Lecture notes on Transportation Engineering

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TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING- I Subject Code: 10CV56 I A Marks: 25 No. of lecture Hours/week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART – A UNIT – 1 PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING: Importance of transportation, Different modes of transportation and comparison, Characteristics of road transport Jayakar committee recommendations, and implementation – Central Road Fund, Indian Roads Congress, Central Road Research Institute 04 Hrs. UNIT – 2 HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING: Road types and classification, road patterns, planning surveys, master plan – saturation system of road planning, phasing road development in India, problems on best alignment among alternate proposals Salient Features of 3rd and 4th twenty year road development plans and Policies, Present scenario of road development in India (NHDP & PMGSY) and in Karnataka (KSHIP & KRDCL) Road development plan - vision 2021. 06 Hrs UNIT – 3 HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT AND SURVEYS: Ideal Alignment, Factors affecting the alignment, engineering surveys-Map study, Reconnaissance, Preliminary and Final location & detailed survey, Reports and drawings for new and re-aligned projects 04 Hrs. HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN – I: Importance, Terrain classification, Design speed, Factors affecting geometric design, Cross sectional elements-Camber- width of pavement- Shoulders-, Width of formation- Right of way, typical cross sections 05 Hrs. UNIT – 4 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN – II: Sight Distance-Restrictions to sight distance- Stopping sight distance- Overtaking sight distance- overtaking zones- Examples on SSD and OSD- Sight distance at intersections, Horizontal alignment-Radius of Curve- Super elevation – Extra widening- Transition curve and its length, setback distance – Examples, Vertical alignment-Gradient-summit and valley curves with examples. 07 Hrs. Department of Civil, ACE Page 1 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 PART - B UNIT – 5 PAVEMENT MATERIALS: Subgrade soil – desirable properties-HRB soil classification-determination of CBR and modulus of subgrade reaction-Examples on CBR and Modulus of subgrade reaction, Aggregates- Desirable properties and list of tests, bituminous materials-Explanation on Tar, bitumen, cutback and emulsion-List of tests on bituminous materials 06 Hrs. UNIT – 6 PAVEMENT DESIGN: Pavement types, component parts of flexible and rigid pavements and their functions, design factors, ESWL and its determination-Examples, Flexible pavement- Design of flexible pavements as per IRC;37-2001-Examples, Rigid pavement- Westergaard’s equations for load and temperature stresses- Examples- Design of slab thickness only as per IRC:58-2002 06 Hrs. UNIT – 7 PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION: Earthwork –cutting-Filling, Preparation of subgrade, Specification and construction of i)Granular Subcase, ii) WBM Base, iii) WMM base, iv)Bituminous Macadam, v) Dense Bituminous Macadam vi) Bituminous Concrete, vii) Dry Lean Concrete sub base and PQC viii) concrete roads 05Hrs HIGHWAY DRAINAGE: Significance and requirements, Surface drainage system and design-Examples, sub surface drainage system, design of filter materials 03 Hrs. UNIT – 8 HIGHWAY ECONOMICS: Highway user benefits, VOC using charts only-Examples, Economic analysis - annual cost method-Benefit Cost Ratio method-NPV-IRR methods- Examples, Highway financing-BOT- BOOT concepts 06 Hrs. Department of Civil, ACE Page 2 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 CHAPTER 1 HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING Highway development in India Necessity for highway planning Different road development plans Classification of roads Road network patterns Highway Alignment Factors affecting alignment Engineering surveys Drawing and reports Highway project. Department of Civil, ACE Page 3 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 CHAPTER 1 PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING Overview Road transport is one of the most common modes of transport. Roads in the form of track ways, human pathways etc. were used even from the pre-historic times. Since then many experiments were going on to make the riding safe and comfort. Thus road construction became an inseparable part of many civilizations and empires. In this chapter we will see the different generations of road and their characteristic features. Also we will discuss about the highway planning in India. History of highway engineering The history of highway engineering gives us an idea about the roads of ancient times. Roads in Rome were constructed in a large scale and it radiated in many directions helping them in military operations. Thus they are considered to be pioneers in road construction. In this section we will see in detail about Ancient roads, Roman roads, British roads, French roads etc. Ancient Roads The rst mode of transport was by foot. These human pathways would have been developed for speci c purposes leading to camp sites, food, streams for drinking water