What is Computer Processing System

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This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 1 UNIT I LESSON – 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM 1.0. Aims & Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Characteristics of Computers 1.3 History of Computers 1.4 Computer System 1.5 Importance of Computers in Business 1.6 Let Us Sum Up 1.7 Lesson End Activity 1.8 Points for Discussion 1.9 Check your Progress 1.10 References 1.0. AIMS & OBJECTIVES After reading this Lesson you will be able to understand: 1. The characteristics of computers that makes them an essential part of every technology. 2. Computer system, which includes components such as central processing unit & I/O devices. 1.1 INTRODUCTION The term computer is derived from the Latin word compute, which means to calculate. A computer is an electronic machine, devised for performing calculations and controlling operations that can be expressed either in logical or numerical terms. In simple terms, a computer is an electronic device that performs diverse operations with the help of instructions to process the information in order to achieve the desired results. Computer application extends to cover huge area including education, industries, government, medicine, scientific research etc. A computer is one of the most influential forces available in modern times. Due to its memory, high speed and perfection, its application can be extended to almost infinite levels. Millions of complex calculations can be done in mere fraction of time. Difficult decisions can be made with accuracy for comparatively little cost. Computers are widely seen as instruments for future progress and as tools to achieve substantiality by way of improved access to information by means of video conferencing and e-mail. Indeed computers have left such on impression on modern civilization that we call this era as the information age. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 2 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTERS The main characteristics of computers are: a) Speed b) Storage c) Accuracy d) Versatility e) Automation f) Diligence g) Reliability a) Speed : Computers are capable of carrying out the task with enormous speed. Today’s computers, according to their class, can perform from 4 MIPS (Millions of instructions per second) to 100 MIPS. What may take days for manual calculations may take only a few hours for computers to perform. Inside the computer the information signal travels at incredible electronic speed. b) Storage: Computers can store enormous quantity of information. Which is expressed in terms of Kilobytes (or) Mega Bytes (MB) or Gega Bytes (GB). It is achieved through its ‘Main memory’ or ‘Primary storage’ and through ‘auxiliary storage’ or ‘Secondary storage’. The Hard disks Floppy disk, Compact Disc(CD) and Magnetic Tape storage are examples of secondary storages. These large volumes of storage occupy much lesser space compared to paper documents and this aspect of computers makes them more powerful. c) Accuracy: The accuracy of a Computer is consistently high. In fact, this quality of the computers make them indispensable in various fields such as Scientific Research, Space Research, Weather Predictions and many other areas where precision of a high order is required. The accuracy of the computer is best achieved by programming them in the most efficient manner. When it comes to very complex mathematical or scientific problem the computer’s accuracy has no substitute. d) Versatility: Computers are versatile in that they can perform almost any task, provided they are given the appropriate logical steps. For example, they are capable of performing wide ranging tasks such as construction of a payroll, inventory management in a factory, hotel billing, hospital management, banking applications and any imaginable task in every walk of life. e) Automation: The biggest advantage of computers is that it is automatic in its operation. Once a programming logic is initiated the computer performs repeated operations without human interventions until program completion. f) Diligence: Computers are machines and that do not get tired or ‘lose concentration’ like human beings. If a large number of calculations say million calculations are to be performed the resultant output will remain exactly the same even if operations are repeated any number of times. But when a human being is asked to do the same job this consistency cannot be achieved. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 3 Thus for those who want consistent and continuous standard output, computer’s ‘diligence’ is of great help. g) Reliability: The computers give very accurate results with predetermined values. They correct and modify the parameters automatically, giving suitable signals. They give formatted results with high degree of precisions. Check Your Progress 1 Bring out any three characteristics of computer Notes: a) Write your answer in the space given below b) Check your answer with the one given at the end of this Lesson (pp.8) …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.3 HISTORY OF COMPUTERS In the early days of mankind, man used to count the head of cattle by putting lines on trees. Slowly these lines changed to numbers. To do calculation on numbers he started inventing machines. 