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Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport IIT Madras INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Synthesis Report on ITS Including Issues and Challenges in India Lelitha Vanajakshi Gitakrishnan Ramadurai Asha Anand Transportation Engineering Division Department of Civil Engineering IIT Madras December 2010 This work was carried out as part of the activities in the Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport at IIT Madras sponsored by the Ministry of Urban Development. The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the Ministry that funded the project or IIT Madras. This report is not a standard, specification, or regulation. Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Synthesis report and issues and challenges under Indian conditions Dr. Lelitha Vanajakshi Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai 600 036 INDIA Ph : 91 44 2257 4291, Fax: 91 44 2257 4252 E-mail: lelithaiitm.ac.in Dr. Gitakrishnan Ramadurai Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai 600 036 INDIA Ph : 91 44 2257 4298, Fax: 91 44 2257 4252 E-mail: gitakrishnaniitm.ac.in Asha Anand M. S. Research Scholar Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai 600 036 INDIA E-mail: asha.iitm09gmail.com December 2010 1 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Executive Summary The rapidly increasing vehicle population in India, spurred by the population boom and economic upturn lays a critical burden on traffic management in the metropolitan cities and towns of the country. The cumulative growth of the Passenger Vehicles segment in India during April 2007 – March 2008 was 12.17 percent. In 2007-08 alone, 9.6 million motorised vehicles were sold in India. Economy-induced automobile usage is complicated further by the constant influx of rural population into urban areas, thus making enormous demands on the transportation infrastructure in an overloaded region. The heterogeneity of economy and the physical limit on how much additional infrastructure a city can hold complicate transport management further. World Bank reports that the economic losses incurred on account of congestion and poor roads alone run as high as 6 billion a year in India. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is an established route to resolve, or at least minimize traffic problems. ITS encompass all modes of transportation - air, sea, road and rail, and intersects various components of each mode - vehicles, infrastructure, communication and operational systems. Various countries have developed strategies and techniques, based on their geographic, cultural, socio-economic and environmental background, to integrate the various components into an interrelated system. In general, any of the ITS applications uses a Traffic Management Centre (TMC) where data is collected, analysed and combined with other operational and control concepts to manage the complex transportation problems. Typically, several agencies share the administration of transport infrastructure, through a network of traffic operation centres. There is often, a localized distribution of data and information and the centres adopt different criteria to achieve the goals of traffic management. This inter-dependent autonomy in operations and decision-making is essential because of the heterogeneity of demand and performance characteristics of interacting subsystems. The major objective of ITS is to evaluate, develop, analyse and integrate new sensor, information, and communication technologies and concepts to achieve traffic efficiency, improve environmental quality, save energy, conserve time, and enhance safety and comfort for drivers, pedestrians, and other traffic groups. The adoption of location and information based technologies into vehicles, infrastructure, traffic management and traveler information services have shown dramatic improvements in the safe, and efficient mobility of people and freight in USA, European nations, Japan, Middle East and Canada. While India has already made a foray into ITS in organizing traffic, more extensive and urgent integration of advanced technology and concepts into mainstream traffic management is imperative. ITS is still in its infancy in India, with decision-makers, key planners and agencies in the process of understanding its potential. A number of prototype ITS projects have been introduced in various cities in India which have focused on isolated deployments of parking information, area-wide signal control, and advanced toll collection. Most of these are single-city based pilot studies. At present, there are only few fully developed ITS applications with traffic management centers in India. Developments in ITS are driven strongly by socio-economic needs, and environmental demands. In India, the diverse range of vehicular velocities (pedestrian, bicycle, LMV's, HMV's, animal drawn carts), wide variety of vehicles (including pedestrian traffic), and poor lane discipline (partially resulting from the first two factors and partially due to cultural reasons) and a very high population density makes adoption of Western ITS standards and architecture difficult. The Indian ITS must be designed to suit the Indian scenario and will ideally be an interplay of public and private sectors. On the public sector front, ITS will be designed based on regional and national standards to suit the specific region. On the private side, new 2 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems technologies would be fuelled by the consumer market. The design of an intensive ITS program in India should encompass developments in technology, modelling, interconnectivity of multiple branches of engineering including transportation, communication, electronics, and IT, and human capital development. The development and implementation of advanced technologies include electronic devices such as sensors, detectors and communication devices and application of global navigation satellite system (GNSS). This in turn hinges on cooperative work among the Government, academic research institutions, and industry. A thorough understanding of the traffic system is important to the successful implementation of ITS in India. Cost effective detection techniques must be developed for real-time road-wide data collection rather than lane-wise