Lecture notes for Professional Ethics and human values

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Ethics and Values A Text-book for Under Graduate Students Dr VANAPALLI VENKATA RAO Reader & Head Department of Philosophy Maha Rajah`s College Vizianagaram-535002 A Publication of ADIKAVI NANNAYA UNIVERSITY RAJAH MUNDRY 2014 Foreword Ethics is not one man show; it is the spirit of the community expressed in individual's life. What is acceptable to the society and admitted by the wise and practiced by many is Ethics. Adikavi Nannaya University has entrusted the job of selecting and prescribing the syllabus for the UG Board of Studies. Teachers taught Ethics for graduate students over a period of two decades and professors from Andhra, Osmania and Sri Venkateswara Universities joined to scrutinize and select the contents of the syllabus for this text, you are looking and about to read. The Higher Education' vision of teaching 'Ethics and Values' for the undergraduate students was undertaken by AKNU as its mission. Thanks for the author Dr. V Venkata Rao for timely presenting a subject matter on 'Ethics and Values' globally acceptable and instantly available on internet. Sri Ajay Misra, lAS, Principal Secretary to Government, Higher Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh, Smt K Suneetha, lAS, Commissioner for Collegiate Education deserves special regards for their efforts to educate the youth in Ethics and Values. P George Victor ETHICS AND VALUES PART - A 1. Introduction Definition of Ethics and Values 1 Character and Conduct 2 Nature and Scope of Ethics 4 Uses of Ethics 6 2. Self-realization and Human Values Self-realization and Harmony 7 Rules and Regulations 8 Rights and Duties 10 Good and Obligation 11 Integrity and Conscience 13 3. Obligation to Family Trust and Respect 17 Codes of Conduct 19 Citizens Charter 20 Emotional Intelligence 21 4. Individual and Society Theories of Society 23 Social Relationships and Society 26 Empathy: Compassion towards other being 29 Environmental Ethics and Nature 32 PART - B 5. Obligation to State Kautilyas’ Polity 36 Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity 38 Civil Rights 41 Human Rights 44 6. Western Ethics Happiness and Prosperity 50 Four Cardinal Virtues 52 Lesson from Socrates 54 7. Indian Ethics Lesson from Mahatma Gandhi 57 Society and Trusteeship 60 Indian Constitution 61 Fundamental Rights 62 Directive Principles of State Policy 64 8. Professional Ethics Human Goals 68 Four Purusarthas 69 Ethics in Public Administration 70 Ethical Values and Management 71 Ethics and Civil Servants 72 1 Chapter One INTRODUCTION I. DEFINITION OF ETHICS AND VALUES The term 'Ethics' comes from the Greek word 'ethos', which means 'character'. Ethics concerns with the moral behavior of humans and seeks to resolve questions dealing with human morality/concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. Tomas Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as "a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behavior helps or harms sentient creatures". The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy states that the word 'ethics' is interchangeable with 'morality' and sometimes it is used to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group or individual. Ethics is an attempt to guide human conduct and it is also an attempt to help man in leading good life by applying moral principles. Ethics refers to well based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. Ethics is related to issues of propriety, rightness and wrongness. What is right is ethical and what is wrong is unethical. The words 'proper', 'fair' and 'just' are also used in place of 'right‟ and 'ethical'. If it is ethical, it is right, proper, fair and just. Ethics is a matter of practical concern. It tries to determine the good and right thing to do; choices regarding right and wrong, good and evil; questions of obligation and value. Ethics is to consider the practice of doing right actions or what we may call the art of living the good life. It is also defined as the science of the highest good. Mackenzie defines ethics as "the study of what is right or good in human conduct" or the "science of the ideal involved in human life". So, it is clear that ethics is the study which determines rightness or wrongness of actions. Values refer to a person's principles or standards of behavior; one's judgment of what is important in life. Ethics is a set of rules, almost similar to values but tend to be codified into a recognized system or set of rules which are clearly adopted by a group of people. To behave ethically is to behave in a manner, acceptable to society. A value denotes the importance of determining what action or ideal is best to do or live, Value may be described as treating actions themselves by putting value to them. Value deals with right conduct and good life, in the sense that a highly valuable action may be regarded as ethically "good" and an action of low value may be regarded as "bad". 2 Ethical value denotes importance of a thing, with the aim of determining what action or life is best to do, or at least attempt to describe the value of different actions. It may be described as treating actions themselves as abstract objects, putting value to them. It deals with right conduct and good life, in the sense that a highly, or at least relatively highly, valuable action or may be regarded as good, and an action of low, or at least relatively low, value may be regarded as bad. Personal and cultural values are relative in the sense that they differ between people, and on a larger scale, between people of different cultures. On the other hand, there are theories of the existence of absolute values, which can also be termed noumenal values. An absolute value is independent of individual and cultural views and also independent of whether it is known or not. Relative value may be regarded as an 'experience' by subjects of the absolute value. Relative value thus varies with individual and cultural interpretation, while absolute value remains constant, regardless of individual or collective 'experience' of it. Any decrease in the whole value, intensity or duration