1. Abacus Abacus was probably the earliest of counting devices. It consists of rectangular wooden frame with two compartments and beads sliding along the steel wires for counting. Multiplication and divisions are done using repeated additions and subtractions. Even today in which cross strings are fixed. Beads are inserted on to the strings. There are a number of rows of beads. 2. Napier’s logs and bones: John Napier, a Scottish mathematician invented logarithms. The use of logarithms enabled him to transform multiplications and division problems of addition and subtractions. In the beginning he called logarithms as artificial numbers. But later he named them logarithms. Napier also invented a computing device consisting of sticks with numbers carved on them. These sticks are called bones as they were made of bones. These bones helped a lot in multiplication involving large numbers. 3. Slide rule As the name indicates, the slide rule has one scale sliding within the other. Suppose you want to add two numbers 3 and 5, set 3 on the fixed scale and slide the moving scale. So that its “0’ coincides with”5” of sliding scale. This is the sum of 3 and 5. The process of reading could be quick if you are trained in the use of slide rule. 4. Calculating machines and Pascal’s calculator: A French mathematician, Blaise Pascal invented a machine based on gear wheels. He was the son of tax collector who had to do lot of calculations as part of his job. Blaise Pascal wanted to make his job easier by inventing a calculator. You might be familiar with gear wheels in use in your bicycle which meshes with a driving chain. He used similar gear wheels with ten teeth for This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 4 each digit position. He fixed them together so that one wheel drives the other. When the wheel corresponding to units position rotated by ten teeth, it drove the wheel corresponding to the next higher position by one tooth. Thus one could make calculations. Pascal provided dials, which indicated numbers stored on each wheel. He also used suitable “dialing system” to operate the gear wheels. Other people also made a number of such calculators. Computer scientists honoured Pascal by naming a programming language Pascal after him. 5. Babbage difference and analytical engines. Babbage, a British National and the son of a wealthy banker wanted to correct the errors in the logarithm tables being used during his time. In 1822, he made a machine which calculated the successive difference of expressions (X2 + ax + b is an example of an expression) and prepared table which helped him in his calculations. The royal Astronomical society awarded a gold medal to him for his invention and granted a large sum of money to carry out further work. He wanted to make an accurate calculating machine called “Babbage’s Analytical Engine”. The analytical Engine was supposed to be very accurate. So it needed lot of parts made with precision. Babbage could not make such parts. He conceived that his machine would use input devices, would have a processing part called “mill” where you can perform calculations, would also incorporate It consists of rectangular frame in which cross strings are fixed. Beads are inserted on to the strings. There are a number of rows of beads .Since he was about 100 years ahead in his ideas, he could not get parts needed for his machine. This is because there were no tools to make such precision parts. He did lot of work related to making precision parts and spend all the grants (and lot of his money too) but failed in his attempt to make a machine. He ultimately died as a frustrated man. 6. Lady Ada Lovelace Lovelace is the daughter of the famous English poet Lord Byron. She was a mathematician. She studied the works of Babbage and wrote about them. From her account only, we can see the close resemblance of the modern day computers and Babbage’s work. Lady Ada Lovelace’s contributions are very important. Since she predicted that computers can be programmed, a language, Ada used widely in America’s Department of Defence Computers was named after her. 7. Herman Hollerith’s Machine Governments all over the world collect details about the number of people living in their countries. This information helps the Government in planning for the future, Sometimes you find enumerators (people taking such details) coming to your house with forms to collect such details. This operation is called “census” which is normally done once in 10 years. In the United States a census was carried out in 1880 and the U S Government was processing the census data. Even as this was going on, the next census was due in 1890. To process the census of 1890 fast, the Government announced a competition. Dr. Herman Hollerith Produced cards out of special paper pulp, designed punching machines to punch holes in the card to count census figures and invented sorting machines to This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 5 read such punched card and collect data. He could complete the job within three years, achieving a speedup of about three times. 8. ABC Computer: In 1937, Dr. John Atanstoff with the help of his assistant Berry designed the Atanstoff Berry Computer (ABC). The machine laid the foundation for the development of electronic digital computer. 