus statements, tools, tips) - http://etatmo.missouri.edu/toolbox/index.php • For more information about the ADA, visit the Office of the ADA Coordinator, http://ada. missouri.edu/ or the U.S. Department of Justice Americans with Disabilities Act, ADA home page - http://www.ada.gov • For more information about 504, see http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/transition.html Educational Technologies at Missouri 19Legal Issues: Copyright, Accessibility, and FERPA Family Educational Rights & Privacy Issues “The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) is a Federal law designed to protect the privacy of a student’s education records. The law applies to all schools which receive funds under an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education.” (Family Compliance Office Homepage, 11/29/2001.) How does FERPA apply to MU students? “Once a student reaches 18 years of age or attends a postsecondary institution, he or she becomes an “eligible student,” and all rights formerly given to parents under FERPA transfer to the student. The eligible student has the right to have access to his or her education records, the right to seek to have the records amended, the right to have control over the disclosure of personally identifiable information from the records (except in certain circumstances specified in the FERPA regulations, some of which are discussed below), and the right to file a complaint with the Department. The term “education records” is defined as those records that contain information directly related to a student and which are maintained by an educational agency or institution or by a party acting for the agency or institution.” (Family Compliance Office, FERPA General Guidance for Students, http://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpa/students.html, 6/30/2011) What Educators Should Know About FERPA Due to the wording of this act (which originated in 1974, prior to the Internet) all computer files and records in courses using Blackboard or other online components are considered educational records protected by the act. Simply disclosing the fact that a particular student is enrolled in a course could violate students’ legal rights and put the faculty member – and the university – at risk of legal action. What this means in practice is that students have the right to expect that any material they submit in a course with an e-learning component—as well as their names and other identifying information—will not be viewable by guests or other individuals permitted access to the course. The exception to this is cases in which students have given explicit, written, signed consent. Verbal consent or e-mail is insufficient. Additionally, students who have elected to have their directory information restricted may ask to have their name withheld from other members of the course. Legally and ethically, such requests must be taken seriously. This information could compromise the safety of the student; there are cases where stalkers have creatively used enrollment information to terrorize their victims. Discuss concerns with students. Find out which portions of your course are causing concerns and why. If you cannot readily fulfill the student’s expectations, look for a compromise solution. How does it apply at Mizzou? 1. Under FERPA, it is not permissible to reveal the course or courses in which a student is enrolled (without prior written consent) to anyone except as defined in the University of Missouri’s “Collected Rules and Regulations,” 180.020 STUDENT RECORDS, section M. (http://www.umsystem.edu/ums/departments/gc/rules/information/180/020.shtml). 2. Only “Directory Information” as defined by the University may be released regarding a student. Students may elect to have their directory information withheld. 3. Since all computer files and computer generated information on a student maintained by the institution are considered educational records under the law, all data posted by or about a student in Blackboard is, at this time, considered an educational record covered by the act. (Also note that students retain copyright over materials that they post.) Conditional Release of Materials Instructors need to familiarize themselves with those features that allow conditional release of materials within a course. From a technical viewpoint, the main problem in relation to both copyright and FERPA is controlling access to materials. While Blackboard requires users to authenticate to the system using a valid pawprint, some instructors allow some form of guest access to their courses (e.g., guest lecturers, observers). However, these guests should not be http://etatmo.missouri.edu 20

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