of an object decreases its total value and vice versa. Alternatively described, the total value can be regarded as being the sum of the total intrinsic value and total instrumental value. Still, it may be either relative or absolute, or both. Ethics and values are important virtues since they develop to be roots of traditions of various people around the world. In other words values are those aspects of personality that are important to someone while ethics is a system of moral values that govern the behavior of a person in a society. A few good examples of ethical values are integrity, honesty, and responsibility. Leaders recognize the importance of ethical behavior. The best leaders exhibit both their values and their ethics in their leadership style and actions. Your leadership ethics and values should be visible because you live them in your actions every single day. II. CHARACTER AND CONDUCT Character is an evaluation of a particular individual's durable moral qualities. The concept of character can imply a variety of attributes including the existence or lack of virtues such as integrity, courage, fortitude, honesty, and loyalty, or of good behaviors or habits. Moral character primarily refers to the assemblage of qualities that distinguish one individual from another. Moral character is defined as "a disposition to express behavior in consistent patterns of functions across a range of situations." The word "character" is derived from the Ancient Greek word "charaktêr", referring to a mark impressed upon a coin. Later it came to mean a point by which one thing was told apart from others. 3 The major factors in influencing character and moral development: heredity, early childhood experience, modeling by important adults and older youth, peer influence, the general physical and social environment, the communications media, the teachings of schools and other institutions, and specific situations and roles that elicit corresponding behavior. Marx accepts Aristotle's insight that virtue and good character are based on a sense of self-esteem and self-confidence. Plato believed that the soul is divided into three parts of desire: Rational, Appetitive, or Spirited. In order to have moral character, we must understand what contributes to our overall good and have our spirited and appetitive desires educated properly, so that they can agree with the guidance provided by the rational part of the soul. In Aristotle's view, good character is based on two naturally occurring psychological responses that most people experience without difficulty: our tendency to take pleasure from self-realizing activity and our tendency to form friendly feelings toward others under specific circumstances. Based on his view, virtually everyone is capable of becoming better and they are the ones responsible for actions that express (or could express) their character. Conduct is the result of character. Conduct is what one practices, where as character reflects the inherent principles and attitudes of a person. Conduct is visible where as character is invisible. Conduct refers to the actions or reactions of a person in relation to environment and society. Behavior can be conscious or unconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary, but conduct is the sum total of characteristics expressed in actions and decisions. Conduct is the base to know the norms that one inculcates and exhibits in the society and environment. Behavior of animals is believed to be influenced by the endocrine system and the nervous system, but human conduct is the sum total of norms and principles expressed in one's life. The behavior of animals fall within a range- some behavior being common, some unusual, some acceptable, and some outside acceptable limits. But human conduct refers to the behavior exhibited in actions which is an outlet of attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority and coercion. Behavior of animals in the general sense should not be mistaken with human behavior and conduct, which is a more advanced action, as human behavior is a behavior specifically directed at other people. The acceptability of behavior and conduct depends heavily upon social norms and is regulated by various means of social control. Human conduct is evolved throughout one's entire lifetime starting from six months onwards. It includes the way they act based on different factors such as genetics, sense- perception, social norms, core faith, tradition, and attitude. Though the behavior is impacted by certain traits each individual has; but the conduct of a person has certain bearings to one's reason, tradition, learning and vision and needs of life. The traits vary from person to person and can 4 produce different actions or behavior from each person, but social norms also impact behavior and conduct. Due to the inherently character, persons are pressurized into follow certain rules and display certain behaviors in society. Thus, conduct is greatly influenced by the character that we inherit, cultivate and learn. A moral character trait is a character trait for which the agent is morally responsible. If moral responsibility is impossible, however, then agents cannot be held responsible for their character traits or for the behaviors that they do as a result of those character traits. Some total of norms and ideals that a person entertains in mind constitutes the character, which is the basics thought of the person. Thought can refer to the ideas or arrangements of ideas that result from thinking, the process of producing thoughts. Despite the fact that thought is a fundamental human activity familiar to everyone, there is no generally accepted agreement as to what thought is or how it is created. Thoughts are the result or product of spontaneous act of thinking. Thinking allows humans to make sense, interpret, represent or model the world they experience, and to make predictions about that world. It is therefore helpful to regulate with needs, objectives, and desires as it makes plans and attempts to accomplish those goals. Thoughts are the keys which determine one's goal being expressed through conduct. III. NATURE AND SCOPE OF ETHICS Ethics deals with