Lecture notes for Human Resource Management pdf

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? Human Resource ManagementHUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UNIT I PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND THE NEW LESSON 1: APPROACH OF HUMAN RESOURCE MGMT THE NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Introduction With this concept or idea personnel management was born. This chapter focuses its main objective on evolution of Here we believe that men when they come to work come first as personnel management and its importance. Today in very human beings then they come with their respective designa- organisation HUMAN CAPITAL is the main factor based on tions. We are first humans i.e., we have our own emotions, which the organisation functions. Since no individual can work feelings, perceptions, attitudes, values, judgements, back- isolate and has to work with team, the need for personnel grounds, educations etc., management becomes all the more pivotal. Therefore to cater to all these attributes and motivate employees to work in a proper channel personnel mgmt was evolved. Objectives After reading this chapter, you should know: We all know an organization is a place where two or more persons come together and work to achieve a common goal. • How did the Personnel Management evolve. There can be any sort of organizations like manufacturing units, • What do you understand by Personnel Management. service sectors, government organizations, public limited • How did various traditions lead to the development of companies etc. Personnel Management. Whatever may be the organization primarily it is the human The Nature and Development of Personnel beings who are working there. So in short organizations are Management made of human beings. And taking care of these human wealth is utmost important to the company/organization. Introduction to Personnel Management. All these organizations which exist today, exist for some reason Nature and the Development of Personnel Management. i.e., they try to serve some purpose in the society e.g. if hospital Growth of Personnel Management: exist it tries to provide health services to the people. If a police Although the field of personnel management as a discipline of station exist it tries to provide security services to the people study is relatively new, the ideas upon which its current concepts thereon we have many institutions like this. But the basic are based had their origins deep in history. For example, the purpose is they have an objective /goal for there existence. minimum wages rate and Babylonian code of Hammurabi Therefore any organizations will have objective or multiple around 1800 BC. objectives to serve members of different category of people. In order to achieve the goals a well-run organization works out a The ancients, with their Stone axes, adages and other flint tools, set of rules sometimes called policies, programmes, rules, may not have appreciated the principle of “transfer of skill from regulations, procedures or guidelines and sanctions. These are the humans to the machine”, but they were applying the designed not to restrict creativity but to assist its members in principle of “transfer of skill from the humans to the ma- accomplishment of the organizational goals. Therefore now we chine”, and this separated them from large no of other human understood human resources are most important part of any beings. Unknowingly they were doing it. organization. In India, Kautilya has observed that there existed a sound base There are other things, which are also important in any organi- for systematic management of human resources as early as the zation to achieve its objectives they are material, money, fourth century BC. The government then took active interest in machinery.in short there are 4M’S i.e., including the MEN. But the operation of public and private sector for regulating human beings are the only living resources available to the employer-employee relationship. management in an organization, so these resources have to be Evolution of Personnel Management. coordinated with other resources like money, machinery and After the 2 world war when industrialization came into material so as to achieve organizational objectives. existence, there was a rapid growth of industries and basically In brief we can say human beings efficiency, effectiveness and then came into being of two divisions labour and manage- productivity will determine to what degree we can achieve ment. People at those times understood only two terms organizations goal. 1.labour 2. Management. People at Work But slowly this concept changed. People started realizing that Now that we know the most important factor of any organiza- organizations in which they work are not just offices but their tion is human resource so, this factor has to be taken care of. We second homes. Because most of there time or rather majority can say human resource is nothing but people at work. There- of their time they spend at the workplace. So if this workplace fore we can define human resource as nothing but pool of is turned into happy place where people enjoy their work, enjoy knowledge, skills, creative, abilities, talents, and aptitudes. It is working with their superiors and subordinates then there this human resource, which is of paramount importance in the would be no problems and no hassles at all. success of any organization, because most of the problems in 1HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT organizational settings are human and social rather than undertaking to make their maximum personal contribution to physical, technical or rather economical. the effective working of that undertaking.” Therefore ultimately what we understand about personnel “PEOPLE AT WORK” comprises a large number of individu- management. als of different sex, age, socio-religious group and different educational backgrounds. Now this is where the problem arises. Personnel management is concerned with managing people at Since we know, no two individuals are same. There behaviour is work It is concerned with employees, both as individuals as well also not same. Thus we can say that these individuals in the as a group. work place exhibit not only similar behaviour patterns but they Personnel management concerned with helping the employees exhibit dissimilarities also. to develop their potentialities and capacities to the maximum Now as we get on to the topic we will move a little deeper. So possible extent. far we were talking at a macro level “human resources” or Now, since we know what personnel management means we “people at work” etc., but when we break up into smaller should know what is a personnel manager’s role and what are portions or segments we call them individuals. Or rather at his tasks Growth of personnel management in India. micro level we call them employees of the organization. In India there were various reasons why personnel management Therefore management must, be aware not only of the evolved the main important reason being labour officers in organizational goals but also employee and if needs have to be Indian industry which was realized as early as 1929.when royal taken care of. None of them can be ignored. commission on labour was set up in 1931 the commission In today’s world every organization has an internal management recommended the appointment of labour officer in order to system and external system to which it encounters everyday. In protect the workers from evils of robbery and indebtedness. brief internals are “ people at work” or “people who manage And to safe guard their interests. them” these are called managers. The external environment, During the Second World War, these labour officers or relations which these managers face day in and day out, are “ customers, officers were entrusted to handle grievances. Their functions shareholders, the entrepreneurs, government, suppliers etc., were subsequently enlarged and were influenced by social reform Therefore to coordinate internally and externally a manager movement in the country, public concern for improving labour develops 4 dimensional relationships, they are administration and the growth of the modern management 1. Those between management and workers movement. Their core functions included activities relating to 2. Those among the workers themselves welfare, personnel and industrial relations. 