etc. The next major mode of transport was the use of animals for transporting both men and materials. Since these loaded animals required more horizontal and vertical clearances than the walking man, track ways emerged. The invention of wheel in Mesopotamian civilization led to the development of animal drawn vehicles. Then it became necessary that the road surface should be capable of carrying greater loads. Thus roads with harder surfaces emerged. To provide adequate strength to carry the wheels, the new ways tended to follow the sunny drier side of a path. These have led to the development of foot-paths. After the invention of wheel, animal drawn vehicles were developed and the need for hard surface road emerged. Traces of such hard roads were obtained from various ancient civilization dated as old as 3500 BC. Department of Civil, ACE Page 4 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 Roman roads The earliest large scale road construction is attributed to Romans who constructed an extensive system of roads radiating in many directions from Rome. They were a remarkable achievement and provided travel times across Broken stones 8cm thick Large foundation stones on edge17cm thick Figure 2:2: French roads Europe, Asia minor, and north Africa. Romans recognized that the fundamentals of good road construction were to provide good drainage, good material and good workmanship. Their roads were very durable, and some are still existing. Roman roads were always constructed on a 1m - formed sub grade strengthened where necessary with wooden piles. The roads were bordered on both sides by longitudinal drains. The next step was the construction of the agger. This was a raised formation up to a 1 meter high and 15 m wide and was constructed with materials excavated during the side drain construction. This was then topped with a sand leveling course. The agger contributed greatly to moisture control in the pavement. The pavement structure on the top of the agger varied greatly. In the case of Department of Civil, ACE Page 5 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 heavy track, a surface course of large 250 mm thick hexagonal agger stones were provided. A typical cross section of roman road is given in Figure 2:1 The main features of the Roman roads are that they were built straight regardless of gradient and used heavy foundation stones at the bottom. They mixed lime and volcanic puzzolana to make mortar and they added gravel to this mortar to make concrete. Thus concrete was a major Roman road making innovation. 2.2.3 French roads The next major development in the road construction occurred during the regime of Napoleon. The signi cant contributions were given by Tresaguet in 1764 and a typical cross section of this road is given in Figure 2:2. He developed a cheaper method of construction than the lavish and locally unsuccessful revival of Roman practice. The pavement used 200 mm pieces of quarried stone of a more compact form and shaped such that they had at least one at side which was placed on a compact formation. Smaller pieces of broken stones were then compacted into the spaces between larger stones to provide a level surface. Finally the running layer was made with a layer of 25 mm sized broken stone. All this structure was placed in a trench in order to keep the running surface level with the surrounding country side. This created major drainage problems which were counteracted by making the surface as impervious as possible, cambering the surface and providing deep side ditches. He gave much importance for drainage. He also enunciated the necessity for continuous organized maintenance, instead of intermittent repairs if the roads were to be kept usable all times. For this he divided the roads between villages into sections of such length that an entire road could be covered by maintenance men living nearby. 2.2.4 British roads The British government also gave importance to road construction. The British engineer John Macadam introduced what can be considered as the rst scienti c road construction method. Stone size was an important element of Macadam recipe. By empirical observation of many roads,he came to realize that 250 mm layers of well compacted broken angular stone would provide the same strength and sti ness and a better running surface than an expensive Department of Civil, ACE Page 6 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 pavement founded on large stone blocks. Thus he introduced an economical method of road construction. The mechanical interlock between the individual stone pieces provided strength and stiffness to the course. But the inter particle friction abraded the sharp interlocking faces and partly destroy the effectiveness of the course. This effect was overcome by introducing good quality interstitial ner material to produce a well-graded mix. Such mixes also proved less permeable and easier to compact. A typical cross section of British roads is given in Figure 2:3. 