9. ENIAC- Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator In 1947 john Mauchly and Eckart completed the first large scale Electronic Digital Computer, ENIAC. In this computer, each time a program was changed, the wiring had to be completely rearranged. It weighed 30 tons, contained 18,000 vacuum tubes and occupied a space of 30 50 feet. 10. EDSAC-Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator: Maurice V.Wilkes of Cambridge University completed EDSAC in 1949. EDSAC was the first computer to operate on the stored program concept. 11. UNIVAC-I – Universal Automatic Computers: In 1947, after ENIAC became operational Mauchly and Eckart formed their own Company- The Eckart-Mauchly Computer Corporation”. Immediately after this they started the design of UNIVAC-I. This was purchased by US bureau of Census. UNIVAC was the first computer dedicated to business applications 1.4 COMPUTER SYSTEM A computer system is a combination of various components. It performs the system functions such as input, processing, output, storage and control. A computer system consists of the following components: 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Human ware 4. Firmware 5. Bridge ware 1. Hardware The physical components of the computer, such as electrical, electronics and mechanical unit are known as the hardware of the computer. That is, the input units, output units and CPU are called hardware. Thus hardware is the equipment involved in the function of a computer. It consists of the components that can be physically handled. The function of these components is typically divided into three main categories: input, output, and storage. Components in these categories connect to microprocessors, output and storage. Components in these categories connect to microprocessors, specifically, the computer's central processing unit (CPU), the electronic circuitry that provides the computational ability and control of the computer, via wires or circuitry called a bus. 2. Software: This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 6 The computer performs operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division only when the user instructs it to do so. The user issues instructions and the CPU acts in accordance with the instructions. The sets of instructions, which control the sequence of operations, are known as programs, and collectively programs are called software. The software can be broadly classified into two types. They are: a. System Software b. Application software 3. Human ware: The man-machine interface is called a human ware. The people who work with the computer are collectively called the human ware or livewire. 4. Firmware: The computer programs permanently stored in ROM or PROM are called firmware. These programs are provided by hardware manufacturer along with the computers. Generally these are booting programs which help in the starting of a computer. Such programs cannot be erased or overwritten. 5. Bridge ware: The computer components and programs used to translate instructions and information written for one type of computer into a format that another type of computer can understand is called bridge ware. This is necessary because different computers are made by different manufacturers. Check Your Progress 2 What is human ware? Notes: a) Write your answer in the space given below b) Check your answer with the one given at the end of this Lesson (pp.8) …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.5 IMPORTANCE OF COMPUTERS IN BUSINESS Computer plays an important role in business environment as every organisation adopts it in some form or the other to perform the tasks in effective manner. In the past few years’ rapid development in IT, particularly in communications, electronic service networks, and multimedia have opened up new opportunities for corporates. All these are contributing towards new and effective ways of processing business transactions, integrating business processes, transferring payments and delivering services electronically. It has affected the business in the following ways: 1. Office Automation Computers have helped automation of many industrial and business systems. They are used extensively in manufacturing and processing industries, power distribution systems, airline reservation systems, transportation systems, banking systems, and so on. Computer aided design This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 7 (CAP) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) are becoming popular among the large industrial establishment. 2. Stores large amount of date and information Business and commercial organizations need to store and maintain voluminous records and use them for various purposes such as inventory control, sales analysis, payroll accounting, resources scheduling and generation of management reports. Computers can store and maintain files and can sort, merge or update as and when necessary. 3. Improves Productivity With the introduction of word processing software, Computers have recently been applied to the automation of office tasks and procedures. This is aimed at improving the productivity of both clerical & managerial staff. 4. Sharing of data and information Due to networking of computers, where a number of computers are connected together to share the data and information, use of e-mail and internet has changed the ways of business operations. 