collection that are suitable for traffic flow following fixed lane divisions. Once such an automated data collection system is developed, the data generated can be archived and can be used for model development that will facilitate several ITS applications. Seamless interconnectivity of the various nodes of the transportation sector is essential to provide effective, efficient and secure movement of goods and services while improving the conservation of natural resources and reducing environmental impacts such as the effects of carbon emissions. ITS technology can play a vital role through information gathering and sharing to ensure such seamless interconnectivity. Another important approach to ITS is to advance public transportation to make it more attractive than private transport. India is the second largest producer of buses, accounting for 16 percent of world's total bus production. However, the share of public transportation in Indian cities has been on a steady decline over the last few decades. Improving the quality of public transportation through ITS technology will encourage more usage and therefore help in transportation management. ITS in India should closely work with the energy sector in the promotion of fuel efficient transport policies and practices, including the use of alternative transport fuels. Fuel efficient policies and practices will assist the country in achieving sustainable economic and environmental benefits through the application of intelligent transportation services. The ability of the work force to develop, manage and safely implement existing and emerging technologies is essential for ITS design and wide-spread implementation. The main social and institutional issues facing the deployment of ITS in India are: an underdeveloped road network, severe budget restrictions, explosive urbanization and growth, lack of resources for maintenance and operation, less demand for automation, lack of interest among policy decision makers, and lack of user awareness. Some of specific actions required to meet the challenges to ITS in India include:  Evolving a national ITS standard for different ITS applications and their components  Setting up a national ITS clearinghouse that documents all ITS projects with details on the design, implementation, lessons learned/best practices, and cost-benefit details  Setting up fully functional Traffic Management Centres for coordinating the urban and regional ITS activities,  Developing and implementing automated traffic data collection methodologies,  Developing a national ITS data archive,  Developing models and algorithms suitable for ITS implementations  Fostering more interaction between academia, industries and governmental agencies to generate more interest and in turn projects in the ITS area. Full potential of ITS can be achieved only by implementation at a network level rather than in small corridors. Overall, the existing implementations show promise and potential for the deployment of ITS in India and give an initial empirical basis and data on ITS deployment highlighting the data, methodological, practical and research challenges for Indian conditions. 3 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Acknowledgements This synthesis report on ITS was developed as part of the activities at the Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport (CoE-UT), IIT Madras, sponsored by the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. We thank the Ministry of Urban Development for sponsoring the CoE-UT at IIT Madras. We also thank the Director, Dean (Industrial Consultancy & Sponsored Research), the Head of the Department, Department of Civil Engineering for their support and guidance to the Centre. We thank the Centre Co- ordinators for providing us the opportunity to work on this report. Special thanks to Valardocs for the prompt and professional technical editing support. 4 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS I Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 6 II History of ITS….………………………………………………………………………… 8 III ITS Taxonomy…………………………………………………………………………… 10 IV Components of ITS……………………………………………………………………… 14 V ITS around the World………………………………………………………………… 20 United States of America……………………………………………………………… 21 Japan…………………………………………………………………………………. 25 Europe………………………………………………………………………………..... 30 United Kingdom……………………………………………………………………....... 34 Middle East……………………………………………………………………………. 36 Canada…………………………………………………………………………………. 39 India……………………………………………………..…………………………….. 43 Issues and challenges of ITS in India…………………………………………………… 50 Conclusion…………………………………………..…………………………………… 53 VI. References…………………………………………..…………………………………… 55 5 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems I. Introduction An important metric for economic growth of any country is its burgeoning vehicle ownership. However, the indirect effect of vehicle ownership is acute traffic congestion. India has, in the past decade, seen an astronomical increase in vehicle ownership and associated road blocks and traffic snarls in its metropolitan cities. The variety of vehicles in India – two, three and four wheelers, in addition to a large pedestrian population, complicates the situation Figure 1. Figure 1: Complexity of Traffic in India 1 The principal reason for traffic congestion in India is that the road space and infrastructure have not improved on par with the traffic 2. The seriousness of the problem is reflected in the report of World Bank that estimates the economic losses incurred on account of congestion and poor roads alone run as high as 6 billion a year in India 3. The direct solution for this problem by improvements in infrastructure is constrained by space availability and other logistic problems. There is, therefore, an urgent need to explore and develop better traffic management options to ease traffic congestion. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is a tested route to mitigate traffic congestion problems. ITS can be broadly defined as the use of technology for improving transportation systems. The major objective of ITS is to evaluate, develop, analyse and integrate new technologies and concepts to achieve traffic efficiency, improve environmental quality, save energy, conserve time, and enhance safety and comfort for drivers, pedestrians, and other traffic groups 4-6. An overview of ITS can be schematically represented as shown in Figure 2. State-of-art data acquisition and evaluation technology, communication networks, digital mapping, video monitoring, sensors and variable message signs are creating new trends in traffic management throughout the world. The synergy of data acquisition, analysis, evaluation, and information dissemination helps in developing an all-encompassing system of traffic organization that enables information sharing among the managers and users of traffic. Although the origin of formal ITS dates back to the 1970s, the first ITS world congress in Paris, in 1994, catalyzed the development and application of ITS to develop and improve the existing traffic control systems in many countries around the world. ITS activities aim at the development of a sustainable, multi- modal surface transportation system that will establish a connected transportation environment among vehicles, the infrastructure, and portable devices. Such a cooperative setup leverages technology in order to maximize driver safety and mobility while improving environmental performance and focusing on deployment. ITS encompass all modes of transportation - air, sea, road and rail, and intersects various components of each mode - vehicles, infrastructure, communication and operational systems. Various countries develop strategies and techniques, based on their geographic, cultural, socio-economic and environmental background, to integrate the various components into an interrelated system. 6 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Figure 2: Broad Overview of ITS 6 7 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems II. History of ITS The origin of the formal ITS program dates back to the nineteen sixties with the development of the Electronic Route Guidance System, or ERGS in the United States, to provide drivers with route guidance information based on real-time traffic analysis. The system used special hardware located at various intersections across the road network, on-board 2-way devices in vehicles that would form the hub of communication between the driver and the ERGS system, and a central computer system that processed the information received from the remote systems. During the early seventies, the ERGS program led to a more sophisticated, automated system comprising interactive visual digital maps called the Automatic Route Control System or ARCS. The Urban Traffic Control System was developed concomitantly, connecting various traffic signals and computer generated predetermined signal timings for better traffic organization. The same era saw the development of the Japanese Comprehensive Automobile Traffic Control System (CACS) program, presumably one of the earliest public-private partnership effort in the world to test an interactive route guidance system with an in-vehicle display unit. The Autofahrer Leit and Information System (ALI) in Germany was a dynamic route guidance system based on real traffic conditions, employed in the seventies. This was followed by AMTICS and RACS projects that heralded the era of high-tech traffic management in Japan 7. Meanwhile, the United States strove to formulate the Federal Transportation Bill, the successor to the Post Interstate Bill of the fifties, to solve issues of growing traffic congestion, travel related accidents, fuel wastage and pollution. In 1986, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) was formulated that led to a spate of developments in the area of ITS. The General Motors-funded Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility Annual Meeting (HUFSAM) was held in Washington DC in November, 1986 to partner with the US DOT in sponsoring a National Leadership Conference on “Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS)”. A Federal Advisory Committee for IVHS was incorporated to assist the US-Department of Transportation and was aimed to promote orderly and expeditious movement of people and goods, develop an efficient mass transit system that interacts smoothly with improved highway operations and an active IVHS industry catering to both domestic and international needs. This laid the foundation for the formal Intelligent Transportation Society of America (ITS America) in 1991 as a non-profit organization to foster the use of advanced technologies in surface transportation systems. In Europe, the Program for a European Traffic System with Higher Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety (Prometheus) was designed by auto manufacturers and this was followed by Dedicated Road Infrastructure for Vehicle Safety in Europe (DRIVE) project, set up by the European Community. A brief overview of the ITS developments towards the end of last century, in three key geographic areas of the world is shown in Table 1. A more detailed account of ITS deployments around the world is given at a later section. 8 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Table 1: ITS Developments in Europe, USA and Japan at the turn of the century Adapted from 7 9 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems III. ITS Taxonomy The most commonly used classification of ITS is based on the positioning of the system as given below. Vehicle Level Technologies deployed within vehicles, including sensors, information processors and displays that provides information to the driver. Infrastructure Level Sensors on and by the side of roads collect important traffic data. Tools of communication provide drivers with pertinent information to manage traffic better. These tools include roadside messages, GPS alerts and signals to direct traffic flow. Cooperative Level Communication between vehicles, and between infrastructure and vehicles involving a synergic combination of vehicle level and infrastructure level technologies. The commonly adopted functional taxonomy of the ITS is as follows 8: 10 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) integrates various sub-systems (such as CCTV, vehicle detection, communications, variable message systems, etc.) into a coherent single interface that provides real time data on traffic status and predicts traffic conditions for more efficient planning and operations. Dynamic traffic control systems, freeway operations management systems, incident response systems etc. respond in real time to changing conditions Figure 3. Figure 3: Examples