How to Critical thinking and Problem solving

how to improve critical thinking and how to develop critical thinking skills. And how is critical thinking beneficial in the decision-making process pdf free download
DavidCooper Profile Pic
Published Date:11-07-2017
Your Website URL(Optional)
Handbook of Critical Thinking Resources by Prince George’s Community College Faculty Members Compiled by Bill Peirce4 Handbook of Cr itical Thinking Resour ces 1. Improve students’ metacognitive abilities • Model thinking processes Ways to • Ask students to unpack their thinking Improve • Ask for monitoring and reflection by informal writing Students’ 2. Use effective questioning strategies Thinking • Ask for clarification, evidence, reasoning—not just recall, not just the one correct answer by • Ask questions with more than one correct answer Bill Peirce • Ask questions requiring several kinds of thinking 3. Have students use oral and written language often and informally • Have students write answers to your questions, before speaking up in class • Use small-group tasks • Teach students reading and note-taking strategies • Use personal response and academic journals 4. Design tasks that require thinking about content as a primary goal • Use active-learning strategies that require students to process information, not just recall it • Sequence the tasks developmentally 5. Teach explicitly how to do the thinking needed for the tasks • Practice is not enough • Model the cognitive processes required • Give feedback to students as they apply the steps in the needed cognitive processes 6. Create a classroom atmosphere that promotes risk-taking and speculative thinking • Arrange physical space to promote student-student interaction • Avoid competition • Foster interaction among students From the RAC Web site at of Cr itical Thinking Resour ces 5 Reading is a thinking process. When instructors assign textbook readings, they usually want their students to read simply for comprehension. A variety of strategies (described below) can help your students read with better understanding of the Strategies material. Critical reading goes beyond comprehension. Critical reading means judging for Teaching or evaluating the worth of the material and keeping an open-mind—not letting bias Critical or prejudice interfere. It goes beyond just understanding the core elements of reading: identifying the topic, main idea, supporting ideas, patterns of organization, Reading and inferences. Critical readers recognize the writer’s point of view, purpose, targeted and audience, and tone. They ask questions as they read to monitor their reading. Textbook Critical reading is dependent on critical thinking. Critical thinking involves asking Reading probing questions, having an open mind, and reaching a logical conclusion based on evidence. Critical thinkers’ thoughts are organized in a way that helps them accurately by evaluate material read. Critical thinking involves distinguishing facts and opinions, Beverly Reed recognizing bias and prejudices, propaganda, fallacies, and illogical arguments. To and help students, instructors can teach common errors in critical thinking such as Bill Peirce oversimplifying and overlooking a writer’s choice of words etc. Instructors should display a neutral attitude towards controversial subjects not show a negative attitude about an issue, person, or thing. Instructors can guide critical thinking by using sound questioning strategies. Asking the right kind of question is important: What is the background of the writer? What is the main point or issue? What is the conclusion? What is the supporting evidence (the reasoning etc.)? How good is the evidence presented? Is there another plausible interpretation for the findings? Is important information missing? Is the data deceiv- ing? (For additional sample questions, visit the RAC Web site.) Strategies for Teaching Textbook Reading 1. Distinguish between textbook reading and critical reading • The basic difference is that usually students read textbooks to understand the content and read critically to understand and question the content. 2. Introduce the assigned reading in a preceding class • Have students write down what they already know about the subject of the chapter, briefly discuss, and check for misconceptions and misinformation • Preview the chapter or reading by giving an oral summary • Pose interesting questions that will be answered in the reading assignment • Poll the class on some of the issues addressed in the reading assignment (e.g., How many of you believe that…? How many believe the opposite?) • Emphasize the interest, usefulness, and fit of the reading in the course continued next page sequence6 Handbook of Cr itical Thinking R e sour ces 3. Do not repeat the reading in a lecture Do not make listening to your lecture become the student’s reading strategy. It is tempting when students do not or can not read the textbook chapters to make sure the course content is “covered” by telling the students what they should have learned by reading the textbook. Among the reasons for not lecturing on assigned reading are • Your students will not learn to read for comprehension—a valuable skill in your discipline. • Your students will not learn to read critically—also a valuable skill in your discipline. • Your passive learners will not learn how to apply the course information if the time they spend on task is spent on the tasks of listening and taking notes. • Enough class time will not be spent on higher order thinking tasks, such as applying, conceptualizing, analyzing, synthesizing, classifying, comparing, and evaluating. 