systematic explanation of rightness or wrongness in the light of the highest Good of man. It means ethics deal with norms, and concerned with what ought to be done rather than what is the case. Ethics is considered as normative science, because it is concerned with judgments of value, standards or norms by which we can judge human actions to be right or wrong. For example, logic and aesthetics are concerned with truth and beauty; similarly ethics deals with norms or principles of life. Ethics is not a practical science, like producing oxygen in the class room. For instance, medical science is a practical science, concerns with the means to remove the causes of diseases. Ethics does not teach us as to how to lead a moral life rather it helps us to justify rightness or goodness which can lead to the supreme goal of human life that is to realize the summum bonum of human life. Though ethics is neither a practical science nor an art, in case of morality ethics directs the individual while choosing what is good and what is bad. As such Ethics deals with motive, intention, purpose and choice which are considered right or wrong in the light of goodness. Ethics is a science of values as it discovers the forms of conduct or behavior, which have the character of oughtness. Ethics deals with moral phenomena and it observes and classifies 5 them and explains them by the moral ideal. It distinguishes moral judgments from logical judgments and aesthetic judgments and reduced them to a system. Ethics is an art as it sets guidelines for practical conduct and also for understanding the meaning of what it is to act in an ethical manner. Ethics is concerned with Goodness as an ultimate value while some other normative sciences like Aesthetics and Logic are oriented to the ideals of Beauty and Truth respectively. The subject matter of ethics indicates the scope of ethics. Ethics as a normative science deals with moral ideal or the good in order to enquire the nature of our conduct. It enquires into the origin of actions, motives, intentions, voluntary actions and so on. It determines rightness or wrongness of human actions. As a science of morality ethics discusses the contents of moral consciousness and the various problems of moral consciousness. Ethic is concerned with the highest good or absolute good. It investigates the nature of its fundamental notions- right, duty and good. Moral judgments passed on our voluntary actions are also included within the scope of ethics. In discussing the moral judgment it has also to concern with the nature, object, faculty and standard of moral judgment. Moral sentiments and feelings are arising in our mind when we contemplate about the moral judgment and therefore, ethics has to discuss the nature of moral sentiments to moral judgment. The scope of ethics includes whatever has reference to free human acts, whether as principle or cause of action (law, conscience, virtue)', or as effect or circumstance of action (merit, punishment, etc.) Ethics discusses the nature of human freedom. Ethics investigates what constitutes good or bad, just or unjust. It also inquires into-what are virtue, law, conscience and duty? What obligations are common to all? What is the good in all good acts? These questions lie within the scope of ethics. The sense of duty, oughtness or moral obligation and the responsibility for actions are also included within the range of ethics. The particular aspect under which ethics considers free acts is that of their moral goodness or the rectitude of order involved in them as human acts. A man may be a good artist or orator and at the same time a morally bad man or, conversely, a morally good man may be a poor artist or technician. Ethics has merely to do with the order which relates to man as man and which makes of him a good man. Thus we find that although Ethics is not a guidebook of moral rules as a branch of philosophy Ethics seeks clarification of terms used in moral language. The 'meta-ethical' problems fall within the scope of philosophical aspect of Ethics. There are other meta-ethical discussions related to the nature of moral judgments, the logical basis of ethical evaluation etc. Ethics is essentially related to all other branches of knowledge like sociology, political science, jurisprudence, law and legal study, psychology, anthropology, culture study, ecology and environmental study, economics, religion, aesthetics and other similar areas. Ethics is 6 concerned with political, sociological, cultural, psychical, economic, environmental, religious problems in pursuit of highest good. So these problems have an additional place in the scope of ethics. With the emergence of new technology there is scope for widening the scope of ethics to address new issues. IV. USES OF ETHICS If ethical theories are to be useful in practice, they need to affect the way human beings behave. Some philosophers think that ethics does do this. They argue that if a person realizes that it would be morally good to do something then it would be irrational for that person not to do it. But human beings often behave irrationally, they follow their 'gut instinct' even when their head suggests a different course of action. However, ethics does provide good tools for thinking about moral issues. Ethics can provide a moral map. Most moral issues get us pretty worked up - think of abortion and euthanasia for starters. Because these are such emotional issues we often let our hearts do the arguing while our brains just go with the flow. But there's another way of tackling these issues, and that's where philosophers can come in - they offer us ethical rules and principles that enable us to take a cooler view of moral problems. So, ethics provides us with a moral map, a frame work that we can use to find our way through difficult issues. Ethics can pinpoint a disagreement. Using the framework of ethics, two people who are arguing a moral issue can often find that what they disagree about is just one particular part of the issue, and that they broadly agree on everything else. That can take a lot of heat out of the argument, and sometimes even hint at a way for them to resolve their problem. But sometimes ethics doesn't