Lecture notes on English Grammar

how to improve English grammar and writing and how to learn English grammar and tenses free pdf download
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Dr.AstonCole,United Kingdom,Researcher
Published Date:10-07-2017
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BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR Book 1 Book Book 1 1 BASIC ENGLISH BASIC ENGLISH BASIC ENGLISH BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR GRAMMAR GRAMMAR GRAMMAR Book Book 1 1 Younger students at beginning to intermediate levels will greatly benefit from this step-by-step approach to English grammar basics. This is the ideal supplement to your language arts program whether your students are native English speakers or beginning English language learners. Skill-specific lessons make it easy to locate and prescribe instant reinforcement or intervention. • Illustrated lessons are tightly focused on core concepts of grammar • Nearly 70 practice exercises are included for ready reinforcement • A wealth of examples are provided on every topic • Concise explanations are bolstered by extra grammar tips and useful language notesWhat is Grammar? 1 Here’s an old children’s rhyme about the eight parts of speech of English grammar. It gives you an idea of what grammar is about. Read and remember it. Every name is called a noun, Pronoun As field and fountain, street and town. Noun In place of noun the pronoun stands, As he and she can clap their hands. The adjective describes a thing, As magic wand or bridal ring. Adjective Most verbs mean action, something done, Verb To read and write, to jump and run. How things are done the adverbs tell, As quickly, slowly, badly, well. Adverb The preposition shows relation, As in the street or at the station. Conjunctions join, in many ways, Sentences, words, or phrase and phrase. The interjection cries out, “Heed Interjection Conjunction An exclamation point must follow me”  PrepositionThe Capital Letter 2 The capital letter is also called a big letter or upper- case letter, or sometimes just a capital. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z When do you use a capital letter? 4 Use a capital letter for the first letter in a sentence: The dog is barking. Come here 4 Always use a capital letter for the word : I I am eight years old. I Tom and are good friends. 4 Use a capital letter for the names of people: Alice, Tom, James, Kim, Snow White 4 Use a capital letter for the names of places: National Museum, Bronx Zoo, London, Sacramento 4 Use a capital letter for festivals, holidays, days of the week, months of the year: New Year’s Day, Christmas, Labor Day, Mother’s Day, Sunday, Monday, Friday, January, May, July, October Exercise 1 Circle the letters that should be CAPITALS. Then write the correct letter in the space above them. 1 peter and i are good friends. 2 we are going to chicago during our summer vacation. 3 there is an interesting football game on sunday. 4 jason lives on thomson avenue.  january is the first month of the year. Exercise 2 Look at the signs on the left. Can you find the mistakes? Write the names correctly. hopkins hotel lincoln school orchard street newton road botanic gardens national library shea stadium ? w o n k u o Nouns 3 Common Nouns Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns. Common nouns are words for people, animals, places, or things. These are words for people. They are common nouns. artist Word File Here are more words for people: actor lawyer aunt judge baby man baker nurse cook police officer acrobat clown dentist singer doctor soldier giant teacher astronaut Another word for astronaut is spaceman or spacewoman.  y d i DThese are words for animals. They are common nouns. eagle zebra deer crocodile bird bear Word File Here are more words for animals: cat goose cow hen dog horse dolphin mouse duck parrot fish shark goat whale Everfresh Co. These are words for places. They are common nouns. beach park Word File Here are more words for places: airport market cave mountain library church playground farm restaurant shop hill school hospital seashore hotel stadium house supermarket island temple mall zoo 10These are words for things. They are common nouns. basket bed drum cake Word File blanket Here are more words for things: bag kite box ladder bread lamp can picture chair radio cot television cup train desk truck door watch egg window gate 11Exercise 1 Underline the common nouns in these sentences. 1 There’s a little bird in the garden. 2 Who is your teacher? 3 Don’t eat that rotten apple. 4 Kate has a lovely doll.  I like reading stories.  My father is a doctor.  Every child has a dictionary.  Rudy hates bananas.  The phone is ringing. 