Electroplating industry ppt

definition of electroplating in chemistry and describe the process of electroplating and electrolysis chemistry ppt
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Published Date:13-07-2017
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Advanced Technologies in Electroplating and Effluent Treatment Plant B Ramesh Babu Pollution Control Division CSIR- Central Electrochemical Research Institute Karaikudi-630003.What is Electroplating?  An electrochemical process where metal ions are transferred from a solution and are deposited as a thin layer onto surface of a cathode.  The setup is composed DC circuit with an anode and a cathode sitting in a bath of solution that has the metal ions necessary for coating or plating  Electroplating can enhance;  Chemical properties-increase corrosion resistance  Physical properties-increase thickness of part  Mechanical properties-increase tensile strength & hardness How it works Copper Cathode is reduced Nickel Anode is oxidized (accepts electrons) (gives us electrons) 2+ Ni ions within solution become attracted to Copper cathodeMetal Finishing “Process Unit” Evaporation Evaporation Loss Loss Parts to Additional Production Steps Parts Parts and Dragout Process Chemicals PROCESS BATH RINSE TANK Dragout Wastewater Fresh Water Spent Baths Fresh WaterMetal Finishing Processes 1. Surface Preparation and Cleaning:  alkaline cleaning  electropolishing  oxide removal 2. Metal Plating:  electroplating  electroless plating 3. Protection and Finishing Treatments:  anodizing  chromate conversion  phosphatingTypical Plating Line Soak Electro- Plate Acid Rinse Rinse Clean Clean Rinse Work Flow Hot Bright Dry Chromate Rinse Rinse Rinse DipBarrel Plating, Vibratory Plating, Rack Plating, Heavy Build Plating, Selective Plating, Powder Coating, Selective Powder Coating, Passivation, Vapor Degreasing, Ultrasonic Cleaning, Hard Gold, Soft Gold, Matte Silver, Semibright Silver, Techni-crom, Bright Nickel, Ducta-bright Nickel, Watts Nickel, Sulfamate Nickel, Black Nickel, Electroless Nickel, Black Electroless Nickel (Tacti-black), Copper, Bright Tin, Matte Tin, Tin- cobalt, Tin-lead and LeadRack Plating • Workpieces hung or mounted to frames (racks) • Most common and versatile processing method • Dragout rates and rinse water use easier to controlBarrel Plating • Parts processed in containment “barrel” • Typically small parts with low level of plating or processing tolerance requirements • Dragout rates and water use relatively highManual Plating • Process steps performed by hand • Smaller size parts, lower productionAutomated Plating • Fully Automated – only requires manual racking and unracking – high production quantities and rates • Semi automated – requires manual control of hoists and rails – larger parts, lower production rates, and varied partsNanotechnology - increasing the precision - aerospace coatings to food preparation surfaces. - nano-coating has more down-to-earth applications. Plating silicon nanowires with electrodes - time-consuming process, - impractical for large-scale production of nanoelectronic materials. Other methods, such as stripping, masking and metal deposition provide mixed results and often damage delicate nanowires. In 2008, Nanotech Briefs for advances in nanotechnology. The new method allows for the parallel processing of millions of nanowires on a single wafer through selective electrodeposition. The nickel is “grown” over pre-patterned electrodes on the nanowires. The process allows for large-scale production at a much cheaper cost and with less material damage than previous methods.NANO-COATINGS AND AEROSPACE Aerospace uses chrome in many forms to coat both the outer hulls and exposed devices on airplanes, spacecraft and satellites. In the case of chromium plating, nanotechnology offers safer coating processes while increasing the efficiency of aerospace coatings. The nano-coatings offer more efficient thermal barriers, ice-repellant and protective properties while performing better under mechanical stress tests. Additionally, nanotech coatings lower friction and provide improved corrosion resistance. LOWERING FOOD CONTAMINATION WITH NANOPARTICLES A fluorinated nickel nano-coating reduces cross-food germ contamination by an astounding 97 percent. The new process uses an electroless nickel plating to deposit coatings. Previous plating required clean rooms and photolithographic techniques which greatly increased production costs.Advanced Thin Film Coating for Electroplating Metals Thin film coatings - electric and microelectronic devices Electroplating, uses toxic chemicals and generates significant process waste and water pollution. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) employs toxic gaseous organic precursors. The most common coating processes—sputtering, evaporation, CVD, and plating are not always compatible with heat sensitive substrates and semiconductor processes, and they provide only moderate output at a high cost. Jet Vapor Deposition - process vaporizes wire of appropriate composition completely into atoms, which are carried by sonic inert gas carrier jets and deposited on the substrate. The JVD capability for using various material sources, leads to layered structures or alloys of multiple metal components, including Au, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Sn, and Ag. Latest Nano Plating technology pioneered by Flexport Nano Spray Chrome Plating system -Chrome Plating Mens 18k Gold Nano Injection Plated Scorpion Pendant ChainElectroless Nickel Plating Electroless Nickel with Teflon® Plating Boron Nitride Electroless Nickel Black Electroless Nickel Plating Gold Plating Electrolytic Nickel Plating Silver Plating Tin Plating Magnesium Plating Passivation Chromate Conversion CoatingADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENTIndia population Year Population Growth Rate 1961 458 626 687 2.01 % 1971 567 805 061 2.27 % 1981 715 105 168 2.31 % 1991 886 348 712 2.01 % 2001 1 059 500 888 1.65 % 2011 1 221 156 319 1.29 % 2015 1 286 956 392 1.34 % . India's population is equivalent to 17.5% of the total world population. India ranks number 2 in the list of world population. 2 The population density in India is 386 people per Km . 32% of the population is urban (410,404,773 people in 2014).Water Requirements for Different Industries for 2010, 2025 and 2050 in India 3 Category of Water Requirement Per Water Requirement km 3 Industry Unit of Production (m ) 2010 2025 2050 (1997-2010) Integrated iron & steel 22 5.838 5.739 10.941 Smelters 82.5 0.024 0.031 0.043 Petro & Refinery 17 0.030 0.035 0.049 Chemical Caustic soda 5.5 0.010 0.010 0.012 Textile & Jute 200 19.018 36.518 35.192 Cement 5.5 1.204 1.382 1.872 Fertilizer 16.7 0.630 1.026 1.192 Leather Products 40 0.087 0.089 0.143 Rubber 6.6 0.004 0.005 0.006 Food Processing 11 5.567 8.043 8.319 Inorganic chemicals 200 1.6 3.346 3.007 Sugar 2.2 0.071 0.334 0.318 Pharmaceuticals 22 0.184 0.243 0.343 Distillery 22 0.067 0.098 0.117 Pesticides 6.5 0.002 0.004 0.006 Paper & Pulp 280 2.898 10.189 18.905 General Engineering 2.2 0.024 0.028 0.055 Total 37.263 61.124 80.525Estimated water pollution load per year (in tons) by industry in India. Industry Estimates using Output Intensities Ranking Iron and Steel 1639368 1 Pulp and Paper 86245 2 Aluminium 47469 3 Fertilisers 31480 4 Sugar 16747 5 Copper 16035 6 Distillery 7740 7 Zinc 7737 8 Pesticides 7366 9 Drugs 5889 10 Cement 5168 11 Oil Refinery 4340 12 Petrochemicals 1818 13 Leather 894 14 Caustic Soda 836 15 Dyes 521 16