5. Competitiveness Computers offer a reliable and cost-effective means of doing business electronically. Routine tasks can be automated. The customers can be provided support round the clock, which is 24 hours a day. With advancement in IT sector, corporates are spreading business around the world thus, increasing their presence and entering new markets. 6. Security To provide security to data and important computer programs, almost every organisation has some security programs to avoid the illegal access of the company’s information by unauthorized persons. The three fundamental attributor of a security program are confidentially, integrity and availability which allow access to only authorized persons in an organization. 7. Cost Benefits The extensive availability of internet based information means that companies have a wider choice of suppliers which leads to a more competitive pricing. Due to the presence of internet the role of the middleman becomes less important as companies can sell their product or services directly to the customer. 8. Marketing Corporates engaged in e-business can take help of their respective websites to create brand awareness of their products, thus, creating new avenues of promotion of their products. In addition, companies’ websites can also provide better services such as after sales service to the customer. Check Your Progress 3 What is the role of computer in business? Notes: a) Write your answer in the space given below b) Check your answer with the one given at the end of this Lesson (pp.8) …………………………………………………………………………………………….. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 8 …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.6 LET US SUM UP 1. Computer is an electronic device that performs diverse operations with the help of instructions to process the information in order to achieve desired results. Speed, accuracy, reliability, versatility, diligence etc characterize the computers. 2. Many devices which humans developed for their computing requirements preceded computers. Some of those devices are Abacus, Napier’s bones, Slide rule, Analytical engine and Hollerith’s Machine. 3. Computer system consists of the various components which perform the system functions such as input, processing, output, storage and control. 4. Role of computers in business environment is essential for processing business transactions, Office Automation, Improving productivity, Competitiveness and security. 1.7 LESSON END ACTIVITY Visit a computer centre and list out the hardware components 1.8 POINTS FOR DICUSSION 1. List all types of secondary storage devices. 2. What is the difference between memory and storage? Why do we require both to function properly? 3. Explain the characteristics of a computers. 4. Explain in detail the history of computers. 5. Write notes on applications of computers in business. 1.9 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Your answer may include any of the following: i). Speed ii). Storage iii). Accuracy iv). Versatility v). Automation vi). Diligence 2. Human ware The man-machine interface is called a human ware. The people who work with the computer are collectively called the human ware or livewire. 3. Role of computers in business i). Office Automation ii). Stores large amount of date and information iii). Improves Productivity iv). Sharing of data and information v). Competitiveness vi). Security: vii). Cost Benefits This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 9 1.10 REFERENCES 1. Parameswaran R., Computer Applications in Business, S.Chand and Sons company Ltd., New Delhi. 2. Alexis Leon, Mathews Leon, Fundamentals of Information Technology, Leon Vikas, New Delhi. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 10 LESSON- 2 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 2.0 Aims & Objectives 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Components of Hardware 2.3 Software 2.3.1 Features of Software 2.4 Difference between Hardware & Software 2.5 Let Us Sum Up 2.6 Lesson End Activity 2.7 Points for Discussion 2.8 Check Your Progress 2.9 References 2.0 AIMS & OBJECTIVES After reading this Lesson you will be able to understand: 1. Meaning of hardware and software. 2. Components of hardware. 3. Features of software. 4. Difference between hardware and software. 2.1 INTRODUCTION: A computer system consists of hardware, the physical unit (parts) of the computer that are capable of computing and manipulating information and software (set of instructions or programs) that carries out predefined tasks to complete a given job. The computer performs operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division only when the user instructs it to do so. The user issues instructions and the CPU acts in accordance with the instructions. The sets of instructions, which control the sequence of operations, are known as programs, and collectively programs are called software. We can equate hardware and software with human body and human intelligence, respectively. All human physical actions such as walking and eating are based on the thoughts and feelings, which is raised by the brain. If the brain does not raise thoughts and feelings, we do not perform any physical activity. Similarly, the actions and functioning of every hardware equipment is driven by software. The combination of physical equipment (hardware) and logical instructions (software) gives modern computing system their power and versatility. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 11 2.2 COMPONENTS OF HARDWARE I. Input unit: This unit accepts instructions and data. II. Output unit: This unit communicates the results to the user. III. Storage unit: This unit stores temporary and final results. IV. Central Processing Unit (CPU): This unit performs processing of instructions and data inside the computer. The CPU has three components: a) The Control Unit b) The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and c) The Memory Unit. a) Control Unit: It controls the overall operation of the computer system. It is considered as the heart of the computer system. It controls all the other units, directs them to operate in a proper way and co-ordinates various operations performed. It instructs the input device to transfer the data and instructions to the main memory and then to the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). Then, it sends the processed result from ALU to the memory unit for storage and transfers it to the visual display unit or to the ' printer. The control unit coordinates the various parts of the computer system - the arithmetic logic unit, the memory unit and the peripheral units. Besides, it controls the flow of data into, from and within the main storage as per the program instructions. To perform its control operations effectively and quickly, the control unit has four basic components. They are (a) Instruction Register (b) Decoder (c) Address Register and (d) Instruction Counter The instruction register receives one by one the instructions to be executed in the required sequence. Then, the operation code of the instructions is transferred to decoder, which decodes the operation code. And it activates the appropriate circuits of the arithmetic and logic unit to perform the operation. The address register enables the data in the location specified in the instruction to be transferred to a specified accumulator for the arithmetic and logic unit. b) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) This unit performs two kinds of operations, the arithmetic processing and logical processing. In arithmetic processing it performs all mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. In logical processing, it performs the relational and logical operations such as comparing larger or smaller values, true or false statements, etc. c) Memory Unit This unit holds the intermediate results during the course of calculations and provides the data as and when required. This internal storage is also called primary memory or main memory. This memory takes the data from an input device and stores it until the computer is This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 12 ready to process it. It also stores processed data and intermediate results. When the processing is finished, it transfers the results to an output device. 2.3 SOFTWARE Software is a generic term for organized collection of computer data and instructions. It is responsible for controlling, integrating, and managing the hardware components of a computer and to accomplish specific tasks. In other words, software tells the computer what to do and how to do it. For example, software instructs the hardware what to display on the user’s screen, what kinds of input to take from the user, and what kinds of output to generate. Thus, software communicates with the hardware by organizing the control sequences, and the hardware carries out the instructions defined by the software. A computer needs to be instructed to perform any task. These instructions are given in the form of computer programs, which are written in computer programming languages. A program controls the activity of the processor. The moment the hardware (processor, memory, etc.), acts as per the instructions of a program, the program is said to be in running or executing state. A set of programs, which are specifically written to provide the user a precise functionality like solving a specific problem is termed as a software package. For example, word processing software package provides functionality to the computer so that it can be used to create text documents like letters and mailing lists. Similarly, an image processing software package assists a user in drawing and manipulating graphics. 2.3.1 FEATURES OF SOFTWARE 1. Ease of use The software systems and applications are becoming more and more easy to use. In fact, software developers and system analysts go to great lengths to ensure that the products they develop are user-friendlier than their competitor’s products. 2. Graphical user interface (GUI) GUI or graphical user interface has now become the default standard for most of the software applications. Gone are the days of the crude character based interfaces of UNIX and DOS application. Today’s software applications and products provide the users with perceptive, graphical and easy-to-use interfaces. Now the users do not have to remember the cryptic system commands or shortcut keys that were a must in the character based era. Now almost any task can be accomplished by a mouse click. 