2.2.5 Modern roads The modern roads by and large follow Macadam's construction method. Use of bituminous concrete and cement concrete are the most important developments. Various advanced and cost-effective construction technologies are used. Development of new equipments help in the faster construction of roads. Many easily and locally available materials are tested in the laboratories and then implemented on roads for making economical and durable pavements. Scope of transportation system has developed very largely. Population of the country is increasing day by day. The life style of people began to change. The need for travel to various places at faster speeds also increased. This increasing demand led to the emergence of other modes of transportation like railways and travel by air. While the above development in public transport sector was taking place,the development in private transport was at a much faster rate mainly because of its advantages like accessibility, privacy, edibility, convenience and comfort. This led to the increase in vehicular traffic especially in private transport network. Thus road space available was becoming insufficient to meet the growing demand of traffic and congestion started. In addition, chances for accidents also increased. This has led to the increased attention towards control of vehicles so that the transport infrastructure was optimally used. Various control measures like traffic signals, providing roundabouts and medians, limiting the speed of vehicle at specific zones etc. were implemented. Department of Civil, ACE Page 7 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 CHAPTER: 2 Highway Development and planning in India 2.3 Highway planning in India Excavations in the sites of Indus valley, Mohenjo-dero and Harappan civilizations revealed the existence of planned roads in India as old as 2500-3500 BC. The Mauryan kings also built very good roads. Ancient books like Arthashastra written by Kautilya, a great administrator of the Mauryan times, contained rules for regulating tra c, depths of roads for various purposes, and punishments for obstructing trac. During the time of Mughal period, roads in India were greatly improved. Roads linking North-West and the Eastern areas through gang tic plains were built during this time. After the fall of the Mughals and at the beginning of British rule, many existing roads were improved. The construction of Grand-Trunk road connecting North and South is a major contribution of the British. However, the focus was later shifted to railways, except for feeder roads to important stations. 2.3 Highway planning in India Excavations in the sites of Indus valley, Mohenjo-dero and Harappan civilizations revealed the existence of planned roads in India as old as 2500-3500 BC. The Mauryan kings also built very good roads. Ancient books like Arthashastra written by Kautilya, a great administrator of the Mauryan times, contained rules for regulating tra c, depths of roads for various purposes, and punishments for obstructing tra c. During the time of Mughal period, roads in India were greatly improved. Roads linking North-West and the Eastern areas through gangetic plains were built during this time. After the fall of the Mughals and at the beginning of British rule, many existing roads were improved. The construction of Grand-Trunk road connecting North and South is a major contribution of the British. However, the focus was later shifted to railways, except for feeder roads to important stations. Department of Civil, ACE Page 8 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 The 1st World war period and that immediately following it found a rapid growth in motor transport. So need for better roads became a necessity. For that, the Government of India appointed a committee called Road development Committee with Mr.M.R. Jayakar as the chairman. This committee came to be known as Jayakar committee. Jayakar Committee In 1927 Jayakar committee for Indian road development was appointed. The major recommendations and the resulting implementations were:  Committee found that the road development of the country has become beyond the capacity of local governments and suggested that Central government should take the proper charge considering it as a matter of national interest.  They gave more stress on long term planning program, for a period of 20 years (hence called twenty year plan) that is to formulate plans and implement those plans with in the next 20 years.  One of the recommendations was the holding of periodic road conferences to discuss about road construction and development. This paved the way for the establishment of a semi social technical body called Indian Road Congress (IRC) in 1934  The committee suggested imposition of additional taxation on motor transport which includes duty on motor spirit, vehicle taxation, license fees for vehicles plying for hire. This led to the introduction of a development fund called Central road fund in 1929. This fund was intended for road development. Department of Civil, ACE Page 9 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 INTRODUCTION TO HIGHWAY ENGINEERING A dedicated research organization should be constituted to carry out research and development work. This resulted in the formation of Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) in 1950. Nagpur road congress 1943 The second World War saw a rapid growth in road trafficand this led to the deterioration in the condition of roads. To discuss about improving the