How News Reporting works

lecture notes journalism. what is news reporting and writing and what is news reporting and editing. how has news reporting changed with the internet
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Published Date:15-07-2017
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LECTURE-1 Introduction to News Reporting The students of journalism or mass communication must know the basic terminologies which are being used by the professionals. Before proceeding further lets discuss them first. JOURNALISM • Journalism or News … described to be the first draft of history. • Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, it also includes the process of editing and presenting the news on print and electronic media. • Material written for publication in a newspaper or magazine or for broadcast. • The collecting, writing, editing, and presenting of news or news articles in newspapers and magazines and in radio and television broadcasts. • Written material of current interest or wide popular appeal. • Collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through media such as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, film, television, and books. JOURNALIST • A journalist is one whose occupation is journalism. • A journalist collects and disseminates information about current events, people, trends, and issues. His or her work is acknowledged as journalism. • A person who writes for Newspaper or Magazine or prepare news to be broadcast on Radio or Television. 1NEWS MEDIA • The news media refers to the section of the mass media that focuses on presenting current news to the public. These include print media, broadcast media and increasingly internet based media. NEWS • Any information on current events relayed by print, broadcast or world of mouth to a third party or mass audience is a news. NEWS CONTENTS • Commonly, news contain the information about who, what, when, where, why and how of an event. • No special talent is required to recognize conventional news, when they occur. • Political changes, natural and man made disaster, special upheavals unusual crimes notable trails………. all speak themselves • Distinguish journalist has an ability to identify the newsworthy elements of these happening. • Always ask your self how valuable is this news for target audience • Get close to the grassroots to get original and first hand material CURRENT AFFAIRS • Current Affairs is explanation and analysis of current events, conflicts and policy matters. • Current Affairs are also called follow up of events of current happenings. • Information alone can not build your opinion, you need to know more about the latest happenings. COLUMN • A vertical division of a news paper page or text is called column. • Regular section of a newspaper or magazine on a particular subject or by a particular person is also called column. 2• Upright pillar supporting an arch of upper structure. • Line of people and deep formation of troop is also called column. ARTICLE • A piece of writing in a newspaper or magazine by a person to give his point of view on a subject in a separate paragraph is called an article. EDITORIAL • A newspaper view on a topical issue. • Editorial depicts the policy of newspaper on a particular issue. MEDIA TOOLS • Print (Newspaper) • Television • Radio • Fax • Telephone/ Cell Phone • Web and Internet etc. INTERNET th • Internet is one of the greatest invention of the 20 century • It is an online addiction • Remarkable communication • No scheduled broadcast • Shaping new world culture • Net culture (its own language of self-description) • It provides freedom and access 3ELECTRONIC MEDIA • Electronic media is a medium which utilizes electronics or electromechanical energy to disseminate the contents to the audience/viewers/listener. 4LECTURE- 2 Introduction to News Curiosity and inquisitiveness are the part of human nature. Every one is curious to know about other and the happing around him. To satisfy this trait, gathering and dissemination of news started and the communication tool were invented. The history of news reporting goes along with invention in the society. HISTORY OF NEWS • Invention of Paper, Printing Press, Radio, Television, Loudspeaker and satellite. In its infancy, news gathering was primitive by today's standards. Events that used to take hours or days to become common in towns or in nations are fed instantly to consumers via radio, television, mobile phone, and the Internet. ORIGION OF NEWS • NEWS…… comes from Greek word “NEOS” • In English….. “NEWES” • In French…… “NOVELLAS” • In German….. “NEUES” • In Slavic Language (Czech, Solovak and Polish) …………”NOVINY” • In Arabia………”ALAKHBAR” • In Urdu……… “KHABAR” CARDINAL DIRECTION • North………………N • East………………..E • West………………W • South………………S 5 NEWSPAPERS • Newspapers can be termed as publications containing news, information and advertising. • Usually on low-cast paper. • In English speaking world earliest newspaper was on cartoon • First weekly news in 1622 • First true English newspaper was “London Gazette ”. • In Boston “Boston news letter” (First Newspaper of USA) • After industrial revolution dramatic development started in 1850 over 2,526 newspapers (daily, weekly, monthly) • “Were it left to me to decide whether/ we should have a government without newspaper/ or newspaper without government/ I should not hesitate / • A moment to prefer the latter”. Thomas Jefferson, Farmer President of USA DEVELOPMENT OF TV th th • Result of technological development of 19 and early 20 century. • Rapid growth – following World War II. • 1940 emerged form experimental begging’s to become a fixture in Britain and USA. • In Asia Philippine started in • 1953 – 1960 • Eighteen Asian Nations including Pakistan entered the TV Age • PTV started on 26 November 1964 RADIO • Radio and recording industry started in 1844 • In 1844 the first telegraph line was introduced ………and nature of our world started to change. 6 PHOTOJOURNALISM • Is a form of journalism which creates images in order to tell a news story. • Objectivity of the photojournalism is fair and accurate representation • One feels connected to far away • A picture is substitute to 1000 words. th • Mid 19 Century……Box camera was invented. • Portable camera….record negative images • 1930’s made photography to move or inaction movie camera 35 mm • 1930 to 1950……( Move film making ….newspapers photography) • 1970’s………Development of Art World/ Exhibitions/ Photo galleries / Documentary Production • Introduction of digital cameras • Capacity for reporting up to the minutes • News from all over the world • In photojournalism it is important what to shoot, how to frame and how to edit. 7LECTURE-3 What is News WHAT IS NEWS • What makes something “news”? • NEW is NEW, n-e-w-s spell “NEW”. SPECIALIZED CATEGORIES OF NEWS. • Spot News : Events happening right now • Daily News : Scheduled events • Enterprise : Stories important to the audience • Feature : Fun or interesting News • Franchise : Scheduled specialized subject • Automotive news • Business news • Entertainment news • Alumni news, • Economist magazine or business WHAT MAKES NEWS • Time : How immediate is the event? • Geography : How close is the event? • Quantity : How many people does it affect? • Degree : How are people affected? (Taxes, Salary) • Context : Relation to other events th • Interest : i.e. 4 murder of week • Timeliness : Is it a recent development, or is it old news? • Proximity : Is the story relevant to target / listeners? 8• Conflict : Is the issue developing has been resolved or does anybody care? • Eminence & Prominence: Noteworthy people involved? If so, that makes the story more important. • Human Interest: May not be an earth-shattering event, does it contain unique, interesting elements? 9LECTURE-4 News Cycle No doubt news is news, but keeping in view the interest of target audience there are certain classifications. CLASSIFICATION OF NEWS • National News • International News • Local News • Sports News • District News • Commercial News • Weather News • Business News • Showbiz News • Hard News • Soft News NEWS VALUES • News Values determine how much prominence a news story is given by the media outlets • 4 Cs are important for a news i) Concise ii) Credible iii) Clear iv) Correct 10• The importance and value of the news also depends upon the following. • Accuracy, Speed, Interest, Timelines, Proximity, Conflict involve people, Prominence/ Eminence, Note worthy peoples and VVIPs attract media and public, Impact and Consequence, What effect the story have on readers, Budget Announcement, Taxation, Some new policy , Human interest News, Appeal to the emotion. NEWS CYCLE • Acquisition (Gathering) • Processing • Dissemination ACQUISITION • The word acquisition means “something acquired” or “gained” In Journalism it means “to get news material”. A reporter acquires news materials by interviewing, examining documents or observing on the sites or covering the events. PROCESSING • Processing is a series of action or steps towards achieving a particular end. • A reporter puts the material in a process before it is delivered to the audiences, this is called processing. The gathered information sometimes requires editing before it makes a way to the audience. DISSEMINATION • Circulation, distribution, spreading • Displaying the news on screen or transmitting or broadcasting the news bulletins for reporter in the field. • A reporter in field reports live for the viewers. • In the modern journalism following titles have been given to the news. keeping in view their importance. 