3. Multi-platform capability Today’s software applications are not developed for just one platform. Most of the software applications supports multiple platforms-both hardware and software platforms. There are software applications that support hardware platforms ranging from mainframes to PCs and different software platforms like MVS, Solaris, AIX, UNIX, Windows and so on. For example IBM’s DB2 Universal database is available for a variety or hardware and software platforms. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 13 Another important feature of today’s software application is that they support multiple languages and multiple currencies. Many vendors are providing their applications in many languages like English, Arabic, Japanese, and Chinese and so on. 4. Compatibility with other software Now the competition for each market segment in the software marketplace is rather fierce. We have many software vendors battling for the market share in the same segment. For example, Microsoft Word 2000 supports all previous versions of Work like Word 97, Word 6, Word and so on. The two features –compatibility with earlier versions and compatibility with other products make it easier for the users, as they can choose the application they want and still use the old files they have created using other applications or using older versions of the same application. 5. Mail enabling Mail enabled applications are designed to take advantage of on e-mail. These are the familiar word processors, spreadsheets, and other individual desktop applications that have e- mail features built to them. There is another class of message-centered programs that are built specifically around e- mail functions. 6. Web enabling With the ever-increasing popularity of internet and the amount of information that is available on the net, most software applications are now web-enabled. Web enabling helps the user in many different ways. Its use starts while the user is installing the application. During installation, most of the applications will automatically connect to the Internet and to the vendor’s web site and will register their products (earlier one had to fill in a paper form and mail or fax it to the vendor). 2.4 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HARDWARE & SOFTWARE HARDWARE SOFTWARE 1.It is the physical unit of the computer 1.It is a collection of programs to bring the hardware system into operation 2. It has permanent structure and cannot 2. It has no permanent structure but can be altered be altered and reused 3. It is normally affected by agent like 3. It is not affected by these agents to dust, heat, humidity, etc some extent 4. Hardware understands only machine 4. It is written by a well versed language ,lower level language or programmer and generally in higher binary level language which is readable by human being 5. It works with binary code, the presence 5. It is represented by the Higher Level or absence of Pulses as 1’s or 0’s. Languages such as BASIC, COBOL, Etc., This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 14 Check Your Progress 4 A. Classify the following into hardware and software? i). Spread Sheet ii). Mouse iii). Data base iv). Scanner B. What is hardware? Notes: a) Write your answer in the space given below b) Check your answer with the one given at the end of this Lesson (pp. 13) …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.5 LET US SUM UP 1. Hard ware is the physical component of the computer, and soft ware is the instruction given to the components to perform certain operations. 2. Soft ware consists of certain features like ease of use, Graphical user interface (GUI). Multi- platform capability, Compatibility with other software, Mail enabling, Web enabling 3. Certain differences existing between hard ware and soft ware have been discussed. 2.6 LESSON END ACTIVITY 1. Visit a computer service centre to know about the parts of a computer. 2. Make a visit to a computer centre to learn about the various software languages that are in use. 2.7 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. What are the functions performed by CPU? 2. Discuss in detail about the features of software?. 3. List out the differences between hardware & software. 2.8 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1 A. Spread sheet and Database - Software Mouse and Scanner - Hardware B. Hard ware The physical unit (parts) of the computers that are capable of computing and manipulating information 2.9 REFERENCES 1. ITL Education Solutions Limited, Introduction to Information Technology,Pearson Education, New Delhi. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 15 LESSON -3 DATA PROCESSING 3.0 Aims & Objectives 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Data Processing Cycle 3.3 Data Types 3.4 Kinds of Data Processing 3.5 Objectives of Data Processing 3.6 Steps in Data Processing 3.7 Practical Data Processing Applications In Business 3.8 Data Processing Operations 3.9 Let Us Sum Up 3.10 Lesson End Activity 3.11 Points for Discussion 3.12 Check your Progress 3.13 References 3.0. AIMS & OBJECTIVES After reading this Lesson you will be able to understand: 1. Concepts of data processing and data processing cycle 2. Objectives and steps in data processing. 3. Various types and kinds of data processing. 4. Applications of data processing in business. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Data Processing Concepts Ø Data Data means any collection of raw hand figures facts. Data can be considered as the raw material of information. The data may be numerical such as payroll, employee Number, etc. or non-numerical like Student names, Product names, etc. Ø Data Processing As data is in its raw form it cannot solve any problem. The data needs some processing to make it useful. Data processing is the conversion of data into a more useful form. That is, transmission of data into meaningful information is called data processing. Ø Information This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 16 The result obtained by data processing is called information. That is, the processed data is known as information. However, information produced in one data processing step may be used as data in the next data processing step. DATA Vs INFORMATION Data Information Raw records Completed One Un ordered Ordered Unrefined Data Refined Data What prevails What is necessary? 3.2 DATA PROCESSING CYCLE Data Processing is viewed as a system that accepts data as input, processes it into information as output. This can be explained with the help of the following diagram. INPUT OUTPUT Information Data PROCESSING Data 3.3 DATA TYPES The data types may be as follows: 1. Qualitative data: It denotes the characteristics of things such as Average, Fair etc. 2. Quantitative data: It is expressed in terms of measurable quantities such as 10 KG, 40 degree Celsius etc. 3. Numeric Types: The data types may also be an integer (+, -) without any fractional part or real number which includes integers and fractions. 4. Floating Point Representation: These data types consist of 3 components namely: (1) Mantissa (2) Radix or Base and (3) Exponent Besides the above, the data types include alphabetic data and alphanumeric data. 3.4 KINDS OF DATA PROCESSING The important kinds of data processing are as follows: 1. Manual Data Processing: Data is processed without the help of mechanical devices. Here the data is processed using manual things such as abacus, slide rule, Napier bones etc. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 17 2. Mechanical Data Processing: In Mechanical Data Processing, mechanical devices like calculators, tabulators, etc, are used for processing. 3. Electronic Data Processing: In Electronic Data Processing, the data is processed by either analog or digital computer. 3.5 OBJECTIVES OF DATA PROCESSING After the industrial revolution, the needs of the mankind increased. Man had to deal with large volume of data. He had to cope up with more and more information. The information collected is to be sorted out, stored and retrieved at short intervals. This necessitated the concept of data processing. As the complexities of business increased, the number of functions to be performed also increased. The data processing system must be responsible to supply the information when it is needed, so as to make the performance of the organization optimum. Let us have a look at the general objectives of Data Processing. 1. Handle huge volume of Data: The basic objective of data processing is to handle huge data in order to enable the organization to function efficiently. 2. Qualitative and quantitative information: The next important want of data processing is to provide qualitative and quantitative information. 3. Proper and Timely Information: Different kinds of information are needed in almost all organizations. Data processing provides correct and timely information. 4. Storage and retrieval of data: Through data processing, information can be stored and retrieved as and when necessary. 5. Helps in Decision-making: In every organization various decisions are taken at different levels. Such decisions can be more accurate if effective data processing system is used 6. Improves Productivity: To improve productivity, various measures are to be identified and implemented. It is possible through the properly designed data processing system. 7. Maintaining Performance at Optimum Level: To maintain the performance of the organization at best possible level various functions at different levels of the organization are to be coordinated. There should be a smooth flow of information among various functional departments. This can be easily achieved through data processing system. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 18 8. Efficient Office Management: In office management also data processing plays a very important role, through which office automation can be done. 3.6 STEPS IN DATA PROCESSING 1. Identifying the data 2. Input of Data. 3. Manipulation of Data. 4. Output of Information. 5. Storage of Information 1. Identifying the data Accuracy of information depends on accurate data input. The first step in data processing therefore, is to locate necessary facts and figures from source documents. Accurate, relevant and adequate data must be used as input. 2. Input of data: After extracting the necessary data from the source documents, they must be transposed in a suitable form acceptable to the computer. Great care should be taken to avoid wrong entries in the forms. 