4. As homework, have students write something in response to the text Demonstrate how to do it; provide a model of what you are asking for Outline or concept map Summary Ask/answer questions Annotate the text as a believer and then as a doubter Write double-entry notes: one page (or column) for summaries of the text, and an adjacent page (or column) for comments Personal response 5. Design a focused, informal writing-to-learn task based on the reading For example: • Connect the reading to a past lecture or to prior knowledge • Compare/contrast with another reading • Critique/evaluate • Apply the reading content to a scenario or case 6. Monitor compliance Develop ways to ensure that students do their homework on time without burdening yourself with daily feedback or recordkeeping. (See “A Strategy for Getting Students to Do Their Homework” in this handbook.)Handbook of Critical Thinking R e sour ces 7 Would you use more class time for active learning (discussion, small group tasks, etc.) if the students arrived with the assigned reading already read and understood? A Strategy I learned the following procedure for getting students to do their homework on time at a critical thinking workshop conducted by Richard Paul, Director of the Center for for Critical Thinking at Sonoma State University. Getting Here is the basic procedure, with more details below: Students 1. In addition to the assigned daily reading, assign a daily written product based to Do on the reading (outline, summary, response to questions, application, etc.). Their 2. When students arrive in class, initial or rubber stamp the homework, glancing Homework at it only long enough to see that it is indeed today’s homework for your course. by 3. For the students who are prepared, design meaningful small-group and other Bill Peirce active-learning tasks that ask students to apply what they read and wrote about. Exclude those who have not received your initials or rubber stamp. 4. Collect the daily homework (which students save in a notebook) 2–3 times a semester or at the end of the course and grade a random sample of their homework assignments. To explain the procedure more fully, here are some notes on each of these steps. During the fifteen years that I’ve been using this strategy, my students are better prepared, and I have a lower dropout rate. 1. Assign a daily writing assignment based on the reading. At the beginning of the course, teach the students how you want them to read the textbook chapters and other readings and show them how to annotate/outline/ summarize a chapter. Train students how to apply reading strategies to the textbook in your course; model the reading and note-taking process you want them to use, ask them to apply it, and in the first few class sessions give them feedback on how well they did it. Show them what to underline, how to annotate pages, how to take notes, how to use visual cues (such as headings), what do with illustrations, how to summarize, when to read skeptically, when to read for understanding, how to handle new vocabulary. When students take on the task of reading and understanding, you will not need to lecture on the textbook material. Listening to your lectures will not become the students’ reading strategy. Always ask for a written product in response to the reading. Vary the kinds of responses you ask them to write. Keep these writing-to-learn tasks informal, engaged personal writing—not formal, grammatically correct spell-checked writing. Writing for a grammar judge shifts students’ goals from learning the material to pleasing a teacher. (See more possibilities in “Strategies for Teaching Critical Reading and Textbook Reading” continued next page in this handbook.)8 Handbook of Cr itical Thinking Resour ces 2. Stamp or initial the daily writing assignment. Begin each class with a homework check. Stamp it or sign your initials. (I have a collection of rubber stamps, which I vary each day). Just glance at their notebooks long enough to assure yourself that it is indeed homework for your course, not their notes from their previous class. Don’t collect it or read it or provide feedback on it—you’ll burn out from overwork. Although a good rule is that all assignments must be done by the end of the semester, late work does not get a stamp—no matter how good the excuse. Allow a safety net of a few late, unstamped assignments for emergencies. (I allow four late, unstamped assignments in a course that meets twice a week—no questions asked.) 