condition of roads, the government convened a conference of chief engineers of provinces at Nagpur in 1943. The result of the conference is famous as the Nagpur plan. A twenty year development program for the period (1943-1963) was nailed. It was the 1st attempt to prepare a co-ordinate road development program in a planned manner. The roads were divided into four classes: A)National highways which would pass through states, and places having national importance for strategic, administrative and other purposes. B) State highways which would be the other main roads of a state. C) District roads which would take traffic from the main roads to the interior of the district According to the importance, some are considered as major district roads and the remaining as other district roads. D)Village roads which would link the villages to the road system. The committee planned to construct 2 lakh kms of road across the country within 20 years. They recommended the construction of star and grid pattern of roads throughout the country. One of the objective was that the road length should be increased so as to give a road density of 16kms per 100 sq.km Department of Civil, ACE Page 10 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 Bombay road congress 1961 The length of roads envisaged under the Nagpur plan was achieved by the end of it, but the road system was decient in many respects. The changed economic, industrial and agricultural conditions in the country warranted a review of the Nagpur plan. Accordingly a 20-year plan was drafted by the Roads wing of Government of India, which is popularly known as the Bombay plan. The highlights of the plan were: 1. It was the second 20 year road plan (1961-1981) 2. The total road length targeted to construct was about 10 lakhs. 3. Rural roads were given specific attention. Scientific methods of construction was proposed for the rural roads. 4. The necessary technical advice to the Panchayaths should be given by State PWD's. 5. They suggested that the length of the road should be increased so as to give a road density of 32kms/100 sq.km 6. The construction of 1600 km of expressways was also then included in the plan. Lucknow road congress 1984 This plan has been prepared keeping in view the growth pattern envisaged in various elds by the turn of the century. Some of the salient features of this plan are as given below: 1. This was the third 20 year road plan (1981-2001). It is also called Lucknow road plan. 2. It aimed at constructing a road length of 12 lakh kilometres by the year 1981 resulting in a road density of 82kms/100 sq.km 3. The plan has set the target length of NH to be completed by the end of seventh, eighth and ninth ve year plan periods. 4. It aims at improving the transportation facilities in villages, towns etc. such that no part of country is farther than 50 km from NH. 5. One of the goals contained in the plan was that expressways should be constructed on major trafficcorridors to provide speedy travel. 6. Energy conservation, environmental quality of roads and road safety measures were also given due impor-tance in this plan. Department of Civil, ACE Page 11 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 CHAPTER 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN Importance of Geometric Design factors affecting highway geometric design Design controls and Criteria- Highway Cross Section Elements- Sight Distance Elements- Stopping sight Distance, Overtaking Sight Distance Intermediate Sight Distance Design of Horizontal Alignment Design of Super elevation Extra widening Design of Transition Curves Design of Vertical alignment Gradients- Vertical curves Department of Civil, ACE Page 12 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 CHAPTER 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN Overview The features of the cross-section of the pavement influences the life of the pavement as well as the riding comfort and safety. Of these, pavement surface characteristics a etc both of these. Camber, kerbs, and geometry of various cross-sectional elements are important aspects to be considered in this regard. They are explained brie y in this chapter. Pavement surface characteristics For safe and comfortable driving four aspects of the pavement surface are important; the friction between the wheels and the pavement surface, smoothness of the road surface, the light reflection characteristics of the top of pavement surface, and drainage to water. Friction Friction between the wheel and the pavement surface is a crucial factor in the design of horizontal curves and thus the safe operating speed. Further, it also a etc the acceleration and deceleration ability of vehicles. Lack of adequate friction can cause skidding or slipping of vehicles. Skidding happens when the path traveled along the road surface is more than the circumferential movement of the wheels due to friction Slip occurs when the wheel revolves more than the corresponding longitudinal movement along the road. Various factors that a etc friction are: 1. Type of the pavement (like bituminous, concrete, or gravel), 2. Condition of the pavement (dry or wet, hot or cold, etc), 3. Condition of the tyre (new or old), and Speed and load of the vehicle. The frictional