provide people with the sort of help that they really want. Ethics doesn't always show the right answer to moral problems. Indeed more and more people think that for many ethical issues there is not a single right answer - just a set of principles that can be applied to particular cases to give those involved some clear choices. Some philosophers go further and say that all ethics can do is eliminate confusion and clarify the issues. After that it's up to each individual to come to their own conclusions. Ethics can give several answers. Many people want there to be a single right answer to ethical questions. They find moral ambiguity hard to live with because they genuinely want to do the 'right' thing, and even if they can't work out what that right thing is, they like the idea that 'somewhere' there is one right answer. But often there isn't one right answer - there may be several right answers, or just some least bad answers - and the individual must choose between them. For others moral ambiguity is difficult because it forces them to take responsibility for their own choices and actions, rather than falling back on convenient rules and customs. 7 Chapter Two SELF-REALIZATION AND HUMAN VALUES I. SELF-REALIZATION AND HARMONY Self-realization is said to be the maturity of the ego or personality, accepting one's own evanescence by allowing a allow space for the true Self to reveal itself. The sun veiled by clouds is an apt metaphor for the Self's apparent absence in our everyday lives. Self- realization is the dissolution of the ego's internal pre-occupations; and directly experience reality of the world as it is, free of any assumptions. The term „harmony‟ derives from the Greek word 'harmonia', meaning "joint, agreement, concord" from the verb 'harmozo', "to fit together, to join". In Ancient Greece, the term defined the combination of contrasted elements: a higher and lower note. In the Middle Ages the term was used to describe two pitches sounding in combination, and in the Renaissance the concept was expanded to denote three pitches sounding together. Socrates (469 BC - 399 BC) was one of the first Greek philosophers to encourage both scholars and the common citizen to turn their attention from the outside world to the condition of humankind. In this view, knowledge having a bearing on human life was placed highest, all other knowledge being secondary. Self-knowledge was considered necessary for success and inherently an essential good. A self-aware person will act completely within his capabilities to his pinnacle; while an ignorant person will flounder and encounter difficulty. To Socrates, a person must become aware of every fact (and its context) relevant to his existence, if he wishes to attain self-knowledge. He posited that people will naturally do what is good, if they know what is right. Evil or bad actions are the result of ignorance. If a criminal was truly aware of the mental and spiritual consequences of his actions, he would neither commit nor even consider committing those actions. Any person who knows what is truly right will automatically do it. While he correlated knowledge with virtue, he similarly equated virtue with happiness. The truly wise man will know what is right, do what is good, and therefore be happy. Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC) posited an ethical system that may be termed "self- realization ism." In Aristotle's view, when a person acts in accordance with his nature and realizes his full potential, he will do good and be content. At birth, a baby is not a person, but a potential person. To become a "real" person, the child's inherent potential must be realized. Unhappiness and frustration are caused by the unrealized potential of a person, leading to failed goals and a poor life. Aristotle said, "Nature does nothing in vain." Therefore, it is imperative for 8 persons to act in accordance with their nature and develop their latent talents in order to be content and complete. Happiness was held to be the ultimate goal. All other things, such as civic life or wealth, are merely means to the end. Self-realization, the awareness of one's nature and the development of one's talents, is the surest path to happiness. Aristotle asserted that man had three natures: vegetable (physical/metabolism), animal (emotional/appetite) and rational (mental/conceptual). Physical nature can be assuaged through exercise and care, emotional nature through indulgence of instinct and urges through human reason. Rational development was considered the most important, as essential to philosophical self-awareness and as uniquely human. Moderation was encouraged, with the extremes seen as degraded and immoral. For example, courage is the moderate virtue between the extremes of cowardice and recklessness. Man should not simply live, but live well with conduct governed by moderate virtue. This is regarded as difficult, as virtue denotes doing the right thing, to the right person, at the right time, to the proper extent, in the correct fashion, for the right reason. The Indian mystic Paramahamsa Yogananda describes Self-realization as the knowing— in body, mind and soul—that we are one with the omnipresence of God; that we do not have to pray that it come to us, that we are not merely near it at all times, but that God's omnipresence is our omnipresence; that we are just as much a part of Him now as we ever will be. All we have to do is improve our knowing". Mortimer Adler defines self-realization as freedom from external coercion, including cultural expectations, political and economic freedom, and the freedom from worldly attachments and desires etc. Self-realization can be a gradual or instantaneous phenomenon depending on the school of thought but in all cases it involves extensive preparation of mind and emotions to recognize self-realization when it occurs. Research shows that when people live lives that are different from their true nature and capabilities, they are less likely to be happy than those whose goals and lives match. For example, someone who has inherent potential to be a great artist or teacher may never realize his/her talents if their energy is focused on attaining the