10 Here’s a book for you. Exercise 2 Here’s a mixed bag of words. Put each word under its correct heading. swimmer snail fire engine clown letters flag river barber mountain fox hotel parrot granny taxi gardener camel People Animals Places Things 12? w o n k u o Proper Nouns Proper nouns are names for particular people, places or things. They always begin with a capital letter. Omar Beethoven Santa Claus Word File Here are some more names of people: Ali Baba Florence Nightingale Derek Jeter Pauline Lisa Johnny Depp Patrick Harry Potter Pinocchio Robin Hood Your own name and the names of your friends are proper Kim Lee nouns too. 13 y d i DThe names of countries and their people are also proper nouns. American Egyptian Indian Italian Thai Japanese Korean Malay Filipino Pakistani Country People Country People America Americans Korea Koreans Egypt Egyptians Malaysia Malaysians India Indians Pakistan Pakistanis Italy Italians France the French Japan the Japanese Thailand Thais 14The names of towns, cities, buildings and landmarks are proper nouns. Egypt Hong Kong the Great Wall of China the Statue of Liberty Tokyo Sydney Bangkok New Delhi London Denver the Grand Canyon New York Central Park the Leaning Tower of Pisa Paris the Eiffel Tower Brooklyn Bridge Beijing Big Ben Pike’s Peak 1 ? w o n March 7 Saturday k March 3 Tuesday April May u March 1 Sunday February July December March 5 Thursday October o The days of the week and months of the year are proper nouns. Days Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Months January February March March April May June July August September October November December January is the first month of the year. Sunday is the first day of the week. A table that shows the months, weeks and days 1 March 2 Monday March 6 Friday August January June November September y March 4 Wednesday d i D? w o n k u o The names of mountains, seas, rivers and lakes are proper nouns. Mount Everest the Thames Lake Michigan the Alps the Himalayas the Dead Sea the Pacific Ocean Niagara Falls Mount Fuji the Yellow River You often use the before names of oceans, rivers, seas and ranges of mountains. Mount means mountain. It is often used in the names of mountains. For example: Mount Everest Mount St. Helens The written short form for Mount is Mt. For example: Mt. Everest, Mt. Fuji 1 y d i DThe names of festivals, some special events and holidays are proper nouns, too. Valentine’s Day Father’s Day Halloween Word File Here are more names of festivals and holidays: New Year’s Day Christmas Mother’s Day Memorial Day April Fool’s Day Labor Day Thanksgiving Day Independence Day St. Patrick’s Day 1Exercise 1 Underline the proper nouns in the following sentences. 1 July is often the hottest month in summer. 2 One day Ali Baba saw the forty thieves hiding in a cave. 3 Shawn and Ashley are going to the beach for a swim. 4 Mr. Lee is reading a book.  “I am your fairy godmother,” said the old woman to Cinderella.  Uncle Mike is a lawyer.  Next Tuesday is a public holiday.  Many children enjoyed the movie Lion King. Exercise 2 Look at the words in the box. Which ones are common nouns and which ones are proper nouns? Put each word under its correct heading. Lisa bank President Hotel United Bank January beach White Sand Beach hotel doctor month Dr. Wang girl Common Nouns Proper Nouns 1Exercise 3 Write C for common or P for proper on the blank before each noun. 1 ______ the White House 2 ______ the green dress 3 ______ the tall building 4 ______ the Empire State Building  ______ the Yellow River  ______ the muddy river  ______ the governor  ______ Governor Parker  ______ the Oregon Trail 10 ______ the winding trail Exercise 4 Underline the nouns that should be capitalized. Circle the nouns that should not be capitalized. 1 Robert louis Stevenson wrote treasure island. 2 The Capital of illinois is Springfield. 3 My Friends and I prefer Glittergums toothpaste. 4 Their Family visited Yellowstone national Park.  Juan and maria attend kennedy Middle school.  We had a Surprise Party for aunt Helen.  Spring and Fall are my favorite Seasons.  The Manager scolded his lazy Employees. 20Singular Nouns Nouns can be singular or plural. When you are talking about one person, animal, place, or thing, use a singular noun. an owl a ship a train a woman Word File These are also singular nouns: an airplane a letter a bicycle a map a boy a photograph a bus a refrigerator a flower a comb a slide a girl a swing a key a van 21p l e H r a 4 Use a or an before singular nouns. Use an before words beginning with vowels (a, e, i, o, u). For example, say: an axe an igloo an egg an orange an envelope an umbrella an ice cream an uncle 4 But some words don’t follow this rule. For example, use a (not an) before these words that begin with u: a uniform a university 4 Use a before words beginning with the other letters of the alphabet, called consonants. For example, say: a basket a rainbow a bowl a monster a car a pillow a hill a watch a house a zoo 4 But some words don’t follow this rule. For example, use an (not a) before these words that begin with h: an heir an honor an hour 22 m m a r GPlural Nouns When you are talking about two or more people, animals, places, or things, use plural nouns. Most nouns are made plural by adding -s at the end. star bats bat stars mug Word File Singular Plural bird birds broom brooms fan camel camels desk desks mugs doll dolls egg eggs flower flower s fork forks game games cap lamb lambs nest nests fans pen pens photo photos shirt shirts caps spoon spoons 23

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