force that develops between the wheel and the pavement is the load acting multiplied by a factor called the coefficient of friction and denoted as f . The choice of the value of f is a very complicated issue since it depends on many variables. IRC suggests the coefficient of longitudinal friction as 0.35-0.4 depending on the speed and coefficient of lateral friction as 0.15. The former is useful in sight distance calculation and the latter in horizontal curve design. Department of Civil, ACE Page 13 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 Unevenness It is always desirable to have an even surface, but it is seldom possible to have such a one. Even if a road is constructed with high quality pavers, it is possible to develop unevenness due to pavement failures. Unevenness a etc the vehicle operating cost, speed, riding comfort, safety, fuel consumption and wear and tear of tyres. Unevenness index is a measure of unevenness which is the cumulative measure of vertical undulations of the pavement surface recorded per unit horizontal length of the road. An unevenness index value less than 1500 mm/km is considered as good, a value less than 2500 mm.km is satisfactory up to speed of 100 kmph and values greater than 3200 mm/km is considered as uncomfortable even for 55 kmph. Light reflection 1. White roads have good visibility at night, but caused glare during day time. 2. Black roads has no glare during day, but has poor visibility at night 3. Concrete roads has better visibility and less glare It is necessary that the road surface should be visible at night and reflection of light is the factor that answers it. Drainage The pavement surface should be absolutely impermeable to prevent seepage of water into the pavement layers. Further, both the geometry and texture of pavement surface should help in draining out the water from the surface in less time. Camber Camber or cant is the cross slope provided to raise middle of the road surface in the transverse direction to drain o rain water from road surface. The objectives of providing camber are:  Surface protection especially for gravel and bituminous roads  Sub-grade protection by proper drainage quick drying of pavement which in turn increases safety Too steep slope is undesirable for it will erode the surface. Camber is measured in 1 in n or n% (Eg. 1 in 50 or 2%) and the value depends on the type of pavement surface. The values suggested by IRC for various categories of pavement is given in Table 12:1. The common types of camber are parabolic, straight, or combination of them (Figure 12:1) Department of Civil, ACE Page 14 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 1 in n W 1 in n W 2n W W Department of Civil, ACE Page 15 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 Surface Heavy Light type rain rain Concrete/Bituminous 2 % 1.7 % Gravel/WBM 3 % 2.5 % Earthen 4 % 3.0 % Table 12:1: IRC Values for camber Width of carriage way Width of the carriage way or the width of the pavement depends on the width of the traffic lane and number of lanes. Width of a traffic lane depends on the width of the vehicle and the clearance. Side clearance improves operating speed and safety. The maximum permissible width of a vehicle is 2.44 and the desirable side clearance for single lane traffic is 0.68 m. This require minimum of lane width of 3.75 m for a single lane road (Figure 12:2a). However, the side clearance required is about 0.53 m, on either side and 1.06 m in the center. Therefore, a two lane road require minimum of 3.5 meter for each lane (Figure 12:2b). The desirable carriage way width recommended by IRC is given in Table 12:2 Single lane 3.75 Two lane, no kerbs 7.0 Two lane, raised kerbs 7.5 Intermediate carriage 5.5 Multi-lane 3.5 Table 12:2: IRC Specification for carriage way width Figure 12:2: Lane width for single and two lane roads 2.44m 0.68m 0.53 2.44m 1.06m 2.44m 3.8m 7.0m SINGLE LANE DOUBLE LANE Department of Civil, ACE Page 16 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 Kerbs Kerbs indicate the boundary between the carriage way and the shoulder or islands or footpaths. Different types of kerbs are (Figure 12:3): Low or mountable kerbs : This type of kerbs are provided such that they encourage the traffic to remain in the through traffic lanes and also allow the driver to enter the shoulder area with little difficulty. The height of this kerb is about 10 cm above the pavement edge with a slope which allows the vehicle to climb easily. This is usually provided at medians and channelization schemes and also helps in longitudinal drainage. Semi-barrier type kerbs : When the pedestrian traffic is high, these kerbs are provided. Their height is 15 cm above the pavement edge. This type of kerb prevents encroachment of parking vehicles, but at acute emergency it is possible to drive over this kerb with some difficulty. Barrier type kerbs : They are designed to discourage vehicles from leaving the pavement. They are provided when there is considerable amount of pedestrian track. They are placed at a height of 20 cm above the pavement edge with a steep batter. Submerged kerbs : They are used in rural roads. The kerbs are provided at pavement edges between the pavement edge and shoulders. They provide lateral confinement and stability to the pavement. 