basic needs of humans. Harmony with the neighbor, nature, society and people was considered as one of the greatest virtues of life according to poets, priests and philosophers. Today scientists, social workers and states have been promoting the ways and means to live a harmonious life in the world; green chemistry, eco-friendly, meditation are some examples of this movement. II. RULES AND REGULATION In every community rules and regulations are inevitable. When these rules make sense, they contribute to the overall performance and joy of life within that community. We tried very 9 hard to keep our Rules and Regulations as simple and understandable as possible. Rules and regulations are principles governing conducts, actions, procedures and arrangement in a state or country. They are the customary circumstances that are controlled by the government, institutions or dominions. Rules and regulations are important for a number of reasons in life. Without them there would be a total collapse of the organized societies that we are used to today. The main difference between rules and regulations is that rules are restrictions, while regulations are of a form of controlling. Regulations are legal rules. They are established as a restriction with a legal force. On the other hand, a rule is an established standard or principle. Rules pertain to games, sports, and the like. Rules are likely to change over a period of time. Regulations usually are standards that are set in stone and must be followed. A rule is a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior. It is a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct. A rule subjects a person to a penalty or administrative sanction when a requirement is violated. A rule is a set of understood principles that governs conduct within a group, organization or society. It also means control over an area or people. The term 'rule' is also used to denote an order made by a court or judge with reference to a particular case. Rules are a set of explicit regulations that govern behavior within an activity, organization or sphere. To rule is to exercise power or authority over an area or a group of people. The rule of law is a legal principle that says decisions are to be using already existing legal principles. A rule denotes a set of explicit or understood regulations governing the conduct of individuals within a particular activity or sphere. It is also the law or principle that operates within a specific sphere of knowledge and describes what is possible or allowable. A ruling also refers to the order made by a judge or court in reference to a particular case. Rules are the explicitly understood regulations that govern the conduct within a particular activity or field. The term may also define the act of exercising power and authority over something. Rules are basically guidelines that control how an action is to be carried out and pay the penalties if in case of violation. Rules also describe the methodologies of a certain action and the boundaries of search an action. Regulation may be said as the process of the promulgation, monitoring, and enforcement of rules, established by legislation or a written instrument containing rules having the force of law. Regulation creates limits, constrains or right, creates or limits a duty, or allocates a responsibility. Regulation can take many forms: legal restrictions promulgated by a government authority, contractual obligations that bind many parties, self-regulation by an industry such as through a trade association, social regulation (e.g. norms), co-regulation, third-party regulation, certification, accreditation or market regulation. In its legal sense regulation can and should be 10 distinguished from primary legislation (by Parliament of elected legislative body) on the one hand and judge- made law on the other. Regulation mandated by a state attempts to produce outcomes which might not otherwise occur, produce or prevent outcomes in different places to what might otherwise occur, or produce or prevent outcomes in different timescales than would otherwise occur. In this way, regulations can be seen as implementation artifacts of policy statements. Common examples of regulations include controls on market entries, prices, wages, development approvals, pollution effects, employment for certain people in certain industries, standards of production for certain goods, the military forces and services. The economics of imposing or removing regulations relating to markets is analyzed in regulatory economics. Regulations may create costs as well as benefits and may produce unintended reactivity effects, such as defensive practice. Efficient regulations can be defined as those where total benefits exceed total costs. Regulation of businesses existed in the ancient early Egyptian, Indian, Greek, and Roman civilizations. Standardized weights and measures existed to an extent in the ancient world, and gold may have operated to some degree as an international currency. In China, a national currency system existed and paper currency was invented. Sophisticated law existed in Ancient Rome. In the European Early Middle Ages, law and standardization declined with the Roman Empire, but regulation existed in the form of norms, customs, and privileges; this regulation was aided by the unified Christian identity and a sense of honor in regard to contracts. III. RIGHTS AND DUTIES 10th December every year is celebrated as Human Rights Day because it was on 10th December 1948 that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted by the United Nations. The current thinking is that discourse on fundamental rights cannot be divorced from fundamental duties or else we do a disservice to both. The co-relation between rights and duties is not a new fang led idea. The Bhagavad Gita teaches us that "Your duty is your right". Walter Lippmann, the philosopher journalist, was emphatic that "For every right that you cherish you have a duty which you must fulfill". It is interesting that the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man of May 2, 1948 along with guaranteeing human rights prescribe certain duties one of which is "the duty to pay taxes". Again the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights of June 26, 1981 apart from guaranteeing a broad range of human rights prescribes the duty "to pay taxes imposed by law in the interest of the society". Apparently rampant tax evasion was the motivation for these duties. 