3. Those among the managerial personnel Although we know this field is recent origin lets us see in detail its chronological growth Era of industrial revolution: 4. Those among different members of the organizations In industrial revolution or we can call it evolution there were Therefore now we are in a position to understand that manage- several phases. ment of men is a challenging job. Reason as we all know men are dynamic in nature. Hence we can say manpower manage- We can now understand human resource management term ment is a most crucial job because managing people is the heart came into being .HRM of an organization consist of all people and essence of being a manager. Since now we are clear about who perform its activities. In other words all the decisions that personnel and there management we can now define it These effect workforce is HRM function. Regardless of the size or are some of the standard definitions. existence of a formal function. “ The Management Of Human Resources Is Viewed As A HRM activities are divided into 5 major domains System In Which Participants Seeks To Attain Both Individual 1. Organizational Design And Group Goals.” Human resource planning “ It is that phase of management which deals with the effective Job analysis/work analysis control and use of manpower as distinguished from other Job design resources of power” Information systems Edward FLIPPO states “personnel management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procure- 2. Staffing ment, development, compensation, integration, maintenance Recruiting/interviewing/hiring and separation of human resources to the end that individual, Affirmative action organizational and societal objectives are accomplished.” Promotion /transfer/separation The Indian institute of personnel management, London, Outplacement services formulated an official definition of personnel management Employee selection methods after the Second World War. Induction/orientation “Personnel management is that part of the management function which is primarily concerned with the human relation- 3. Performance management and appraisal ships within an organization. Its objective is the maintenance Management appraisal/management by objectives of those relationships on a basis which, by consideration of the Productivity/enhancement programs well-being of the individual, enables all those engaged in the 2HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Customer-focused performance appraisal Multilateral systems 4. Employee training and organizational developments Management/supervisory development Career planning Employee assistance/counselling Attitude surveys Training delivery options Diversity programs 5. Reward systems, benefits and compliance Safety programs Health/medical services Complaint/ disciplinary procedures Compensation administration Wage/salary administration Insurance benefits administration Unemployment compensation Pension/profit sharing plans Labour relations/collective bargaining Note - 3HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LESSON 2: STAGES OF THE EVOLUTION OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Industrial Revolution Era In 1911,F.W.Taylor published the book “Principles of Scientific management”. Paternalisation era Scientific management EraIndustrial psychological era Behavioural EraHuman Relations Era F.W.Taylor is known as father of scientific management- Personnel specialistsWelfare Era. developed four principles Scientific method of job design (job description) Scientific method of selecting persons (job Industrial Revolution Tradition / Era: Early 1900 i.e. 1870. specifications) Scientific training of workers (Training and Modern Personnel Management has evolved from a no of Development) Friendly relationships between manager and significant interrelated developments which date back to the workers (Industrial and Labour relations). beginnings of what is popularly known as Industrial Revolu- Industrial Psychological Era/Industrial Relations tradition; tion or as some prefer to call it, Evolution. Prior to it, there 1913. were several distinct types of relationships involving employers and employees. Which were variously termed as “slaver”, During this period, psychologists were introduced to the field “serfdom” and the guild system. of industrial mgmt to study systematically many personal problems. The development of industrial psychology owes a The Industrial Revolution consisted essentially in the develop- great deal to Hugo Munsterberg’s book, psychology and ment of machinery, the use of mechanical energy and the industrial efficiency, which was published in 1913.He, is consequent establishment of factories employing large no of regarded as Father of Industrial Psychology. people- all resulting in tremendous increase in the productive power of mass. His psychological Tests were applied for employment section, training and performance evaluation. US Army extensively used Industrial Revolution has brought out the following. these methods. Other business firms also started using these Introduction of modern factory system of working. techniques by forming department. Introduction of mass manufacturing techniques. Industrial psychology introduced the “matching of employees This has resulted in the following: to jobs. For different required and abilities.”It emphasized the Application of science and technology in production use of psychology in the field of personnel testing, interview- ing, attitude measurement, learning theory, training, failure and Migration of rural persons to the urban areas to seek employ- monotony study, safety, job analysis and human engineering. ment. Top management personnel began to realize that “human Large scale employment cadre. resources are the most valuable assets that any organization Owners lost direct contact with employees. possesses and that, without these, other resources are just Managers established direct contact with employees. useless. Experiments Conducted at the Hawthorne works of Production control is taken over by white-collar workers like the western Electric company in Chicago during the late 1920’s managers from those of blue-collar workers like artisans in the and early 1930’s by Elton Mayo (1818-1949), F.Roethlisberger past. and W. J.Pickson of the Hardvard graduate school of Business Admin. They concluded that “human and social factors, not Importance of labour got reduced whereas role of machine physical variables, accounted for that productivity began to be increased. analysed in such behaviour terms as ‘ Team-Work’, ‘Participa- Concentration of “large mass” of labour created poor working tion’ ‘Cohesiveness’, Loyalty and Espirit De Corps, instead of and living conditions. in terms of engineering alternative. Exploitation of workers increased. Adults were made to work Findings: 1.Emphasis on feeling, atitude and sentiments of from 14 to 15 hrs. workers. Stress on emotions rather than logic. Approach shifted Work became bore some because of monotony and repetition. from scientific to human relations. Mass production brought about great profit and lots of The Behavioural ERA: 1955 prosperity to the owners. The behavioural sciences include Anthropology, Economics, Workers were not paid adequately and their life became miser- History, Physiology, Mathematical Biology, Medicine and able. psychiatry, Socialogy, Socialpsychology and psychology. Scientific Management concepts: 1911. Abraham Maslow (1954): Theory of hierarchy of needs: he stated that “there is a series of needs some of which are lower Factory system of working has increased the need and necessity in the scale or system of values, in individual or social and some for planning, recruitment, selection and placement .The first are higher. Higher needs cannot be satisfied or even felt while “Employment Department” which is the of present HRD the lower needs remain unsatisfied. department was formed in 1900 by B.F.Goodrich of U.S.A. 4HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Herzberg Theory: A Two Factor Theory of motivation: Note - Some organizations used hygiene considerations: money, supervision, job, frills and the physical aspects of work to motivate people: but theses factors served only human ‘maintenance needs’ rather than the ‘job itself’. Another consideration, motivators provided opportunities for personal realization (achievement, responsibility, advancement, interest- ing work, recognision and sense of controlling one’s destiny. Mc.Douglas Theory X and Theory Y: Theory X stands for the set of traditional beliefs generally held, while Theory Y is concerned with a diff philosophy or under- standing of man at work. The theory X involves strict supervision, coercion and the threat, which might breed organized worker-protest, restriction of output. The subordinates may exploit theory and therefore he suggests the carrot and stick approach to motivate work people. Personnel Specialists and Welfare Era: With the Introduction of factory system, thousands of persons began to be employed under one roof and had to be controlled if the goals of an organisation were to be achieved. For Admin work, clerks or manual employees had to be recruited. These were entrusted with the responsibility of hiring men to work of an organisation. Later, they were covered with the recruitment, placement and selection of personnel. With the increase of the size of an organisation, there functions had to be allotted to a full time ‘manager’. With further increase in the no of employees a separate personnel executive had to be appointed to develop systematic methods, determine wage rates; develop job descipline and descriptions and job specifica- tion. Later his duties were enlarged to cover additional responsibilities of looking after the benefits and services provided for the employees. In the course of time, arrange- ments had to be made to train n the existing personnel; and hence a manager for training was also appointed. Ultimately safety experts, physicaians, behavioural researchers labour relations, specialists and others were appointed. Therefore now we can understand that for administrative and organisational effectiveness, it was then found feasible to merge these diff functions into a single position, i.e. the personnel manager and welfare officer. We can know observe that, Organisational planning, manpower planning, manpower selection and other allied problems regarding the management of managers and high talent manpower assumed significance in the organisation. High talent personnel emerged as the key human resources, and personnel management was turned to the existing economic structure. The emphasis is now on “Management Of Human Resources” so now we can see that personnel mgmt has gone through vast changes. Beginning with ‘welfare work’ its now developed technical competence in manpower planning and other related jobs, besides acquiring expertise in such matter as wage & salary administration, Employee benefit schemes and services, training and development and other specialised activities.” 5HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LESSON 3: PROFESSIONALISM IN PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT With the passage o f time, personnel management has become Economic Depression (1893): Great Depression of 1893 mature and professional. prevented further welfare movements alleviating the sufferings of workers. Professional mgmt is that form of mgmt where the decision Indian Industrial scene: Even though modern industry began making process rests worth the professional managers, where to grow in Indian from 1850’s, till the end of first world war, there has been a divorce between capital and control, Brandeis there was no industrial dispute. By end of war, on account of says: “ The attributes of a profession are that part of the high price rise and economic depression industrial unrest took training for its practice be intellectual in character.that it should place. be pursued not for one’s owns sake but for others, and that the amount of financial reward should not be considered a measure Period 1900 to 1940: Important events occurred during this of success”. period are given below: In other words what we understand is Its theory and practice Workers welfare league of India are formed in UK in 1911 to have to be systematised and are passed on through written protect labour interest and unity between British and Indian documents, textbooks, seminar papers, research experiments workers. and formal and methodical training, recognized by society. Russian Revolution of 1917 and emergence of communist A profession is usually directed towards meeting wider social socialistic movement and unionism. needs. It is not primarily directed towards the fulfilment of Growth of Indian national movement and participation of individual needs profession claims to be a social service and industrial workers in this movement. hence, demands a higher status and recognition from society. Formation of ILO in 1919. The influence of Labour movement in Personnel management: First World War and favourable condition it created to unions. We have seen in the earlier classes i.e. good and bad effects of Period 1940-1970: Industrial Revolution. One of the major ill effects was the 1. World war period: exploitation of labour. This led to unionisation of labour movements. Some of the developments are listed below. Lets Outbreak of Second World War and resignation of congress us now look at the history how trade unions came into Ministry in India (1940). existence. Strikes and lockout and reign of terror unleashed by British 1. The period up to 1900: The first trade union was formed in Government on Workers and unions opposing to British war 1780 in USA. efforts. During latter half of nineteenth century, rapid industrialisation 1942, for the first time, tripartite labour conference was covered. has taken place, all over the world. The first attempt to organise This resulted in setting up a permanent. TLC consists of Indian labour was made by N.M.Lokhande in 1890 when he Plenary conference Standing labour committee. formed Bombay Mill Association. However later on, till 2. Post-war period: This was the period, which saw favourable 1918,no serious attempts were made to consolidate labour disposal towards labour. movement. Although some more unions were found in India, Following events took place 1947- India became independent most of these remained as “ welfare Association” and not as socialistic democratic government was set-up which favours union as we understand by that term these days. labour. Benevolent Paternalisation: White workers remained 1947- India National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) was unorganised, some philanthropist organisation and individuals formed owning allegiance to congress party. took on themselves the responsibility of protecting the interest of labour. All types of workers, professionals, technicians, journalists and even got officers and teachers have organized unions. No. Of For example, Robert Owen in (1913) – a British businessman, registered TU increased to 22,484 by 1971 with a total member- took paternalistic attitude. He said, “ The principal social and ship of 5.5 million. economic environments influence the physical, mental and psychological development of workers.” He had providing In 1970,Communist party in Indian split into two CPI & CPM. housing facilities, sanitation, and schools for children and CPM formed another TU called centre of Indian Trade Union adults. He also reduced the working hours from 11 to 10 hours. (CITU). Above all he even abolished child labour. He called workers “ Modern Period after 1970: vital machines”. He advocated better treatment would fetch Trade Unionism and collective bargaining is an accepted better profits. phenomenon in India and world over. The problems and 6HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT prospects of TU and labour force vary, between developed nations and developing nations. Some of these issues are: Developing Nations like India: Problem of unemployment and under employment. Semi-skilled and manual labour in private and unorganised industries is enormously exploited. Poor training leading to very low productivity Multiple unionism, union rivalries and lack of union Leadership against frequent strikes and labour unrest, political interference and outside leadership are being resented by workers. Alienation between leaders and members often frustrate unionism. Lesson Summary Here we understand the entire concept of why, how and when the personnel management is important in today’s organisation. Supplementary Material / Statistics: Reference can be taken from mamoria, aswathappa, and latha nair Sample Questions: Describe the nature and development of personnel manage- ment. How did the personnel management evolve? Explain the traditions and their effect on personnel manage- ment Suggested Reading: Name of Author: C.B. Mamaoria Title of the Book: Personnel management Publisher: Himalaya Year of last Printing: 2003 Chapter No. & Title: 1 Personnel management, 2 Functions of Personnel management, 3 Personnel policies, procedures and programs, 5 Personnel management in India l Page Nos.: 3-107 References / Sources: Personnel Management, C.B.Mamoria, www2.mwc.edu/lpenwell/Lectures/index.htm, List of Enclosures / Attachments: HRM.ppt Initiative and decision- making ability. He should possess quality to give feedback. Note - 7HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LESSON 4: PERSONNEL FUNCTION Nature and scope of Personnel plished. In the personnel in an ever-changing business environ- Management ment. Definition is very dynamic. Definition of personnel Management: We produce below a few Planning: Is a pre-determined course of action. According to standard definitions given by experts of personnel manage- Allen, “it is a trap laid to capture the future.” Terry is of the ment, which will give an idea of what it means. view the “ planning is the foundation of most successful “ It Is That Phase Of Management Which Deals With The actions of an enterprise.” Planning is the determination of the Effective Control And Use Of Manpower As Distinguished plus, strategies, programs, policies, procedures, and standard From Other Sources Of Power.” needs to accomplish the desired organization objectives. In fact “ planning today avoids crisis tomorrow.’ They bridge a gap “ The Management Of Human Resources Is A Viewed As A between where they are and where they want to go. System In Which Participants Seek To Attain Both Individual And Group Goals”. Organizing: After a course of action has been determined an organization should be established to carry it out. An organiza- “ Its Objectives Is To Understand What Has Happened And Is tion is a structure, a framework and a process by which a Happening And To Be Prepared For What Will Happen In The cooperative group of human beings allocate its tasks among its Area Of Working Relationships Between The Managers And members, identifies relationships and integrates its activities The Managed.” towards common objectives. If an analysis is made of these definitions it will be seen that Directing (Motivating, Actuating or commanding): Directing personnel (or manpower) management involves procedures and the subordinates at any level is a basic function of the manage- practices through which human resources are managed (i.e. rial personnel. Directing is involved with getting persons organized and directed) towards the attainment of the indi- together and asking them (either through command or vidual, social and organizational goals. By controlling and motivation) to work willingly and effectively for the achieve- effectively using manpower resources, management tries to ment of designated goals. Directing deals not only with the produce goods and services for the society. dissemination of orders within an organization units and Prof.Jucius has defined personnel administration as “ The field departments, but also with the acceptance and execution of of management which has to do with planning, organising, these orders by the employees. directing and controlling various operative functions of Co-ordinating and controlling: Coordinating refers to balancing procuring, developing, maintaining and utilising a labour force, timing and integrating activities in an organisation. So that a such that the: a) Objectives, for which the company is estab- unity of action in pursuit of a common purpose in achieved. lished are attained economically and effectively; b) objectives of Coordination in the management of personnel takes place at all all levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree; levels, from the top management through to the supervisor and c) objectives of the community are duly considered and and those for whom he is responsible. served. The personnel dept has to coordinate the tasks of developing, Functions Of Personnel Management interpreting, and reviewing personnel policies, practices and Broadly speaking, experts have generally classified the functions programs, such as safety programs, employee benefits, job into two major categories, i.e. managerial and operative evaluation, training or development, and communication. functions. Others has classified functions as general and specific Controlling is the art of checking regulating and verifying functions, and yet others as ‘personnel Administration whether everything occurs in conformity with the plan that has functions and Industrial Relations Functions’. Functions have been adopted, the instructions issued and the principles also been classified on the basis of the capacities; or on the basis established. It is greatly concerned with actions and remedial of authority. actions. By check, analysis, and review, the personnel dept assists Managerial Functions in realizing the personnel objectives. “ Management is a multi-purpose organ which has these jobs, Operative Functions two of which are directly related to personnel managing a The operating functions of personnel management are business. ‘ managing managers’ and managing workers and the concerned with the activities specifically dealing with procuring, work. developing, compensating and maintaining an efficient In our view management may be thought of as the process of workforce. allocating an organizations inputs (human and economic 1. The procurement function is concerned with the obtaining resources) by planning, organizing, directing and controlling for of a proper kind and number of personnel necessary to the purpose of producing outputs (goods and services) desired accomplish an organization’s goals. It deals with specifically by its customers so that organisation objectives are accom- 8HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT with such subjects as the determination of manpower requirements their recruitment, selection and place (comprising activities to screen and hire personnel, including application forms, psychological test, interviews, medical check-up reference calling), induction followup, transfers, layoffs, discharge and separation etc. 2. The development function is concerned with the personnel development of employees by increasing their skill through training so that job performance is properly achieved. Drafting and directing training programmes for all levels of employees, arranging for their on-the-job, office and vestibule training, holding seminar and conferences providing for educational and vocational counselling and appraising employee potential and performance are undertaken under this function. 3. The compensating function is concerned with securing adequate and equitable remuneration to personnel for their contribution to the attainment of original objectives. Functions related to wage surveys, establishment of Job classifications, job descriptions and job analyses, merit ratings, the establishment of wage rates and wage structure, wage plans and policies, wagesystem, incentives and profit sharing plans etc. full under this category. 4. The integration function: after the employee has been procured, his skill and ability developed and monetary compensation determined, the most important, Yet difficult of the personal management is to bring about an “integration” of human resources with organisation, and to cope with inevitable reconciliation of individual, societal, and organisation interests. It rests upon the premise that significant overlapping of interests do exist in the organisation in such programmes as job enlargement, jobevaluation, variable compensation plans. The greater they overlap, the more productivity would coincide with employees that they would prefer to avoided assignment to narrow and respective tasks, meeting high output standards, acceptance of managerial decisions. For this reason, the organisation has disciplinary action programmes as well as some freedom to do away with the services of particular employees. On the other hand, there are certain things that employees desire which the organisation is reluctant to provide, e.g. increased wages, totally, safe working conditions time off with pay, shorter hours of work, premium pay for overtime work etc. 5. The maintenance function deals with sustaining and improving the conditions that have become established. Specific problems of maintaining the physical conditions of employees (health and safety measures) and employee service programmes are the responsibility of the personnel department. Note - 9HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LESSON 5: PERSONNEL POLICIES Personnel Policies To provide an effective, adequate, competent and trained Now we are going to depth and understanding the personnel personnel for all levels and types of management and motivate policies and procedures. them. The dictionary meaning of “policy” is a “plan of action” and To protect the common interests of all the parties and recognize that “plan” is a policy. the role of trade unions in the organizations. Yoder observes, “ A policy is a predetermined, selected course To provide for a consultative participation by employees in the established as a guide towards accepted goals and objectives. management of an organization and the training of conditions The policies establish the framework of guiding principles that for this participation, which, however shall not take place in facilitate delegation to lower levels and permit individual technical, financial or trading policy; To provide an efficient managers to select appropriate tactics or programs. In contrast consultative service which aims at creating mutual faith among to these, personnel policies are those that individuals have those who work in the enterprise. developed to keep them on the track towards their personnel To establish the conditions for mutual confidence and avoid objectives. confusion and misunderstanding between the management and The personnel policies refer to principles and rules of conduct, the workers, by developing suggestion plans, joint manage- which “ formulate, redefine, break into details and decide which ment councils, work committees etc and by performance employees can attain organisation objectives. appraisal discussions. To provide security of employment to workers so that they may Personnel Policies not be distracted by the uncertainties of their future. The keystone in the arch of management and the life-blood for the successful functioning of the personnel management To provide an opportunity for growth within the organization because, without these policies, there cannot be any lasting to persons who are willing to learn an undergo training to improvement in labour management relations. improve their future prospects. To provide for the payment of fair and adequate wages and Aims and Objectives of Personnel Policies salary to workers so that they’re healthy co-operation may be Objectives of personnel policy should have two types of ensured for an efficient working of the understanding. objectives, general and specific. The statement of general objective should express the top management’s basic philoso- To recognize the work and accomplishments of the