3. Design meaningful small-group tasks based on the written homework. In class use the assigned reading and writing in a meaningful way. There are many tasks students can do: apply textbook concepts to concrete cases; answer teacher-posed questions; select the “best” homework using teacher-assigned criteria or their own; critique and revise written work; synthesize, compare/ contrast, evaluate; and support a position. If your active-learning tasks are designed well, fit well with the course objectives, and help the students prepare for tests and assigned papers, most students will see these tasks as meaningful and worth their participation. An important rule is that students who have NOT done the day’s written home- work cannot participate in the group work; they sit at their desks alone and do their unfinished homework—no matter how valid their excuse for not doing their homework. Busy adults with families and employers have valid reasons for not doing every single homework assignment, and if they accept the rationale behind your procedure, they will not feel ostracized or punished for not getting their homework done. Do a good selling job, explaining that your procedure is in their self-interest and will help students learn the course outcomes and meet their personal goals. 4. Grade only a random sample of the writing assignments. The students’ incentive for doing a good job on their daily written homework is both intrinsic and extrinsic. Their intrinsic motivation comes from their daily intellectual engagement in the course material, their sense of satisfaction in understanding what’s going on in the course and their sense of being prepared for class and not getting hopelessly behind. Their extrinsic motivation comes from their knowledge that you will grade their daily homework at scheduled intervals or at the end of the course. You don’t need to read and grade everything. That takes too much time—you’ll never do it again. Instead, select a random sample. Richard Paul’s method is to collect their portfolio of assignments at the end of the course, select one daily writing assignment from the first third of the course, two from the second, and three from the third. My method is to skim all assignments three times during the semester. Make your grading criteria clear at the beginning of the course. I grade homework using two criteria: thoroughness and attention to the assigned task. Assign the homework portfolio an appropriate percentage of the course grade. (Mine is 30 %; their writing assignments count for the other 70%.)Handbook of Cr itical Thinking R e sour ces 9 All of us are constantly bombarded with information in all forms. For students, having the ability to discern what information should be used and how to access it become increasingly important. In order to be successful researchers, students must become Critical information literate. Hence, as you create critical thinking assignments consider Thinking the implications for information literacy—knowing when, where, and how to find, and retrieve, analyze, and use information. Information The Association of College and Research Libraries, as well as the Middle States Commission on Higher Education (Standards 11 and 12) have defined information Literacy literacy competency standards. by Critically evaluating information sources is essential as students gather information Imogene Zachery from books, magazines, journals, newspapers, online databases, and from the World and Wide Web. While librarians can help students to filter misinformation, it is important Alease (Christy) Wright for students to be able to discern when information is factual rather than opinion, and other gray areas of information. With the popularity of using the Internet for research, students must apply critical thinking skills when using online information. Identifying the types of Web site categories can help in selecting the appropriate kind of sources and give credibility to a paper. Knowing how to identify a few categories will be invaluable for students when you issue a research assignment. For example, infor- mational sites provide factual information such as reference sources, libraries, statistics, and events. Educational institutions or governmental bodies frequently publish these sites. These sites usually have edu or gov as their domains. When you assign research projects that call for the use of journals, students will be able to get articles from the library’s online subscription databases. These databases contain many refereed or peer reviewed full text articles. The articles found in hard- copy journals, magazines, or newspapers have been digitized and can be accessed from the databases via the Internet. Students who use articles from the databases listed on the library’s Online Databases Web page ( are using authoritative sources. Tips for your research assignments • Before assigning a research project, have students review the Library Tutorial modules (, which explain how to evaluate sources, search the World Wide Web, and cite sources. Have students take the quiz at the end of the module. • Schedule a minimum of two information literacy instruction sessions. These sessions will guide students in how to use the resources in the library, especially the online or database sources. To schedule an information literacy instruction session, contact Norma Schmidt at ext. 0471 or via email at • Collaborate with a librarian before the information literacy instruction session is held