11 Our Constitution as originally enacted did not expressly lay down any fundamental duties to be performed by citizens. It was only in 1976 that a specific Chapter IV-A was incorporated in the Constitution by a constitutional amendment and Article 51-A was enacted. Initially there were misgivings because the constitutional amendment was made during the 1975 spurious emergency. However on reflection the underlying philosophy of Article 51-A is that there should be a co-relation between rights and duties. Article 51-A in admirable language lists ten fundamental duties of every citizen one of which is "to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women". Other duties which deserve emphasis are the duty "to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform" and "the duty to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity..." To day, one duty which should be expressly listed is the duty to practice tolerance because at present the rise of intolerance is alarming. We have reached a stage where even a moderate expression of a different point of view is met with hostility. The consequence is that dissent dries up. Healthy and vigorous debate is no longer possible. And when that happens democracy is under siege. It is a moot point whether fundamental duties are judicially enforceable. According to the Supreme Court, fundamental duties, though not enforceable by a writ, provide a valuable guide and aid to interpretation of constitutional and legal issues. The ideal state would be where these duties are spontaneously performed by citizens without any judicial intervention. IV. GOOD AND OBLIGATION Good is a broad concept but it typically deals with an association with life, charity, continuity, happiness, love and justice. The nature of being good has been given many treatments; one is that the good is based on the natural love, bonding, and affection that begins at the earliest stages of personal development; another is that goodness is a product of knowing truth. Differing views also exist as to why evil might arise. Many religious and philosophical traditions claim that evil behavior is an aberration that results from the imperfect human condition. Sometimes, evil is attributed to the existence of free will and human agency. Philosophers inquire into what sorts of things are good, and what the word "good" really means in the abstract. As a philosophical concept, goodness might represent a hope that natural love be continuous, expansive, and all-inclusive. In a monotheistic- religious context, it is by this hope that an important concept of God is derived -as an infinite projection of love, manifest as 12 goodness in the lives of people. In other contexts, the good is viewed to be whatever produces the best consequences upon the lives of people, especially with regard to their states of well being. As a philosophical abstraction, goodness represents a hope that natural love be continuous, expansive, and all-inclusive. In religious context, it is by this hope that an important concept of God is derived -as an infinite projection of love, manifest as goodness in the lives of people. The belief in such hope is often translated as "faith", and wisdom itself is largely defined within religious doctrine as a knowledge and understanding of innate goodness. The concepts of innocence, spiritual purity, and salvation are likewise related to a concept of being in, or returning to, a state of goodness—one that, according to various teachings of "enlightenment", approaches a state of holiness, righteousness, (or Godliness). GE Moore contended that goodness cannot be analyzed in terms of any other property. In Principia Ethica, he writes: "It may be true that all things which are good are also something else, just as it is true that all things which are yellow produce a certain kind of vibration in the light. And it is a fact, that Ethics aims at discovering what are those other properties belonging to all things which are good. But far too many philosophers have thought that when they named those other properties they were actually defining good; that these properties, in fact, were simply not "other," but absolutely and entirely the same with goodness". Therefore, we cannot define "good" by explaining it in other words. We can only point to an action or a thing and say "That is good." Similarly, we cannot describe to a blind person exactly what yellow is. We can only show a sighted person a piece of yellow paper or a yellow scrap of cloth and say "That is yellow." In addition to categorizing "good" as indefinable, Moore also emphasized that it is a non-natural property. Summum bonum is a Latin expression meaning "the highest good", which was introduced by Cicero, to correspond to the Idea of the Good in Greek philosophy. The summum bonum is generally thought of as being an end in itself, and at the same time as containing all other goods. The term was used in medieval philosophy and in Kantianism, to describe the ultimate importance, the singular and overriding end which human beings ought to pursue; while in the Thomist synthesis of Aristotelianism and Christianity, the highest good is usually defined as the life of the righteous and/or the life led in Communion with God and according to God's precepts. Plato in Republic argued that "in the world of knowledge the idea of good appears last of all, and is seen...to be the universal author of all things, beautiful and right". Silent contemplation was the route to appreciation of the Idea of the Good. Aristotle in his Nichomachean Ethics accepted that the target of human activity "must be the Good that is the supreme good", but challenged Plato's Idea of the Good with the pragmatic question: "will one who has had a vision of the Idea itself become thereby a better doctor or general?" However, arguably at least, Aristotle's concept of the Unmoved mover owed much to Plato's Idea of