employees, phy of human resources and reflect its deep underlying by offering non-monetary incentive rewards. convictions as to the importance of people in an organisation In brief personnel policies should respect human dignity and and of the management activity, which deals with people, i.e. personal integrity, ensure fair treatment for all, irrespective of Personal administration. caste, creed, or colour and offer reasonable social and economic The statement of specific objectives should refer to the various security to employees. activities of personnel administration. The management must Principles of Personnel policies: formulate and develop a basic creed, which should contain a Put the right man in the right place. clear-cut statement of the possibility. The statement of specific Train everyone for the job to be done. objectives should refer to the various activities of personnel wage and salary administration, motivation, employee services Make the organisation a coordinated team. and benefits, employee records, labour relations and personal Supply the right tools and the right conditions of work. research. Give security with opportunity, incentive, recognition. The aims of personnel polices should be/are: Look ahead, plan ahead for more and better things. To enable an organisation to fulfil or carry out the main Lesson Summary objectives which have been laid down as the desirable mini- Here we understand the entire concept of what is the overall mum of general employment policy. role of Personnel Manager to give a better picture about the To ensure that its employees a re informed of these items of organisation’s functions and activates. policy and to secure they’re co-operative for their attainment. Supplementary Material/Statistics To provide such conditions of employment and procedures as will enable all the employees to develop a sincere sense of unity Sample Questions: with the enterprise and to carryout their duties in the most Explain what is the role of a Personnel Manager. willing and effective manner. Write various functions and tasks a Personnel Manager has to perform. 10HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Suggested Reading Name of Author: C.B. Mamoria Title of the Book: Personnel management Publisher: Himalaya Year of last Printing: 2003 Chapter No. & Title: 2 Functions of Personnel management, 3 Personnel policies, procedures and programs, 5 Personnel management in India l Page Nos.: 28-107 References / Sources Personnel Management, C.B.Mamoria, www2.mwc.edu/lpenwell/Lectures/index.htm. Note - 11HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LESSON 6: DEVELOPMENT OF HRM Introduction authority. Hence some more groups are framed out of the In this we mainly learn how and why did HRM come into the above, broad classification and separate departments of existence. It evolved from personnel management. Human organisation, no of employees and their specialization and resources were considered most important and vital part of the nature and type business. economy this resource has to be taken care of. Types of Organisation structure: There are three types of Organisation Structures, namely, centralised, decentralized and Objectives matrix. Each has its own merits and demerits. There is nothing like the ‘best form’ of an organisation or ‘ideal structure’, what Learning Objective this Unit Learning Objective this Unit is the important is to develop an ‘effective’ organization structure which is the flexible enough to incorporate necessary modifications in the futures the situation demands. Centraliza- By the end of this Unit, you should be able to: tion is economic and ensures unity of direction control and org grow in size. Give concise definition for HRM functions. Decentralisation, on the other hand, is excellent from which 1. Clearly articulate the difference between HRM and accelerate manpower development. It promotes delegation of Personnel philosophy and functions. authority and quick decision making processes especially where 2. Describe the various instruments/functions of HRM. organization is quite big in terms of multiple units and multi- 3. Know the processes resulting from the instruments products and dispersed widely in geographic locations. In and the final outcomes. decentralized organisation, the philosophy is to push decision- making as far down as possible. This will assist the organisation in two ways: MS 22B - Eddie Corbin, Lecturer 2 Increases initiative and motivation, which in turn result empowerment. Human Resources Management (HRM): Abilities of fast response, which improve competitive advan- Definition: David. A. Decenzo & Stephen p. Robbins: A tages. process consisting four functions acquisition, development, Matrix type of organisations is an attempt to desire advantages motivation and maintenance of human resources. Institute of of the both centralisation and decentralisation and at the same personnel management, London, UK: “ Personnel Manage- time improve the team building of both line and staff ment is that part of management concerned with the people at managers. Her both line and staff managers report to the head work and with their relationship into an effective organisation; of department (HOD) administratively. the men and women who make up an enterprise and having regard for the well-being of the individual and of working Now as we all know the Human Resource Management groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its involves basically procurement function .it treats human being success.” as a resource. HRM views man not only as economic person but looks at from social and political point of view also. The Indian Edward Flippos-personnel management is the planning; economy during last 40 years had been controlled by the organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, economic policy of the government. The policy was influenced development, compensation, integration, maintenance and by political, economical reasons and also the idea of industries separation of human resources to the objectives are accom- growing to meet the market demands. There were governmen- plished. tal restrictions on licensing, foreign exchange, import, and HRD Organization and Responsibilities encouragement to public sector. These restrictions impaired the Departmentation: Responsibility can be broadly classified under growth of economy results, balance of payments. And hence it the following three categories. impaired the decline the India’s credit worthiness in the Personnel administration-Keeping records, staffing etc. international market. This resulted in liberalization of government’s economic policy. As a result MRTP and FERA Industrial relations-employee assistance, motivation, grievance, were removed and as a result liberalization of government’s redressals, T&D etc. economic policy came into existence. It had its effect on Labour Relations- Collective bargaining, Union-management, monetary, fiscal, control on inflation, controlling subsidies, wages, agreement etc., restructuring public sector and exit policy. Departments are formed by grouping major activities together Impact Of The Changed Policy: it changed the direction of so as to bring by functional specialisation and delegation of the country from socialistic pattern to market economy. 12HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Therefore we saw lots of multinationals entering our country. Objectives of Human Resource Management Ability to maintain high quality to maximize productivity has What are the objectives of the human resource management? become the need of the hour. These will directly depend on the A very good question indeed it makes us all to think and quality and commitment of the human resources. analyze. All of us have our individual goals and objectives in Impact On Human Resources: The new economic policy has the life. Similarly HRM does believes in having its goals. Now an adverse impact on employment, particularly so because of any one of you can tell me what would be the goals? recessionary conditions and import policy. The employers are We will analyze them one by one cutting down the employment of employees so as to maintain 1. The first and foremost objective of human resource competitive in the global market. Socially in the society this has management is to have a highly commited, eligible, talented, led to VRS schemes and Golden shake hands policy. and happy workers. Nature and Scope 2. Development of employees:- An employee does not come HRM is concerned with people. Every organization is made up alone into the organization. What does he bring? He brings of people and thus acquiring their services, developing skills, with himself abilities, attitude, behavior, personality etc.. motivating them to high levels of performance and ensuring Individual has the objective of enhancing his personal growth. that they continued to maintain their commitment to the He seeks the organization for realization of his personal organization for achieving organizational goals. This principle growth. Organization needs employees for fulfillment of is applicable for every organization – Whether