so that the essence of your assignment is captured in the library session. • Send a copy of the assignment to the reference desk so that librarians will be prepared for the kind of guidance and assistance your students need.10 Handbook of Cr itical Thinking Resour ces Austin Freeley—The Power of Debate The creation of an argument is one of the most complex cognitive acts a student can Debate engage in. To create an argument, a student is required to research issues, organize data, analyze the data, synthesize different kinds of data, and evaluate information as an with respect to the quality of conclusions it may point to. To form an argument after Effective this process, a student must understand how to reason…and have an understanding Learning of the logic of decision making. Tool The successful communication of arguments to audiences reflects another cognitive skill: the ability to communicate complex ideas clearly in words. (modified PowerPoint Finally, the argumentative interaction reflects an even more complex cognitive presentation) ability—the ability to process the arguments of others quickly and to reformulate by or adapt or defend previous positions. Marlene Cohen Why Use Debate? • Strengthens knowledge • Strengthens critical thinking/analysis • Strengthens listening skills • Strengthens organizational skills • Strengthens language skills • Strengthens self-esteem • Strengthens ability to self-advocate • Strengthens grades Speech Organization for students • Simple outline • Clearly labeled • Claim 1, with evidence and reasoning • Claim 2, with evidence and reasoning • Direct Clash—She said X, but I disagree… • Respondents should follow order of 1st speaker Three Kinds of Issues Question of Fact It is true for 3 reasons: • Reason 1 • Reason 2 • Reason 3Handbook of Cr itical Thinking Resour ces 11 Question of Value It is better/immoral/less important… • Reason 1 • Reason 2 • Reason 3 Question of Policy— Making the Case for Change • There is a qualitative/quantitative need/problem • The present system won’t relieve the problem— show that it’s inherent in the system • Here is a better solution and here are the added benefits of this solution Defending the Status Quo • Deny • Diminish • Dismiss Attacking the Solution • It won’t solve your problems • It isn’t workable • It will create worse, new problems—any advantages will be outweighed by the potential disadvantages Four-Person Option for Question of Policy First Affirmative ............. Make the case First Negative ................. They didn’t make the case; Present system is fine Second Affirmative ........ Rebuild the case Second Negative ............ The solution is worse Affirmative Rebuttal ....... Rebuild strong arguments Negative Rebuttal ........... Rebuild strong arguments Remember advice to students • Listen carefully • Have fun • Be creative1 2 Handbook of Cr itical Thinking Resour ces The PGCC Library Search these terms in George (the PGCC library holdings electronic database): Books thought and thinking, About critical thinking, problem solving, Teaching reasoning, Thinking creative thinking, cooperative learning, Compiled by collaborative learning. Bill Peirce A complete search will get you over 225 books, audiotapes, and videotapes. If this seems overwhelming and you don’t like making choices, I recommend Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom, by John C. Bean or any of the books listed below. Highly Recommended Books to Buy I. Jossey-Bass Publishers, specializing in books for higher education: Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking and Active Learning in the Classroom, by John C. Bean (1996). 38 Critical Thinking: Educational Imperative, ed. by Cynthia Barnes. New Directions for Community Colleges, No. 77 (1992) 29 Promoting Active Learning: Strategies for the College Classroom, by Chet Meyers and Thomas B. Jones (1993) 36 Developing Critical Thinkers, by Stephen Brookfield (1987) 35 Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers. II. Other publisher’s books on teaching thinking: Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking, 4th edition, by Diane Halpern (2003). 50 (paper). Lawrence Erlbaum. Critical Thinking: Theory, Research, Practice, and Possibilities, by Joanne G. Kurfiss (1988). ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports. www.eriche.orgHandbook of Critical Thinking Resour ces 1 3 Metacognition: Study Strategies, Monitoring, and Motivation Recent research has established that metacognition (awareness of one’s thinking processes) is crucial to learning. This document provides strategies teachers can Samples of use to help students learn their course content. Reasoning Documents Strategies for Teaching Thinking and Promoting Intellectual Development in Online Classes on the A variety of effective active learning strategies that also work in face-to-face classes. RAC (about 19 printed pages) Web Site Understanding Students’ Difficulties in Reasoning: http:// Part One: Perspectives from Several Fields (about 25 printed pages) Why do students resist analytical and critical thinking in our courses? Several wpeirce/MCCCTR/ perspectives offer explanations: I. Poor High School Preparation