11BREAKING NEWS • There is no scientific formula to define the breaking news. • Breaking news is a subjective decision of the editor. • To give breaking news one has to break the regular programming in the transmission and inform viewers about the new happenings. • Any new happening or development which attracts viewers is called breaking news. TICKER • A data in a printed form on a strip or paper is called ticker. • In modern media terminology, ticker is a electric strips which disseminate news information on electronic screen. FLASH • Bright shine but brief. • Move or send very quickly. • An impressive and quick display. • Sudden or brief burst light. FLASH BACK • Scene of film or writing set in a time earlier than the main story. • Sudden vivid memory of a past. NEWS UPDATE • Give the latest information to an earlier happening. • Act of updating the version being given earlier. 12LECTURE- 5 Elements of News ELEMENTS OF NEWS REPORTING • The major elements of good news reporting are: accuracy, speed, interest, newsworthiness, clarity, conciseness, objectivity, factuality, comprehensiveness, cohesiveness and meaningfulness. ACCURACY • Accuracy also means: • To take care • Free from mistakes • Correct in all details • Accuracy is also called live virtue. • Accuracy is a journalistic proverb. News professional says “In case of doubt, leave it out”. It means that if there is any doubt in facts, do not report, it is better not to report than to report wrong. • Check and double check your facts. • Confirm information, do not rely on the wires. • Do not accept at face value every wire story. If anything sound suspicious to you, call the wire service. • Be careful with names. Go over each story after you have written it. • Always confirm facts with at least two sources on controversial stories, preferably three. • You have to report what we know, not what you think. • Keep your opinion out of the story. When we report on what we think it is “analysis” not news. • The best written, most creative copy is meaningless unless it is a accurate. • Inaccuracy is a grave sin or a crime in the profession of news. 13• Sometimes inaccuracy brings on a legal action. • SPEED is an important element of news. Speed is a rate at which something or someone moves to operate. A good and accurate news report must be reported with speed. After accuracy the speed comes. If you delay in reporting, someone else will report. • INTEREST is also one of the main element of news. If people have interest in your story they will read and watch. Interest means holding the attention, share of involvement and attract the people. • NEWSWORTHINESS means to have something new for the target readers/viewers. • CLARITY means the state or quality of being clear, distinct, understood or perceived. • CONCISENESS: Giving information clearly and in few words. Derived from French word “Concis”. • OBJECTIVITY: Not influenced by personal feelings or opinion in considering and representing facts. • Reporters are expected to aim for objectivity. • Expected to cover all sides/aspects of an issue. • Generally reporters are expected to remain neutral. • It is difficult to achieve. • FACUAL means that news report is based on facts and can not be contradicted. COMPREHENSIVENESS: • Dealing with all aspects of news. • A detailed content. • Covering all events of a news event or a personality. COHESIVENESS: • The act, process, or condition of cohering. • Causing cohesion. • MEANINGFULNESS means that the news report has the value for readers/viewers. 14LECTURE-6 Sources of News I SOURCE • In journalism, a source is a person, publication, record or a document that provides information. WHAT IS SOURCE • Source is also called a point from where something is derived or obtained. • Point of origin of information is also called a source. • A person or document that supplies information is also a source. • Causes, creates, or initiates. NEWS SOURCES • A reporter collects information from various sources. Information can be collected through observation or by interviewing a person. Information can be derived from, public documents, statistics, private diaries, letters, books , libraries, newspapers, magazines, internet, wastebaskets or microfilms. SOURCE • We can divide the sources in two categories. • Conventional sources • Modern Sources • Conventional Sources • Press Conferences. • President + Prime Minister’s Address to the Nation. • Briefing by various ministers • Press releases • Budget • Export policy announcements • Government / opposition reactions 15• Parliament • Radio monitoring • TV monitoring • Foreign office • Court decisions • Accidents • Religious activities • Terrorist activities/Terrorism • Celebrities • Jobs/ Employment • Industry • Associations • Sports • Books • Airports • Real estate • Immigrations • Sea • Roads • Travel • Universities • Antiquities • Friends • Family issues • Animals and pets • Shopping • Fashion • Farming • Over heard • Diary and Club + entertainment 16LECTURE-7 Sources of News II WHAT IS NEWS AGENCIES OR WIRE SERVICE • A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news items to newspapers, magazines, radio and television broadcasters. • News agencies are also known as wire services or news services. • News agencies generally prepare hard news stories and feature articles . NEWS AGENCIES/ WIRE SERVICE • Four major news agencies of the world are Associated Press (AP), Reuters, AFP and United Press International (UPI). • These News agencies (transmit news of local, regional, national and international significance). • AP and Reuters news agencies also provide video service to the clients. • Developments of the news agencies have a great impact on the process of foreign news selection and reporting. Colonial news agencies are still strong. • Developing countries are influenced by the world’s leading wire services. • They report the event form their own national and global interests. • The main Chinese news agency is New China News Agency. Its Headquarters is in Beijing. • Russian’s major news agency is TASS. This news agency is also named as ITAR – TASS. • The official News agency of Iran is called PARAS. • Organization of Islamic Countries news agency is IINA (Islamic International News agency) it was established by the OIC. • Turkish news agency is ANADOLU AJANSI • Indonesian news agency is called ANTARANEWS. 17• Before is emergence of Pakistan in United India the first news agency was established in 1905. • It was named as Associated Press of India. • During first world war another news agency was formed with the name of Orient Press of India. • First news agency of Pakistan was established with the name of Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) SOURCES IN NEWSROOM • Newsroom itself is also an important source of news. There are number of reference books that are available in the newsroom which can be the important sources of news. • One of the hi-tech source of news is CQ Researcher (Congressional Quarterly researcher). It contains all quarterly information about the function and working of American congress. These types of sources are also available about Pakistan’s Parliament.? • World Almanac and world year book are also very valuable sources of news. • Law dictionaries and legal encyclopedia can also be termed as sources of information. • Digests of cases, Freedom of information act and State information act can also be good source of information. 18LECTURE- 8 Sources of News III SOURCE • News writing is generally a young person’s profession. • If you have the ambition, drive, energy and willingness to pursue a story aggressively you can get it. • Electronic data bases are the newest tools. Writers can use the database in their search for information. • A new breed of reporter getting out valuable information from electronic sources. • Full text data bases. The actual text of records, articles or statements are displayed on the researcher’s screen. • Citation data • CD-ROM is a type of computer storage medium which reads optically by a laser beam. The data is accessed using reading machines connected directly to news writers’ computers. • To use CD-ROM, you need a CD-ROM player (a reader) compatible with your own computer. • Maps can be manipulated to enrich news stories and features. • CAR : Computer-assisted reporting (CAR) It can involve online research and database journalism. • One can get employed to work from home. (web.addren) USING RECORDS • Records are an important source of information. One can get the information by searching the following records. • Birth records • Marriage • Divorce • Real estate 19• Voter registration • Auto records • Traffic accident reports • Income tax records • Telephone records. ACCESS TO PUBLIC RECORDS • Make a written request. • The request should identify the documents. • Do not state the reason why you want to inspect the documents. • Libraries not only contain resources for story research, they can also be the source of new ideas, background information, and fact verification. • Glance through magazine articles. • Reference books and materials. • Glance through magazine articles. • Reference books and materials. HOW TO GENERATE SOURCES • Read. Read widely. • Patronize the Library • Listen • Identify records. • Be friendly • Subscribe • Entertain opposites • Develop expertise. • To get good ideas, invest your time wisely, continue pursuing knowledge, and probe, search, and investigate with an open mind. 20

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