it is a profit or organization objectives. There is an element of mutuality of non profit, private or public. The organization which are able interests here. Individual and organization need each other for to acquire develop, stimulate and retain outstanding workers fulfillment of their objectives. will be both effective and efficient. Survival of an organization There is a need for encouragement of employees in an organiza- requires competent managers and workers co-ordinating their tion to develop and grow. If sufficient is given for growth it efforts towards a common goal. will leads to the efficient working, proper maintenance, motiva- HRM consist of four functions acquisition, motivation and tion and retention of work force. maintenance of HR. These can be described as getting people, If the personal growth of employees are hindered absenteeism, preparing them activating them and retaining them. turnover will increase and performance and satisfaction will The acquisition begins with planning. Relative to the human come down. Hence HRM aims and strives for the development resource requirements, organization should know where it is of the employees. getting and how they are going to get it. This include recruit- 3. Growth and development of the organization:- ment, selection and socialization of employees. HRM objective is to bring about the overall development and The development function means, give training to employees, growth of the organization. The HRM department serves all management development (knowledge acquisition etc) and the department of the organization. Behavior analysis of career development. employee is focused at individual, group, and organizational Motivation function begins with the recognition that individu- levels. Integration of individuals and groups is done in an als are unique and should use motivational techniques satisfy organization structure is maintained. Overall the objective of human needs. With in motivation function, job satisfaction, organizational development is kept at the forefront. performance appraisal, behavioural & structural techniques for The Development of HR Function and Climate stimulating work performance etc. The objective of HRM is to develop an effective HR function The final function is maintenance it concerned with providing for development and maintenance of human functions. HRM those working conditions that employees believe are important also has the objective of maintaining an excellent HR culture. factor to maintain commitment to organization. What do you understand by culture? Culture is our philoso- Dear students, hope the first lesson gave you a fair idea of what phies, faith and beliefs. By organization culture we mean the the field of HRM holds for us. Today let us know a little bit philosophies, practices and the codes of practices which are more about the same. You all keep hearing about personnel prevalent in the organization. A culture with innovative ideas management. You must be wondering what’s the difference and opportunities for humans to develop and grow will pave between personnel management and HRM and what is HRD?? way for all round development of humans and organization. So in this lesson we are going to tackle the same question: The objective of HRM is to develop HR function is according Elements of HR functions to the organizational needs and see that good culture is Importance of HR functions estabilished in the organization. Personnel functions 1. Objectives for the welfare of the society:- Our society as you know very well consists of all our systems and their beliefs. HRM versus Personnel functions Every organization faces the societal impact. HRD instruments 2. HRM seeks to do maximum good to the society and also Processes, and finally tries to minimize the effects of the so-called social events. Outcomes 13HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Why do we need the social objectives? employees is done for manpower purposes and decisions are These social objectives are planned and needed to satisfy the made .A Variety of techniques are used.The behaviour observa- ethical and social needs of the society. HRM has the societal tion leads to assessment and identification of strengths and objective of doing good to society, complying with legal weaknesses. formalities and building good industrial relations. Apart from functions of Potential discovery , Training and Development of personnel Assessment centres also lead to Functions of HRM increase in information about organization and review of After the analysis of HRM objectives from the last lesson, it is policies. simple to state the functions of HRM. The functions are performed to realize the objectives of the HRM. Now let us 3. Relationship maintenance function: HRM functions include analyze the functions of the HRM to get an greater understand- maintenance of effective interpersonal relations.In this ing. context the functions of legal compliance,maitenance and Industrial relations are done by HRM. HRM as you know by now involves the embracing the dimen- sion of people. It involves selection, motivation, and retention 4. Empowerment: What do you understand by the term of the employees. Empowerment? It is the provision of greater freedom and discretion to employees.When employees are given freedom The functions are a mixture of behavior analysis, policy they work effectively as a team and strive for the formulations and maintenance of good interpersonal relations. development and growth of the organization.The function In this lesson, we are going to focus on all of these functions: of empowerment leads to the prosperity of the the staffing, personnel management, or (as it’s usually called organization. today) human resource (HR) manage-ment function. These include: 5. HRMs crucial function also includes Good and effective communication of policies. Communication when Conducting job analyses (determining the nature of each employee’s job) streamlined effectively leads to excellent networkbuilding and Planning labor needs and recruiting job candidates growth. Selecting job candidates 6. Equality: Employees need to be treated with fairness and Orienting and training new employees equality.HRMs function of equal policies and justice make Managing Wages and Salaries (how to compensate employees) Providing sure that the employees are protected fully.Equality leads to incentives and benefits well trained and wellmotivated employees. Appraising performance 7. Functions relating to job:What is a job? It is quite simple to Communicating (interviewing, counseling, disciplining) define.It is the duty which one is expected to do.An employee works well when the job matches with his Training and developing expectations ,abilities and talents.Job Satisfaction is vital for Building employee commitment all Equal opportunity and affirmative action Usually, by Creating Job enlargement, Job enrichment and Job Employee health and safety rotation, jobs are made interesting. Grievances and labor relations Job enlargement of HRM leads to increase in the jobs at the Thus if we view it closer we find that human resources same level. management is responsible for the following: Job rotation ,as you all know,is giving people different jobs and 1. Promotion of organisational needs: This is a very crucial training them.In this way people become multi skilled. function of HRM. The organization needs people Job enrichment leads to enriching the job with more humanassets.People appreciate day by day with experience responsibilities.Human needs are many.But the most essential and are extremely valuable assets in an organization. need is the need of self actualization.This need motivates him HRM functions in this regard refer to planning of human to work higher and achieve high goals inlife.Jobenrichment is resources, recruitment, placement, motivation, training, done to create involvement ,interest and also satisfy the self assessments, appraisals etc., so that there is an effective contri- actualization motive of the employee. bution from them to the organization. Job enrichment can be done by enriching the job in relation to 2.Development of employees: What does an employee brings variety of skills, Significance of tasks, Development of au- with himself? He does not come alone.He does bring his tonomy and access to Interpersonal relation. abilities,attitudes,personality,behaviour with himself.An With the changes in the economies and work force the func- individual aims for development and personal growth in tions of HRM are ever increasing. HRM is coping up with the work sphere. Now what does an organization must do economic reforms, diversified work culture, competition and to develop and encourage personal growth? Let us discuss in societal changes. Its role is becoming important day by day. detail. Firstly, the organization through its HR Department identifies the mechanisms for Growth.This mechanism is known as assessment centre and is very popular procedure.Evaluation of 14HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT What Are The Hrm Activities? Organizational, work, and job design Planning Recruitment and