II. Perspectives from the Field of Critical Thinking III. Psychological Resistance to Thinking IV. Levels of Intellectual Growth Perry: stages of intellectual and ethical growth Belenky et al.: perspectives on women’s ways of knowing V. Perspectives from Gender Differences How to Get Students to Do Their Homework A procedure for ensuring that students arrive in class with their homework done, ready to participate in discussions and small-group tasks. Designing Writing Assignments That Teach Thinking (9 pages) 1. Teaching Thinking Through Writing 2. Improving Assignment Instructions 3. Limitations of the Traditional Term Paper 4. Speech 109 Interpersonal Communication Assignment 5. Designing Grading Criteria for Formal Writing Assignments 6. Checklist Assessment for Article Review 7. Develop a Repertoire of Thinking Tasks 8. Ten Strategies for Designing Thinking Tasks Cashin On Questioning Condensed version of article by William E. Cashin, Kansas State University providing classroom tips and examples of questions that promote thoughtful class discussions. continued next page14 Handbook of Critical Thinking R e sour ces Questioning Techniques One-page workshop handout from Maryland State Department of Education Creating a Comfortable Classroom Climate by Marlene Cohen of PGCC speech faculty Review and Summary of Creating Learning Centered Classrooms by Stage, Muller, Kinzie, and Simmons. Association for the Study of Higher Education, 1998 (about 3 pages) Review and Summary of Learner-Centered Teaching by Maryellen Weimer. Jossey-Bass, 2002 (about 6 pages) Oakton CC Videotapes on Teaching Thinking Brief descriptions of seven videotapes for community college faculty on how to teach critical thinking, produced by the Critical Literacy faculty at Oakton Community College—in PGCC library Useful URLS for Argument and Persuasion A list useful to students writing researched persuasive arguments: public policy sites, guidance for Web searches, general information Ways to Improve Thinking Six ways to improve students’ thinking—duplicated in this handbook Strategies For Teaching Critical Reading and Textbook Reading How do you as a disciplinary expert teach poor readers, writers, and thinkers to function well in your course if they arrive unprepared? Several strategies can help students read, write, and think better without taking a lot of the professor’s time. —duplicated in this handbook Books About Teaching Thinking List of titles, publishers, URLs, and prices of essential books on teaching thinking —duplicated in this handbook Web Sites for Teaching Reasoning and Critical Thinking Over 30 useful Web sites—duplicated in this handbookHandbook of Critical Thinking Resour ces 15 Reasoning Across the Curriculum Web Site, shared with Maryland Community College Consortium for Teaching Reasoning Web Sites Teaching Thinking Network of Association for Supervision for and Curriculum Development Teaching Reasoning Foundation for Critical Thinking and Critical Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Thinking Compiled by Search the ERIC database for articles on teaching thinking in your discipline. Bill Peirce Writing Center for Faculty at University of Delaware (Links updated June 2004) Excellent tip sheets for faculty across the curriculum on topics such as building written and oral communication in your classroom, responding to student writing, managing the paper load, peer review, grading rubrics, and managing grammar. ECAC World Wide Web Sites Electronic Communication Across the Curriculum Links to Web resources for teaching online and other uses of electronic communication Campus Writing Program Library Directory, Indiana University, Bloomington Click on “Critical Thinking” for a list of articles and abstracts on critical thinking, also contains articles on writing across the curriculum in many disciplines Resources for Writing Across the Curriculum and Cooperative Learning Very large compilation by Ted Panitz of many teachers’ examples of activities and assignments that engage students in course content through writing and/or collaborative learning Wolcott Lynch Associates Resources on critical thinking for teachers and a Web-based tutorial on critical thinking for students Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines journal continued next page 6 Handbook of Critical Thinking Resour ces Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Longview Community College Mission: Critical interactive tutorials teach critical thinking (San Jose State University) Writing Across the Curriculum Clearinghouse Lists of resources for communication across the curriculum, including www links, bibliographies, articles, and WAC programs at other colleges and universities Communication Across the Curriculum Southern Illinois University Carbondale “Integrating Written, Spoken, Visual, and Electronic Communication Across the Curriculum” Critical Thinking on the Web A rich list of resources on critical thinking by Tim van Gelder of the University of Melbourne Links to centers for faculty professional development at University of Kansas Center for Teaching Excellence Dan Kurland’s Critical Reading Website Critical Thinking Books and Software Publisher Insight