Lecture notes Solid state Chemistry

what is solid state chemistry all about introduction to solid state chemistry lecture notes and solid state chemistry and its applications pdf free download
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MarthaKelly,Mexico,Researcher
Published Date:12-07-2017
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Solids Solid State Chemistry, a subdiscipline of Inorganic Chemistry, primarily involves the study of extended solids. •Except for helium, all substances form a solid if sufficiently cooled at 1 atm. •The vast majority of solids form one or more crystalline phases – where the atoms, molecules, or ions form a regular repeating array (unit cell). •The primary focus will be on the structures of metals, ionic solids, and extended covalent structures, where extended bonding arrangements dominate. •The properties of solids are related to its structure and bonding. •In order to understand or modify the properties of a solid, we need to know the structure of the material. •Crystal structures are usually determined by the technique of X-ray crystallography. •Structures of many inorganic compounds may be initially described in terms of simple packing of spheres. Close-Packing Close-packed array of circles Square array of circles Considering the packing of spheres in only 2-dimensions, how efficiently do the spheres pack for the square array compared to the close packed array? 1Layer A Layer B 2ccp cubic close packed hcp hexagonal close packed Layer B (dark lines) CCP HCP 3In ionic crystals, ions pack themselves so as to maximize the attractions and minimize repulsions between the ions. •A more efficient packing improves these interactions. •Placing a sphere in the crevice or depression between two others gives improved packing efficiency. hexagonal close packed (hcp) ABABAB Space Group: P6 /mmc 3 cubic close packed (ccp) ABCABC Space Group: Fm3m Face centered cubic (fcc) has cubic symmetry. 4Atom is in contact with three atoms above in layer A, six around it in layer C, and three atoms in layer B. A ccp structure has a fcc unit cell. Coordination Number ccp hcp The coordination number of each atom is 12. 5Primitive Cubic Body Centered Cubic (bcc) 6How many atoms in the unit cell of the following? Primitive (P) Body Centered (I) Face-Centered (A, B, C) All Face-Centered (F) 8(1/8) + 6(1/2) = 4 atoms per unit cell Spheres are in contact along the face diagonal, thus l = d√2. The fraction of space occupied by spheres is: Packing Efficiency: ratio of space occupied 4   3  (d / 2)  4 by spheres to that of   V spheres 3   the unit cell   0.74 3 V (d 2 ) unitcell It is the most efficient (tied with hcp) packing scheme. The density expression is: 23 number of formula units (FW / 6.02210 (in g/atom)) 3 Density(g / cm )  3 V (cm ) unitcell 7Occurrence of packing types assumed by elements The majority of the elements crystallize in ccp(fcc), hcp, or bcc. Polonium adopts a simple cubic structure Other sequences include ABAC (La, Pr, Nd, Am), and ABACACBCB (Sm). Actinides are more complex. 8Pressure-temperature phase diagram for iron Symmetry Symmetry is useful when it comes to describing the shapes of both individual molecules and regular repeating structures. Point symmetry - is the symmetry possessed by a single object that describes the repetition of identical parts of the object Symmetry operations – are actions such as rotating an object or molecule () Symmetry elements – are the rotational axes, mirror planes, etc., possessed by objects Schoenflies- useful in describing the point symmetry of individual molecules (spectroscopists) Hermann-Mauguin – can describe the point symmetry of individual molecules, and also the relationship of different atoms to one another in space (space symmetry) 9Hermann-Mauguin: Axes of Symmetry: 2, 3, 4, 6 Proper axes of rotation (C ) n Rotation with respect to a line (axis of symmetry) which molecules rotate. •C is a rotation of (360/n)°, where n is the order of the axis. n •C = 180° rotation, C = 120° rotation, C = 90° rotation, C = 72° rotation, C = 60° rotation… 2 3 4 5 6 •Each rotation brings you to the indistinguishable state for original. However, rotation by 90° about the same axis does not give back XeF is square planar. 