selection Training and development Performance management Compensation Occupational health and safety Employee and labour relations Note - 15HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LESSON 7: IMPORTANCE OF HRM FUNCTIONS Importance of HRM Functions practices through which human resources are managed (i.e. Why are these concepts and techniques important to all organized and directed) towards the attainment of the indi- managers? This point will very clear to you if you see this vidual, social and organizational goals. By controlling and example. As managers none of us would like to make the effectively using manpower rescues, management tries to following mistake. produce goods and services for the society. To hire the wrong person for the job. Prof.Jucius has defined personnel administration as “ The field of management which has to do with planning,organising, To experience high turnover. directing and controlling various operative functions of To find our people not doing their best. procuring, developing, maintaining and utilising a labour To waste time with countless and useless interviews. force,such that the: To have our company sued for our discriminatory actions. a. Objectives, for which the company is established are attained To be quoted under bad example of unsafe practices. economically and effectively; b. Objectives of all levels of personnel are served to the highest To have some of your employees think their salaries are unfair possible degree; and and inequitable relative to others in the organization. To allow a lack of training to undermine your department’s c. Objectives of the community are duly considered and effectiveness. served. To commit any unfair labor practices. Functions of Personnel Management Broadly speaking, experts have generally classified the functions With the help of our knowledge of HRM practices and into two major categories, i.e. managerial and operative philosophy we can avoid making these mistakes. More impor- functions. Others has classified functions as general and specific tant, it can help ensure that you get results-through others. functions, and yet others as ‘personnel Administration Re-member you could do everything else right as a manager- functions and Industrial Relations Functions’. Functions have lay brilliant plans, draw clear organization charts, set up modern also been classified on the basis of the capacities; or on the basis assembly lines, and use sophisticated accounting controls-but of authority. still fail as a manager (by hiring the wrong people or by not motivating subordinates, for instance). Personnel Functions On the other hand, many managers-whether presidents, It is necessary to identify the major personnel systems and their generals, governors, or supervisors have been successful even concepts in brief, for better understanding of the functions with inadequate plans, organization, or controls. They were required for managing men effectively. successful because they had the knack for hiring the right people The operating functions of pesonnel management are con- for the right jobs and motivating, appraising, and developing cerned with the activities specifically dealing with procuring, them. Remember managers versus leaders Thus, the functions developing, compensating and maintaining an efficient of HRM hold an importance for all members of an workforce. organisation. For example, Personnel Function The procurement function- obtaining of a proper kind and Definition of personnel Management: let me narrate below a number of personnel necessary to accomplish an organization’s few standard definitions given by experts of personnel goals. management, which will give an idea of what it means. The development function- personnel development of “ It is that phase of management which deals with the effective employees, training. control and use of manpower as distinguished from other The compensating function securing adequate and equitable sources of power”. remuneration to personnel. “ The management of human resources is a viewed as a system The integration function- an “integration” of human resources in which participants seek to attain both individual and group with organisation through job elargement, jobevaluation, goals”. variable compensation plans, disciplinary action programmes. “ Its objectives is to understand what has happened and is The maintenance function- maintaining the physical conditions happening and to be prepared for what will happen in the area of employees(health and safety measures)and employee service of working relationships between the managers and the programmes. managed”. If an analysis is made of these definitions it will be seen that personnel (or manpower) management involves procedures and 16HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT HR Functions versus Personnel Functions means better skill, better adjustment to the environment, ability You must have come across these two terms Human Resource to solve problems ,ability to take decisions ,self confidence and Management and Personnel Management.They have been used broad awareness. HRD is to deal both- which prevent growth interchangeably by some scholars. and lead to growth. In an organization there are six units which are concerned with HRD namely person, role, dyad, team, But if you go back to our lesson 1, you will understand that it interteam and organization. The effectiveness of one contrib- is through the evolution in the management philosophy that utes, in , turn, to the effectiveness of others. Personnel Management was transformed into Human ‘re- sources’ management. Human resource development is an essential prerequisite for any growth or development effort. Research, experimentation If we view the term themselves you will understand that the and experience in the field of HRD has grown enormously in difference does not lie in the scope (that evolved through times the last decade. Many organizations have set up new depart- and events) only, but the basic orientation has changed. ments known as “HRD Departments” in place of “HRM Personnel management which was there before HRM had more departments” which symbolise the recongnition of importance of the Management orientation. (Please relate it to the keith and of people’s competency development. These departments have davis model of OB); it viewed employees from the owners done remarkable work in attempting to find out new ways of perspective whereas, HRM views and treats employees as an developing employee competencies. asset. Thus HRD is needed by every organization that is interested in: HRM with time has come a long way in promoting mutuality (we will be dealing that too in later part.) HRM is more strategic Stability in nature, more integrated with the rest of the sub systems of Growth the organisation. Review and development Human Resource Development Styles “ Human resource development refers to the process whereby Dyanamic activity the employees are continuosly helped in a planned way to Effectivenesss, and Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various tasks associated with their present/future expected roles. Leadership Develop their general capabilities as individuals so that they are able to discover and exploit their own inner potential for their Note - own and/or organisational development purpose. Develop an organisational work culture where: superior- subordinate relationships, team work and collaboration among different units are strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation and pride.” Udai Pareek and T.V. Rao Thus, from this definition it is clear that HRD is all the more evolved field than HRM. Human resource management is the subsystem of the total management system. This is the responsibility of all managers, irrespective of their functions, disciplines and levels. HRM is primarily concerned with management of people, individuals or groups at work., as also their inter-relationship. It is not the sole responsibility of personnel specialists. Indeed line managers are equally and directly responsible for managing human resources working with them. They have to lead , guide and counsel people working with them and act as engines of motivation. HRD OD and IR are separate aspects of broader concept of HRM. However, in reality, each of these aspects overlap in practice, into the other and cannot be viewed in isolation. MRM practices, to succeed, must go currently with HRD, OD inter- ventions. Sound IR systems cannot be visualized without good HRD practices. Human resources developments a process to help people to grow. It is an approach to facilitate individual growth i.e. to transform a person a total person. HR is an asset and HRD is a means to attain better organizational effectiveness. Growth 17HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LESSON 8: PROCESS AND LIMING FACTORS OF HRP HRM versus HRD Human Resource Planning If we view the field carefully, we can easily differentiate the two Manpower planning and human resource planning are field in the following manner: synonyms. The basic idea of manpower planning is, we look at the numbers we are likely to need because of growth or HRD HRM/Personnel Management 1. continuous process 1.a routine and contraction, promotion and wastages. In other words, it administrative function simply means ensuring availability of right numbers of men , 2. sub-system of a large 2. function more independent with right kinds types in terms of skill, at the right point of time, system, more organisational separate roles to play. oriented at the right places for utilising the most economically and 3. more proactive; it copes with the 3. mainly a reactive function effectively and develop their potentials in terms of skills, changing needs of the people as well responding to the demands which performance and capacity. as anticipate these needs. may arise. 