Assessment (assessing critical thinking) See also The Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric at Three Sites on Problem-Based Learning: Illinois Math and Science Academy Center for Problem-Based Learning University of Delaware Samford University Problem-Based Learning Initiative of Critical Thinking Resour ces 17 Sample Activities and Assignments that Promote Critical Thinking Faculty from seven disciplines—business, communication, forensic science, history, psychology, science, and theatre—contributed a variety of critical thinking projects and activities. The assignments are presented either in the same format in which they are given to students or as directions to another faculty member who may want to use the technique. In either case, the assignments have clear instructions and grading criteria that make expectations clear to students and help instructors grade efficiently. All faculty are invited to contribute their assignments that promote critical thinking for publication in the next edition of the Handbook of Resources for Critical Thinking.18 Handbook of Cr itical Thinking Resour ces Mastering the theoretical underpinnings and mechanics of international business is necessary to successfully complete this course. However, another goal is for you to realize how relevant international business is to your life. Therefore the purpose International of this project is for you to: Business 1. Identify an area that you are interested in. Project 2. Select a topic that has international business relevance and submit a International 1-paragraph proposal. Your proposal should focus upon at least two Management trading partners and provide information from each partner’s perspective. MGT 263 3. To research your topic you should rely primarily upon the PGCC library by databases or the internet. Please include your sources with URLs and Faith Breen include a printed copy of those sources as appendices. 4. Summarize your findings in a 3–5 page typed, double-spaced Executive Summary. For example, as an executive summary, you may have the first page presenting the background and market, the second and third pages describing each trading partner’s perspective, and the fourth page providing your findings/conclusions. The last page would be your sources. Appendices would be attached. 5. At the end of the semester, give a 3–5 minute presentation of your project to the class. Assignment Grading Criteria 1. Meets minimum criteria: all instructions followed, conference with instructor; project and method approved in advance 2. Sources are sufficient and appropriate 3. Project is planned well 4. Project is executed well 5. Introduction explains why project was chosen; describes personal relevance 6. Statement of purpose (one sentence) is clear and complete 7. Pertinent research is summarized accurately in at least one pages, at least 4 non-textbook sources are used; conclusions and major evidence are included in summariesHandbook of Critical Thinking Resour ces 19 8. Sources are cited accurately and correctly in APA style without plagiarizing; paraphrases and summaries are not half-copied. (Check PGCC Library Tutorial for citation formats.) 9. Contradictory information (if any) is made clear; opposing views are handled fairly 10. Methodology is described clearly and completely; methodology is appropriate for the project and is unbiased 11. Results, findings, and inferences are explained clearly and completely; are based on sufficient and relevant evidence 12. Conclusion explains what was learned from the project 13. Bibliography is accurate and correct; follows APA format consistently 14. Organization follows instructions; uses headings; paragraphs begin with topic sentences; main points of paragraphs are fully developed; sentences are clear; there are few grammar and punctuation errors 15. Oral presentation is clear, well-organized, complete; takes 3–5 minutes20 Handbook of Critical Thinking R e sour ces Preparation for Class 1. Students design discussion questions and/or class activity (can meet with me to plan) Critical 2. Discussion questions posted on Blackboard prior to class Thinking 3. Encourage students to print out PowerPoint lecture (outline), so they can Strategies take better notes in class in Classroom Strategies Forensic 1. Groups doing case evaluations or case questions—determining cause and Science manner of death; must be able to explain opinion by 2. Hypothetical questions and scenarios (questions employers will ask in interviews) Laura Ellsworth 3. Role playing (roles of police officer, crime scene technician, prosecution, defense, accused, etc.) 4. Groups or individuals writing an abstract for a journal article (read analytically, evaluate and write concisely) 5. Focus on speaking, presenting, and teaching others (like testifying in court) 6. Videos with guided questions for discussion 7. Classroom assessment techniques (CAT’s): Minute paper, muddiest point, application card, etc. Hands-on Activities (Real World Experiences) 1. Mock crime scene 2. Blunt and sharp force weapons with fruit and vegetables 3. Fingerprint comparison and peer review; other comparison exercises using different types of forensic evidence (shoeprints, handwriting, etc.) 4. Examination of bones—determining human or animal, sex, gender, ethnicity, etc. 5. Describing a crime scene exercise (observable, verifiable facts v. opinion) Homework/Writing Assignments (some also presented orally) 1. Critique of CSI episode (TV v. reality) 2. Book review; how book relates to topics discussed in class 3. Current issue paper—job trends, new technology, evidence/court rulings 4. Letting students choose type of writing assignment or topic (4 of 6 choices, for example) 5. Poster session—to present in class, review each others work 6. Diversity—explore crime labs/forensic science/specific area in other countries and compare to U.S. 7. Spur-of-the-moment homework assignments (finding cases, etc.) Grading 1. Spur-of-the-moment homework and in-class writing is usually NOT graded; sometimes extra points are given 2. All homework and writing assignments are allowed one rewriteHandbook of Cr itical Thinking Resour ces 21 The object of this assignment is to take the original 1632 Charter of Maryland and explain it in language that is understandable today as well as determine how much of the charter was actually carried out successfully. Maryland There are twenty-two articles in the charter. You are to analyze each one, then write Charter a brief “translation” in present-day English. Finally, research each article to explain History of the U.S. how it was put into effect. You will need to use sources on colonial Maryland to HST 141 Honors answer those questions. Be sure you cite all sources used using the Chicago Manual of Style. by Carolyn Hoffman I have reworked Article II as an example for you to follow: Translation Article II states that the King of England has granted Cecilius Calvert, Second Lord Baltimore and son of George Calvert, land in the New World. Basically, the king has that right to do this, because the land is a wilderness and the natives are Godless savages. Calvert will be transporting colonists at his own expense. The king grants full title and governmental powers to Cecilius Calvert and his heirs. Research George Calvert wrote this charter before he died in 1632. The king signed and conveyed it to Cecilius Calvert, who became the Second Lord Baltimore and inherited title to all the elder Calvert’s lands. In 1633, Cecilius Calvert financed the first expedition of colonists in the Ark and the Dove to what is the present-day state of Maryland. The colonists settled at a spot they purchased from the Yaocomico Indians in 1634, which they called St. Mary’s City. Calvert sent his brother Leonard, as the first governor of the colony. The Calvert family, as proprietor, had total control over the governing of the colony and appointment of all government officials. Sources Robert Brugger, Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634–1980 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988), pp. 5–12; Richard Walsh and William Lloyd Fox, eds., Maryland: A History, 1632–1974 (Baltimore, Md. Historical Society, 1974), p. 5. This is the format for each article. They should follow one after another. Please double-space the translation and the research. You can single-space the sources. Finally, there is one thing missing in this charter, which will seem odd given why the colony was settled. What is missing and why was it left out? Answer this after you have analyzed the last relevant article (Article XXII). Call it “Article Missing.” continued next page22 Handbook of Cr itical Thinking R e sour ces Grading Criteria: Maryland Charter Assignment Minimum Requirements Is at least 10 pages, typed and double-spaced and meets final deadline. The paper should demonstrate historical research as well as an understanding of the Maryland charter, the type of colony the Calvert family intended to create in Maryland, and the actual development of the colony in the seventeenth century. Plagiarism will result in an automatic “F” for this assignment. Content (for each of the twenty-two articles of the charter) 1. Translation a. provides a succinct one-paragraph “translation” of each article into modern English b. demonstrates clear understanding of the original article 2. Research a. explains in a well-written paragraph how each article was supposed to be implemented in the colony b. summarizes well and concisely whether or not the article was successfully implemented and why 3. Sources a. demonstrates familiarity with colonial Maryland resources b. includes a citation of references for each researched article using the Chicago Manual of Style 4. “Missing article” that demonstrates in a succinct paragraph what is missing from the charter and why the Calvert family purposefully left it out. Organization 5. The paper adheres to the organization laid out in the instruction sheet for each article of the charter: a. Translation b. Research c. Sources 6. The paper is well organized with ideas developed in paragraphs that begin with topic sentences. 7. The paper contains complete sentences. Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling 8. There are few, if any, grammatical, punctuation, or spelling errors.

Advise: Why You Wasting Money in Costly SEO Tools, Use World's Best Free SEO Tool Ubersuggest.