4 the identical molecule. It has four different C axes. Therefore H O does NOT possess 2 2 a C symmetry axis. 4 A C axis out of the page is 4 called the principle axis because it has the largest n. By convention, the principle axis is in the z-direction Hermann-Mauguin: Planes and Reflection (σ) m Molecules contain mirror planes, the symmetry element is called a mirror plane or plane of symmetry. •σ (horizontal): plane perpendicular to principal axis h •σ (dihedral), σ (vertical): plane colinear with principal axis d v •σ : Vertical, parallel to principal axis v •σ : σ parallel to C and bisecting two C ' axes d n 2 10Hermann-Mauguin: Inversion, Center of Inversion (i) 1 A center of symmetry: A point at the center of the molecule. (x,y,z) → (-x,-y,-z). Tetrahedrons, triangles, and pentagons don't have a center of inversion symmetry. C H 2 6 Ru(CO) 6 Hermann-Mauguin: n Rotation-reflection, Improper axis (S ) n •This is a compound operation combining a rotation (C ) with a reflection through n a plane perpendicular to the C axis σ .(C followed by σ ) σC =S (Schoenflies) n h n h n n •It may be viewed as a combination of a rotation (1/n of a rotation) and inversion. (Hermann-Mauguin) Equivalent Symmetry elements in Schoenflies and Hermann-Maguin Systems Schoenflies Hermann- Mauguin S≡ m 2≡ m 1 S≡ i 1≡ i 2 S 6 3 S 4 4 S 3 6 solid state molecular spectroscopy 11Hermann-Mauguin inversion axis n 1 4 Symmetry: Individual Molecules to Crystals The molecules are related in space by a symmetry element they do not possess, this is the site symmetry. 12Crystals Lattices and Unit Cells A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern of ‘building blocks’, extending in all three spatial dimensions. -the ‘building block’ is known as the unit cell. Simplest regular array is a line of evenly spaced objects (one-dimensional). a The line of dots is called the lattice, and each lattice point (dot) must have identical surroundings. The choice of unit cell is arbitrary. a 13Lattice + basis = crystal structure + = Lattice points are associated to a basis + = lattice basis CRYSTAL STRUCTURE = lattice + basis (atoms or ions) Crystal Lattices Space lattice a pattern of points that describes the arrangement of ions, atoms, or molecules in a crystal lattice. Unit Cell the smallest, convenient microscopic fraction of a space lattice that: 1. When moved a distance equal to its own dimensions (in various directions) generates the entire space lattice. 2. reflects as closely as possible the geometric shape or symmetry of the macroscopic crystal. Although crystals exist as three dimensional forms, first consider 2D. A crystal contains approximately Avogadro’s number of atoms, ions, or molecules. The points in a lattice extend pseudo infinitely. How does one describe the entire space lattice in terms of a single unit cell? What kinds of shapes should be considered? 14Square 2d array Select a unit cell based on, 1. Symmetry of the unit cell should be identical with symmetry of the lattice 2. Unit cell and crystal class (triclinic…) are related 3. The smallest possible cell should be chosen Rectangular 2d array Centered cell (C) – have a lattice point at each corner and one totally enclosed in the cell. Primitive cell (P) – have a lattice point at each corner and contain one lattice point. 15Five Types of Planar 2-D Lattices 16Translational Symmetry Elements – Glide Plane and Screw Axis Glide plane – combination of translation with reflection. z x a y , + Glide plane Glide direction + + a/2 Comma indicates that some molecules when reflected through a plane of symmetry are enantiomorphic, meaning the molecule is not superimposable on its mirror image. Translational symmetry elements: Glide plane 1. Reflection at a mirror plane 2. Translation by t/2 (glide component) Axial glides a, b, c a/2, b/2, c/2 Diagonal glides n Vector sum of any two a/2, b/2, c/2, e.g. a/2 + b/2 Diamond glide d Vector sum of any two a/4, b/4, c/4, e.g. a/4 + b/4 17Screw axis –combination of translation with rotation. –uses the symbol n , where n is the rotational order of the axis i (twofold, threefold, etc.) and the translation distance is given by the ratio i/n. y z Example of a 2 screw axis 1 c x - 2 Screw 1 axis + + c/2 Rotation axis Screw axis 18Symmetry elements with respect to an axis Rotation angle q = 360°/ X, X = of rotations Symbol q 1-fold axis: 360° 1 2-fold axis: 180° 2 3-fold axis: 120° 3 4-fold axis: 90° 4 6-fold axis: 60° 6 5-fold, 7-fold, 8-fold, 10-fold (…) axes are not possible in 3 dimensional space. 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Dan Shechtman "for the discovery of quasicrystals“ notwithstanding http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2011/press.html 19Three-Dimensional Unit Cells The unit cell of a three-dimensional lattice is a parallelepiped defined by three distances (a, b, c) and three angles (a, b, g). 7 Lattice systems 14 Bravais lattices Different ways to combine 3 non-parallel, non-coplanar axes Compatible with 32 3-D point groups (or crystal classes) Combine 14 Bravais Lattices, 32 translation free 3D point groups, and glide plane and screw axes result in 230 space groups. Seven Lattice systems 20

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