4.developing the whole organisation, 4. concerned with people Recruitment and Selection e.g. OD. only. 5. involvement of the entire work 5. It is basically the responsibilities of Recruitment is the process of generating of applications or force from top to bottom is more the HR department. attracting applicants for specific positions through four and a must in most of the cases common sources, viz. Advertisement, state employment Thus, the differentiation will give you a feel that again it’s a exchange agencies , present employees and campus recruitment. difference in scope and orientation and nothing else. Thus if we Having identified the potential applicants the next step is to want a composite view we find that they will placed like the evaluate their experience and qualification for ascertaining their following, historically, in scope and in orientation. suitability for a job and make selection. Selection refers to the process of offering job to one or more applicants from the applications. Selection is thus a means of selecting the “best-fit” HRM . for a job by using multiple hurdles such as screening, MODELS shortlisting based on marks, tests, interviewing ,and an equal PERSONNEL MGMT. opportunity dispenser. OF Performance & Potential Appraisal MANAGEMENT Performance appraisal also called “merit rating” or “employee WELFARE MGMT. rating is a means of helping supervisors to evaluate the work of employees. It is the name given to the regular formalised and recorded review of the way in which an individual per- forms in his or her job. This is normally carried out by the job holder’s immediate boss. 190 194 198 Performance appraisal focuses of helping the individual to P E R I O D develop his or her present role capabilities and to assume more responsibility for that role. Potential appraisal focuses primarily HRM Mechanisms or Sub-systems or Instruments identifying the employees future likely roles within the organisation.” Potential appraisal is done for placement as well as for development purposes keeping in mind futuristic S kill an d Human Indu strial Resources Relations Competency requirement of the organisation. Planning Mapping Performance appraisals are becoming highly crucial tools of Modern organizations . Performance Appraisal is very much in Setting Safety Recruitment and Health Stndards demand because; Job Anal ysis It helps employee in self-appraisal Selection Compensation Job Description Designing It Reviews his performance in relation to the objectives and Job Specification Training and other behaviors. Development Performance Appraisal It Checks reviews done by the superiors. It sends summary information for central storage and use. Setting Performance Management Standards(KRA/KPAs) Development Career planning and 5. It analyses the difficulties of the employees and works to and Development Succession remove them. It helps employees to face challenges and accept responsibilities. It plans Potential Development Exercises. 18HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT It make thorough potential appraisal of the employee .. It assesses training needs of different groups of employees. Appraisal the potential of the employee annually. It searches available outside training facilities. It develops in-company training strategy including pre-training Counseling and post-training activities. “Counseling is helping the employee to recognise his own strengths, weaknesses and potential and potential and helping It prepares training packages and modules. him to prepare action plans for own development.” Giving It organizes specific programmes as well as general development feedback in a “threatening way” or correcting the undesirable or programmes with own and outside resources. unsatisfactory behaviour of employees by pointing it out the It evaluates training efforts. deficiencies or other malfunctioning and warning them not to repeat these behaviour are all integral parts of a manager’s role Job Evaluation and are not the same as counseling. Job evaluation is concerned with establishing the relative worth of a job compared to other jobs within an organisation. In job They give critical and supporting feedback. evaluation one attempts to consider and measure the inputs They discuss with the employee the difference between his self rating and required of employees (know-how, accountability and problem the rating by the immediate superior. solving etc.) for minimum job performance and to translate They discuss the steps the employee can take for improvement. such measures into specific monetary returns. They provide support Transfer, Promotion & emotion Career Planning Transfer is a lateral movement within the same grade, from one Career planning involves identifying the right potential well in job to another. A transfer may result in changes in duties and time, for development to take over higher responsibilities. This responsibilities, supervisory and working conditions, but not includes promotion and planned job rotation under various necessarily salary. conditions and environments of challenge. In this process, Promotion is the advancement of an employee from one job attention is focused on individual’s style of working than his level to a hihger one, with increase in salary. current performance results. Current results can provide Demotion is the opposite of promotion. It is a downward reasonable clues of future potential, but they are not the sole movement from one job level to another, leading to a reduction criterion; current results only, could be misleading in judging in rank, status, pay and resposibility. one’s potential. A persons achievement are invariably affected by the forces outside his control. Similarly, a person may be highly Job Analysis successful in one situation, but he may not continue to be a Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting depart- high achiever when transferred to another job or situation. ment information relating to operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job Succession Planning description and job specification. Job description is an Succession planning entails in identifying the key jobs in an organised factual statement of duties and responsibilities of a organisation and ensuring that , if anything, planned or specific job, whereas, job specification is a statement of the unplanned were to remove the present job holder from his minimum acceptable qualities necessary to perform a job post, there would be some one ready to take the place. This properly. benefits the company by ensuring that there are no expensive gaps, or panic measures to fill them. It benefits the individual Role Analysis by providing him with opportunities for advancement. Three Role analysis is the process of defining a role in the context of broad steps are required in this context (I) to decide which are its work system., interms of expectation of important persons, the key jobs in the organisation; (ii) to identify the potential detailing specific tasks under each function, and elaborating the incumbent who can fit the position; & (iii) to make necessary process, standards and critical attributes namely knowledge, records in the organisation chart. Therefore, a succession plan to attitude, skill, habits (KASH) required for effective role. Role is a indicate who can succeed whom in the hierarchy. position or an office a person occupies as defined by expecta- tions from significant persons in the organisation, including the Training person himself. Position is the collection of tasks and respon- Training comprises an integral part of HRD process. The sibilities performed by one person. purpose of training is to improve the capabilities of the human resources in order to increase their efficiency and effectiveness on ROLE ROLE KEY GOALS ANALYSIS CONSENSUS PERFORMANCE the job. Training is expected to indicate positive changes in AREAS knowledge, skill and attitudes. Training is job oriented and fulfills the current needs of an individual to overcome job difficulties. Training won’t solve all problems, not all problems APPRAISALS are training problems. As we all know Training aims at develop- ment of the people in an organization. HRDepartment analyses and develops various Training programmmes. For develop- ment of human resources through Training, what does the HR CRITICAL COUNSELLING ATTRIBUTES department do? 19

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