3. Manipulation of data: It involves the process of shifting, sorting and rearranging the given input. Before processing, validation procedures may be built in to the code to so that input forms do not accept any incorrect data. 4. Output of information: The main purpose of data processing is to provide meaningful information to the decision-maker. Hence, in data processing the person involved must be very careful about what information is needed and in what form he likes to have it. 5. Storage of information: The data processed need to be kept for future use. All the processed data will need some form of secondary storage. When storing the data, it is always important to maintain a backup. It should be noted that at each and every step the storage might be done. Check Your Progress 5 Bring out the steps in data processing Notes: a) Write your answer in the space given below b) Check your answer with the one given at the end of this Lesson (pp. 21) …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 19 …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3.7 PRACTICAL DATA PROCESSING APPLICATIONS IN BUSINESS The following are some data processing information undertaken by commercial organizations. 1. Process Control: In the production process, a computer is directly connected to some plant to control and monitor it. Here, the computer receives the data directly from the plant. It analyses the input data and initiates action to control the on-going process. 2. Accounting: The Data Processing System can be used to maintain the accounting records and in preparation of final accounts. The general ledger, Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, etc., are the examples for the computerized accounting systems followed in most business organizations. 3. Payroll preparation: In personnel department the data processing system is used to record the operations of the number of employees of different departments in each shifts, leave taken, deductions such as ESI, PF and finally in the preparation of Pay Slips. 4. Sales Analysis: The Data Processing system is highly useful in sales analysis. The sales manager can prepare the sales forecast on the basis of per month’s sales reports and subsequent future actions can be taken. 5. Inventory Management: Actually the Data Processing System is a boon to every organization, in respect of inventory management. Data Processing is used to maintain up-to-date information about stock, their costs and to initiate orders when the times are about to be exhausted. 6. Office Automation: The modem offices and business organizations are dependent upon computer based office automation for their competitiveness and better management. 7. Banking and Insurance: Data Processing Systems are highly needed in the Banking sector where the customer satisfaction is the main criteria. To provide quick and perfect service, data processing system is used. Automatic Teller machines are places in big cities and linked to central computers. Hence, the delay in processing is completely avoided. 8. Insurance and stock broking: Insurance companies and stock broking firms also use the computerized data processing systems. Large volume of data have to be processed for the preparation of policy statements, interest calculations, renewal notices and in dealing with the securities. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 20 9. Managerial aid: The Data Processing System is used as a managerial aid in decision-making for solving business problems. It is also very useful in the areas of linear programming, PERT, CPM etc. Today it appears that the computer is everywhere. Not only the business organization, the other institutions are also using data processing system for their regular use. We cannot think about a situation without a computer. Robotics and Artificial Intelligence are the two promising areas of applications. Check Your Progress 6 Explain the various data processing applications in business. Notes: a) Write your answer in the space given below b) Check your answer with the one given at the end of this Lesson (pp. 21) …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3.8 DATA PROCESSING OPERATIONS The data after some processing is transformed into information, which is organized and meaningful. It includes the following operations. 1. Data Generation It involves the operation of collecting the original data. It implies that the raw data are collected and set out in the form of original document called a source document. 2. Recording Here raw data is converted into an acceptable form. That is, the data is transcribed from the source documents on the cards or on some other specified forms and are made readable for the machines. This operation is performed throughout the IPO cycle. The punched cards and paper tapes, magnetic tapes, a magnetic disks, tape cassettes, floppy disks, magnetic drums, tape cassettes, floppy disks, RAM cartridge, charged coupled devices, etc., are used as data recording media. 3. Verification After the data have been recorded, their accuracy has to be checked. This can be done with the help of another machine called verifier or by re-reading. 4. Classification Classification of information is the next important operation in which the data is separated into various categories. 5. Sorting Sorting involves sequencing the data in a pre-determined order to facilitate processing. The order may be either alphabetic or numeric.

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