the Good. 13 Obligation is the condition of being morally or legally bound to do something. That something may be which arises out Obligation is an act or course of action to which a person is morally or legally bound; a duty or commitment, or of a sense of duty or results from custom, law, etc., to fulfill one's obligations, a binding promise, contract, an agreement enforceable by law, a document setting forth such an agreement, a bond, certificate, or the like, an indebtedness or amount of indebtedness, a debt of gratitude. An obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral. There are also obligations in other normative contexts, such as obligations of etiquette, social obligations, and possibly in terms of politics, where obligations are requirements which must be fulfilled. These are generally legal obligations, which can incur a penalty for non- fulfillment, although certain people are obliged to carry out certain actions for other reasons as well, whether as a tradition or for social reasons. Obligations vary from person to person: for example, a person holding a political office will generally have far more obligations than an average adult citizen, who themselves will have more obligations than a child. Obligations are generally granted in return for an increase in an individual's rights or power. For example, obligations for health and safety in a workplace from employer to employee maybe to ensure the fire exit isn't blocked or ensure that the plugs are put in firmly. The word "obligation" can also designate a written obligation, or such things as bank notes, coins, checks, bonds, stamps, or securities. The term obligate can also be used in a biological context, in reference to species which must occupy a certain niche or behave in a certain way in order to survive. In biology, the opposite of obligate is facultative, meaning that a species is able to behave in a certain way and may do so under certain circumstances, but that it can also survive without having to behave this way. V. INTEGRITY AND CONSCIENCE Integrity: Integrity means the quality of being honest and having strong morals. The phrase "a gentleman of complete integrity" reflects the character of a person, which indicates the whole personality. The other similar words we use for integrity are honesty, uprightness, probity, rectitude, honorable, good character, ethics, morals, righteousness, morality, nobility, high- mindedness, right-mindedness, virtue, decency, fairness, scrupulousness, sincerity, truthfulness, trustworthiness. The word "integrity" stems from the Latin adjective “integer” (whole, complete). In this context, integrity is the inner sense of "wholeness" deriving from qualities such as honesty and consistency of character. As such, one may judge that others "have integrity" to the extent that they act according to the values, beliefs and principles they claim to hold. 14 Integrity also means adherence to moral and ethical principles; soundness of moral character; honesty. Integrity is a concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes. Barbara Killinger offers a traditional definition: "Integrity is a personal choice, an uncompromising and predictably consistent commitment to honor moral, ethical, spiritual and artistic values and principles." In ethics, integrity is regarded as the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions. Integrity can stand in opposition to hypocrisy, in that judging with the standards of integrity involves regarding internal consistency as a virtue, and suggests that parties holding within themselves apparently, conflicting values should account for the discrepancy or alter their beliefs. The concept of integrity implies a comprehensive corpus of beliefs, often referred to as a worldview. This concept of wholeness emphasizes honesty and authenticity, requiring that one act at all times in accordance with the individual's chosen worldview. Ayn Rand considered that integrity "does not consist of loyalty to one's subjective whims, but of loyalty to rational principles". In common public usage, people sometimes use the word "integrity" in reference to a single "absolute" morality rather than in reference to the assumptions of the value system in question. In an absolute context, the word "integrity" conveys no meaning between people with differing definitions of absolute morality, and becomes nothing more than a vague assertion of perceived political correctness or popularity, similar to using terms such as "good" or "ethical" in a moralistic context. Conscience: Conscience is often described as leading to feelings of remorse when a human commits actions that go against one's moral values and to feelings of rectitude or integrity when actions conform to such norms. Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong. The word "conscience" derives etymologically from the Latin 'conscientia,' meaning "privacy of knowledge" or "with-knowledge". The English word implies internal awareness of a moral standard in the mind concerning the quality of one's motives, as well as a consciousness of our own actions. Thus conscience considered philosophically may be first, and perhaps most commonly, a largely unexamined "gut feeling" or "vague sense of guilt" about what ought to be or should have been done. Ethically "conscience" has been defined as the "voice within," the voice of God, the voice of the community, the internal voice reflecting one's upbringing. Sometimes it has been equated with intuition, that almost indefinable experience of humans in which they "just know something to be the case." Bishop Joseph Butler (1692-1752) wrote: 15 "There is a superior principle of reflection or conscience in every man, which distinguishes between the internal principle of his heart as well as his external actions; which passes judgments upon himself and them; pronounces determinately some actions to be in themselves just, right, good, others to be in themselves evil, wrong, unjust; which without being consulted, without being advised with, magisterially exerts itself, and approves or condemns his, or the doer of them, accordingly." (Sermon II) Conscience could be a moral guide; it is a moral barometer