10 15cm cm carriage way carriage way a. Mountable c. Semi barrier type shoulder carriage way 20 cm carriage way b. Barrier type d. Submerged Figure 12:3: Different types of kerbs Department of Civil, ACE Page 17 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 CHAPTER: 4 Flexible Pavement Road margins The portion of the road beyond the carriageway and on the roadway can be generally called road margin. Various elements that form the road margins are given below. Shoulders Shoulders are provided along the road edge and is intended for accommodation of stopped vehicles, serve as an emergency lane for vehicles and provide lateral support for base and surface courses. The shoulder should be strong enough to bear the weight of a fully loaded truck even in wet conditions. The shoulder width should be adequate for giving working space around a stopped vehicle. It is desirable to have a width of 4.6 m for the shoulders. A minimum width of 2.5 m is recommended for 2-lane rural highways in India. Parking lanes Parking lanes are provided in urban lanes for side parking. Parallel parking is preferred because it is safe for the vehicles moving on the road. The parking lane should have a minimum of 3.0 m width in the case of parallel parking. Bus-bays Bus bays are provided by recessing the kerbs for bus stops. They are provided so that they do not obstruct the movement of vehicles in the carriage way. They should be at least 75 meters away from the intersection so that the traffic near the intersections is not affected by the bus- bay. Service roads Service roads or frontage roads give access to access controlled highways like freeways and expressways. They run parallel to the highway and will be usually isolated by a separator and access to the highway will be provided only at selected points. These roads are provided to avoid congestion in the expressways and also the speed of the traffic in those lanes is not reduced. Cycle track Cycle tracks are provided in urban areas when the volume of cycle traffic is high Minimum width of 2 meter is required, which may be increased by 1 meter for every additional track. Footpath Footpaths are exclusive right of way to pedestrians, especially in urban areas. They are provided for the safety of the pedestrians when both the pedestrian trafficand vehicular trafficis high. Minimum width is 1.5 meter and may be increased based on the tra c. The Department of Civil, ACE Page 18 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 footpath should be either as smooth as the pavement or more smoother than that to induce the pedestrian to use the footpath. Guard rails They are provided at the edge of the shoulder usually when the road is on an embankment. They serve to prevent the vehicles from running o the embankment, especially when the height of the ll exceeds 3 m. Various designs of guard rails are there. Guard stones painted in alternate black and white are usually used. They also give better visibility of curves at night under headlights of vehicles. Width of formation Width of formation or roadway width is the sum of the widths of pavements or carriage way including separators and shoulders. This does not include the extra land in formation/cutting. The values suggested by IRC are given in Table 12:3. Road classification Roadway width in m Plain and Mountainous and rolling terrain steep terrain NH/SH 12 6.25 – 8.8 MDR 9 4.75 ODR 7.5 – 9.0 4.75 VR 7.5 4.0 Table 12:3: Width of formation for various classed of roads Department of Civil, ACE Page 19 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 Right of way Right of way (ROW) or land width is the width of land acquired for the road, along its alignment. It should be adequate to accommodate all the cross-sectional elements of the highway and may reasonably provide for future development. To prevent ribbon development along highways, control lines and building lines may be provided. Control line is a line which represents the nearest limits of future uncontrolled building activity in relation to a road. Building line represents a line on either side of the road, between which and the road no building activity is permitted at all. The right of way width is governed by: Width of formation: It depends on the category of the highway and width of roadway and road margins. Height of embankment or depth of cutting: It is governed by the topography and the vertical alignment. Side slopes of embankment or cutting: It depends on the height of the slope, soil type etc. Drainage system and their size which depends on rainfall, topography etc. Sight distance considerations : On curves etc. there is restriction to the visibility on the inner side of the curve due to the presence of some obstructions like building structures etc. Reserve land for future widening: Some land has to be acquired in advance anticipating future developments like widening of the road. Road classification Road width in m Plain and Mountainous and Rolling terrain Steep terrain OPEN AREAS NH/SH 45 24 MDR 25 18 ODR 15 15 VR 12 9 BUILT UP AREAS NH/SH 30 20 MDR 20 15 ODR 15 12 VR 10 9 Table 12:4: Normal right of way for open areas Department of Civil, ACE Page 20

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