of ATMS 9 Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) provide to users of transportation systems, travel-related information to assist decision making on route choices, estimate travel times, and avoid congestion. This can be enabled by providing different information using various technologies such as:  GPS enabled in-vehicle navigation systems  Dynamic road message signs for real time communication of information on traffic congestions, bottlenecks, accidents and alternate route information during road closures and maintenance  Website to provide a colour-coded network map showing congestion levels on highways (a.k.a. congestion index). Figure 4: Examples of ATIS 10 11 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) are tools and concepts that enhance the driver‟s control of the vehicle to make travel safer and more efficient 10. For example, in vehicle collision warning systems alert the driver to a possible imminent collision. In more advanced AVCS applications, the vehicle could automatically break or steer away from a collision, based on input from sensors on the vehicle. Both systems are autonomous to the vehicle and can provide substantial benefits by improving safety and reducing accident induced congestion. The installation of high tech gadgets and processors in vehicles allow incorporation of software applications and artificial intelligence systems that control internal operations, ubiquitous computing, and other programs designed to be integrated into a greater transportation system Figure 5: AVCS 11 Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) comprises an ensemble of satellite navigation system, a small computer and a digital radio, which can be used in commercial vehicles such as trucks, vans, and taxis. This system affords constant monitoring of truck operations by the central office and provides traceability and safety. Figure 6: CVO 12 Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) applies state-of-art transportation management and information technologies to public transit systems to enhance efficiency of operation and improve safety. It includes real-time passenger information systems, automatic vehicle location systems, bus arrival notification systems, and systems providing priority of passage to buses at signalized intersections (transit signal priority) 13. 12 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Figure 7: Digital announcement of transit arrival Images adapted from 14 Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS) provide information about remote road and other transportation systems. Examples include automated road and weather conditions reporting and directional information. This type of information is valuable to motorists travelling to remote or rural areas. This has been widely implemented in the United States and will be a valuable asset to countries like India, where rural areas are widely distributed. (a) (b) Figure 8: ARTS implemented in USA 15 13 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems IV. Components of ITS A Traffic Management Centre (TMC) is the hub of transport administration, where data is collected, and analysed and combined with other operational and control concepts to manage the complex transportation network. It is the focal point for communicating transportation-related information to the media and the motoring public, a place where agencies can coordinate their responses to transportation situations and conditions. Typically, several agencies share the administration of transport infrastructure, through a network of traffic operation centres. There is, often, a localized distribution of data and information and the centres adopt different criteria to achieve the goals of traffic management. This inter-dependent autonomy in operations and decision-making is essential because of the heterogeneity of demand and performance characteristics of interacting subsystems. Figure 9: Schematic of the workings of a TMC 6 The effective functioning of the TMC, and hence the efficiency of the ITS, depend critically on the following components:  Automated data acquisition  Fast data communication to traffic management centres 14 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems  Accurate analysis of data at the management centres  Reliable information to public/traveler Data Acquisition Rapid, exhaustive and accurate data acquisition and communication is critical for real-time monitoring and strategic planning. A good data acquisition-management-communication system combines tested hardware and efficient software that can collect reliable data on which to base further ITS activities. The different ITS hardware/equipment commonly used include sensors, cameras, automatic vehicle identifiers (AVI), GPS based automatic vehicle locators (AVL), and servers that can store huge amounts of data for meaningful interpretation. A few of the state-of-art, critical components are described below. a. Sensors Sensors and detectors have been used for highway traffic counts, surveillance, and control for the last 50 years. Early sensors relied on visuals (e.g. optical detectors), sound (acoustic detectors), and vehicle weight induced pressure/vibration (seismic/piezoelectric sensors) on the road surface. Advances in detector technology now enable use of a variety of detectors such as magnetic detectors (based on geomagnetism), infrared, ultrasonic, radar, and microwave detectors (based on reflection of radiation), inductive loop detectors (based on electromagnetic induction), seismic, and inertia-switch detectors (based on vibration), and video based detectors, in addition to the more traditional sensors used over the years. These detectors measure the change in magnetic/seismic/ optical/acoustic fields caused by the passage of vehicles and calculate traffic parameters based on these measurements. Many of these detectors are intrusive and are placed in the subsurface of the roadway and provide real-time traffic information on that point of the road 16. The volume, occupancy and speed of the vehicle are the commonly obtained traffic parameters. The three main types of vehicle detectors used in current practice are inductive loop detectors magnetic detectors, and magnetometers Figure 10. 