within man. Conscience in this sense is not necessarily the product of a process of rational consideration of the moral features of a situation and can arise from parental, peer group, religious, state, which may or may not be presently consciously acceptable to the person. In the Zoroastrian faith, after death a soul must face judgment at the Bridge of the Separator; there, evil people are tormented by prior denial of their own higher nature, or conscience, and "to all time will they be guests for the House of the Lie." The Chinese concept of Ren, indicates that conscience, along with social etiquette and correct relationships, assist humans to follow The Way (Tao) a mode of life reflecting the implicit human capacity for goodness and harmony. In Buddhism, for example, Buddha links the positive aspect of conscience to a pure heart and a calm, well-directed mind: "when the mind is face to face with the Truth, a self- luminous spark of thought is revealed at the inner core of ourselves and, by analogy, all reality." The Buddha also associated conscience with compassion for those who must endure cravings and suffering in the world until right conduct culminates in right mindfulness and right contemplation. The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius wrote in his Meditations that conscience was the human capacity to live by rational principles that were congruent with the true, tranquil and harmonious nature of our mind and thereby that of the Universe: "To move from one unselfish action to another with God in mind. Only there, delight and stillness ... the only rewards of our existence here are an unstained character and unselfish acts." Many Christians regard following one's conscience as important as, or even more important than, obeying human authority. A fundamentalist Christian view of conscience might be: 'God gave us our conscience so we would know when we break His Law; the guilt we feel when we do something wrong tells us that we need to repent.' Immanuel Kant, a central figure of the Age of Enlightenment, likewise claimed that two things filled his mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the oftener and more steadily they were reflected on: "the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me ... the latter begins from my invisible self, my personality, and exhibits me in a world which has true infinity but which I recognize myself as existing in a universal and necessary (and not only, as in the first case, contingent) connection." 16 The 'universal connection' referred to here is Kant's Categorical Imperative: "act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law." Kant considered critical conscience to be an internal court in which our thoughts accuse or excuse one another; he acknowledged that morally mature people do often describe contentment or peace in the soul after following conscience to perform a duty, but argued that for such acts to produce virtue their primary motivation should simply be duty, not expectation of any such bliss or result. Rousseau expressed a similar view that conscience somehow connected man to a greater metaphysical unity. John Plamenatz in his critical examination of Rousseau's work considered that conscience was a feeling that urges us, in spite of contrary passions, towards two harmonies: the one within our minds and between our passions, and the other within society and between its members: "the weakest can appeal to it in the strongest, and the appeal, though often unsuccessful, is always disturbing. However, corrupted by power or wealth we may be, either as possessors of them or as victims, there is something in us serving to remind us that this corruption is against nature." ( John Plamenatz. Man and Society. Vol 1. Longmans. London. 1963, p. 383.) 17 Chapter Three OBLIGATION TO FAMILY I. TRUST AND RESPECT Trust: Trust represents the relationship between people. It is said that humans have a natural disposition to trust and to judge trustworthiness that can be traced to the neurobiological structure and activity of a human brain. Conceptually, trust is also attributable to relationships within and between social groups- families, friends, communities, organizations, companies, nations etc. The society needs trust to operate between confidence in what is known from everyday experience, and contingency of new possibilities. Without trust, all contingent possibilities lead a paralysis of inaction. Trust can be seen as a bet on one of contingent futures, the one that may deliver benefits. Trust means believing, that the person who is trusted will do what is expected. It starts at the family and grows to others. According to psychoanalyst- Erik Erikson development of basic trust is the first state psychological development occurring during the first two years of life. Success results in feeling of security, trust, and optimism, while failure leads to insecurity and mistrust. It has been argued that trust increases subjective well-being because it enhances the quality of one's interpersonal relationships, and happy people are skilled at fostering good relationships. Trust is integral to the idea of social influence: it is easier to influence or persuade someone who is trusting. Barbara Misztal points out three basic things that trust does in the lives of people: (1) It makes social life predictable, (2) it creates a sense of community, and (3) it makes it easier for people to work together. Working anywhere may be stressful and takes effort. By having a conveniently organized area to work on, concentration will increase as well as effort. People may work together and achieve success through trust while working on projects that rely on each individual's contribution. Conversely, where trust is absent, projects can fail. Individuals that are in relationships characterized by high levels of social trust are more apt to openly exchange information and to act with caring benevolence toward one another than those in relationships: lacking trust. Some philosophers argue that trust IS more than a relationship or reliance. Trust is also seen as an economic lubricant, reducing the cost of

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