15 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Figure 10: Some data acquisition devices 17 The advantage of the above sensors/detectors is that, unlike technologies such as AVI, GPS etc., these are autonomous detectors and do not require voluntary participation by the travelling public. However, these sensors and detectors require periodic maintenance, replacement and repair due to deterioration of data quality over time. In addition, many of them are intrusive in nature and require cutting of road surface for installation and maintenance making the cost of installation and maintenance prohibitively high. This is leading to greater use of visual detectors such as video cameras in recent years. Video cameras were introduced to traffic management for roadway surveillance based on their ability to transmit closed circuit television imagery to a human operator for interpretation. Present day traffic management applications utilize video image processing to automatically analyse the scene of focus and extract information for traffic surveillance and control. A video image processor (VIP) system typically consists of one or more cameras, a microprocessor based computer for digitizing and processing the imagery, and software for interpreting the images and converting them into traffic flow data. 16 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Figure 11: Cameras to monitor Traffic 18 b. Automatic Vehicle Identifiers (AVI) and Automatic Vehicle Locators (AVL) The AVI system uses a combination of AVI readers, AVI tags or transponders in the vehicles, and a central computer system. AVI readers/antennas are located on roadside or overhead structures or as a part of an electronic toll collection booth Figure 12. The antennas emit radio frequency signals within a capture range across one or more freeway lanes. When a probe vehicle enters the antenna‟s capture range, the transponders in the probe vehicles respond to the radio signal and its unique ID is assigned a time and date stamp by the reader. This data is then transmitted to a central computer facility, where it is processed and stored. In many developed countries, unique probe vehicle ID numbers are tracked along the freeway system, and the travel time of the Figure 12: Overhead AVI Antenna probe vehicles is calculated as the difference between the time 19 stamps at sequential antenna locations. AVI systems have the ability to continuously collect large amounts of data with minimal human resource 17 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems requirements. However the data collection process is mainly constrained by sample size since it requires participation. Figure 13: Smart card for vehicle identification 20 c. GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a worldwide satellite navigation system that provides a fast, flexible, and relatively inexpensive data to determine a vehicle‟s position and velocity in real time. GPS is a US owned space-based system of twenty four satellites providing 24x7 monitoring of the earth. The 24 satellites are distributed uniformly in six orbital planes, at an altitude of approximately 20,200 km such that at least four satellites are visible at any time and from any point on the earth's surface 21. GPS positioning is based loosely on three- dimensional positioning of manmade landmarks/“stars” using trilateration related techniques. GPS employs two fundamental observables for positioning and navigation, the code-phase or Figure 14: GPS Unit in car 22 pseudo-ranges and carrier-phase. It provides fundamental location data in terms of latitude, longitude, elevation and UTC time. Based on these spatial and temporal data, traffic engineers can determine the most useful traffic information, including travel time, travel speed, travel distance and delay. To produce reliable traffic information from the GPS data, it is of significance to meet the sample size requirements and follow an appropriate field procedure. Communication Tools The efficiency of the ITS system depends not only on the collection and analysis of traffic-related data, but also on quick and reliable communication, both data from field to TMC and information derived using the data and models from TMC to the public. This involves communication between data collection centres to TMC and travel and traffic related announcements to vehicles through onboard units and to the travellers through media like VMS, web pages, SMS etc. Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) provide communications between the vehicle and the roadside in specific locations (for example toll plazas). DSRC operate on radio frequencies in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band and comprise Road Side Units (RSUs) and the On Board Units (OBUs) with transceivers and transponders. Wireless Communications Systems dedicated to Intelligent Transport Systems and Road Transport and Traffic Telematics provide network connectivity to vehicles. Continuous Air interface Long and Medium range (CALM) provides continuous communications between a vehicle and the roadside using a variety of communication media, including cellular, 5 GHz, 63 GHz and infra-red links. 18 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, IIT M Intelligent Transportation Systems Data Analysis Data analysis includes data cleaning, fusion, and analysis. The data from the sensors and other collection devices that are transmitted to the TMC must be checked. Inconsistent data must be weeded out and clean data has to be retained. Further, data from different devices may need to be combined or fused for further analysis. The cleaned and fused traffic data will be analyzed to estimate and forecast traffic states. These traffic state estimation methods will be used to provide suitable information to users. Traveller Information Travel advisory system facilities are used for relaying transportation-related information to the motoring public. These include: Variable Message Signs, Highway Advisory Radio, Internet, Short Messaging Services, automated cell phone messaging, public radio announcement, television broadcast and other modern media tools. Such systems can provide real-time information on travel times, travel speeds, delays, accidents, route closures and detours, and work zone conditions, among others 23. Phone/SMS Internet In Bus Radio Bus Figure 15: Tools of Travel Advice S to V pi sualized from Ref. 23 19

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