Lecture Notes on Chemical Engineering

what is chemistry and biomolecular engineering. lecture notes on introduction to chemical engineering and lecture notes in chemical reaction engineering
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Dr.LeonBurns,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Department of Chemical & Biomolecular EngineeringContents Foreword the future begins here 1 Singapore where east meets west 2 National University of Singapore where global talents merge 4 Faculty of Engineering the school of choice for the engineers of tomorrow 6 Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering an evolution that never ends 8 Our Research Thrusts from classical to contemporary 11 chemical engineering sciences 12 biomolecular & biomedical engineering 14 chemical & biological systems engineering 16 functionalized and nanostructured materials & devices 18 environmental science & engineering 20 Research Infrastructure 22 Our Academic Programs a myriad of choices 25 educational programs 26 Affiliations with Research Institutes & Industries partners in collaborative research 30 collaborations with research institutes and industries 31 Bioprocessing Technology Institute 32 Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences Faculty Members and their research 33 Support Staff 37Foreword the future begins here hemical & Biomolecular Engineering as a profession and Singapore as a nation mirror each other in many ways. Both are dynamic, trend-setting and constantly evolving. C And both represent an exciting and ever-changing interplay of complementary interpretations of the life around us, with the fusion of chemical/biological sciences and engineering sciences in the case of the former rivaling the symbiosis between the East and the West in our culturally vibrant island nation. Our Department is a microcosm of what surrounds us – locally as well as globally. • Culturally, the Department is an amalgam of the East and the West. • Intellectually, we span the many facets of the frontiers of our profession. • We draw the best students from Singapore and the region to our undergraduate program and compete successfully with overseas institutions for graduate students. • Our international initiatives in education and research merge our strengths with those of the finest institutions around the globe. • Our faculty members come from the best universities from across the seas. • Our facilities are enviable by anyone’s standards. • And our vision and ideas are as exciting as any you will find elsewhere. Come join us – and be a part of the future today Raj Rajagopalan Professor and Head of Department 1Singapore where east meets west ingapore or the Lion City was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles, who soon established a British trading station on the island. Singapore gained independence S as a sovereign, democratic country on August 9, 1965. In the same year, Singapore was also admitted to both the UN and Commonwealth of Nations. The island city-state of Singapore has an area of approximately 600 square kilometers, with a population of nearly 4 million. Tropical lush open spaces contrast with the tall skyline of the central business district. Singapore’s strategic location, good infrastructure and its dynamic, educated population have contributed tremendously to its rapid economic growth. Singapore has a very stable economy enjoying high growth and low inflation. With an emphasis on manufacturing, financial services and logistics, it has an annual per capita income in Asia that is second only to Japan. Singapore has the busiest shipping port in the world and an award- winning international airport facility. Singapore is also a regional center for research and development, business and technical consultancy, as well as engineering, computing and other professional services. In addition to being the third largest center for petroleum refining in the world after Houston (Texas, USA) and Rotterdam (The Netherlands), Singapore is fast becoming a major international center of biomedical industries, with an accompanying center for biological research consolidated in the new Biopolis. 2Geographical Location Singapore is located at the southern tip of the Malaysian Peninsula. The location is 136.8 km north of the equator, between latitudes 103 degrees 38' E and 104 degrees 06' E. Climate Singapore’s climate is warm and humid, with temperatures People ranging from a typical minimum Singapore is the home to a multi-racial society. The of 23°C to a maximum of 34°C ethnic composition consists primarily of Chinese, Malays, with short occasional showers Indians, followed by Eurasians and people of other throughout the year. descent. Though inter-marriages have taken place over the years, each racial group within Singapore has retained its own cultural identity while developing as an integral part of the Singapore community. Religion The main religions are Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism Language and Sikhism. There are four official languages in Singapore: Malay, Mandarin, Tamil and English. Although Malay is the national language, English is the language of business and administration. It is widely spoken and understood. Most Singaporeans are bilingual, and speak their mother tongue as well as English. For additional information, please see the official website for Singapore at http://www.sg 3National University of Singapore where global talents merge 4nheriting its rich academic tradition from a lineage of distinctive predecessor institutions dating back to 1905, the National University of Singapore was established on 8 August 1980 through the merger of the University of Singapore I and Nanyang University. Today, NUS has 13 faculties and schools, including a music conservatory, and three overseas colleges at major entrepreneurial hubs in Silicon Valley (California), Bio Valley (Pennsylvania) and Shanghai. The University’s emphasis on both research and teaching has brought international accreditation of its degrees. Scholars from both East and West continue to converge at NUS as an Asian center for advanced study and research. The University has around 2,100 faculty staff, In the recent Times of London Higher 800 administrative and professional staff, and Education Supplement (November 2004) 2,600 general staff. As of July 2004, the NUS ranking of universities, NUS was ranked campus has about 23,100 undergraduate 18th worldwide. students and 9,000 postgraduate students. Foreign students constitute approximately The University plays host to several national 10% of the student population. While a high research institutes and centers, which have proportion of the foreign student intake is made significant contributions to the from the ASEAN countries, there is advancement of cutting-edge research in the representation from countries as diverse as fields of engineering, medicine, science and the United States, Britain, Canada, the information technology. This is in line with the Scandinavian countries, Europe, Mauritius, national emphasis on the development of a China, India, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, high technology and knowledge-intensive economy in Singapore. and the Netherlands. 5Faculty of Engineering the school of choice for the engineers of tomorrow he Faculty of Engineering, formally founded in 1969, is the largest of 13 faculties/schools at the National University of Singapore. Student numbers have increased from only T 300 in the late 1970s to more than 9,000 today. It comprises the Division of Bioengineering, the Environmental Science & Engineering Program and six departments: Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Industrial & Systems Engineering, Materials Science & Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering. In addition to the undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, the Faculty offers part-time undergraduate courses for polytechnic graduates leading to the Bachelor of Technology. Since its inception in 1969, the Faculty has contributed substantially to the rapid industrial and economic growth of the nation. Today, the Faculty has established high standards in teaching and research with many of its graduates now holding leadership and senior management positions. The Faculty contributes to Singapore’s economy with a pool of engineers whose contributions in technology innovation have enabled Singapore to reach the status of an industrialized economy. It strives to achieve international eminence in focused areas of research and to enhance the economic potential of its R&D capabilities. Many of the graduates from the Engineering Faculty have played a key role in transforming Singapore into a thriving metropolis. In the recent Times of London Higher Education Supplement (November 2004) ranking for IT and Engineering, NUS was ranked 9th worldwide. 6Collaboration with Leading International Universities and Research Institutes The Faculty has initiated collaboration with leading engineering schools in education and research around the world. There are many examples of these – double degree arrangements with six French Grande Ecoles, a Joint PhD in Chemical Engineering with University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, a Joint Masters of Technological Design and Joint PhD with Eindhoven University of Technology, a dual degree MSc in Logistics with Georgia Institute of Technology, a Masters Program in Transportation and Logistics with Tsinghua University in Beijing, China and a dual Masters in Defense Technology & Systems with the Naval Postgraduate School in the USA. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), through the Singapore-MIT Alliance has many joint programs in graduate research and education. Students from the Faculty have also taken part in NUS colleges located in Silicon Valley (California) and Bio Valley (Pennsylvania) and Shanghai. While at these colleges, they participate in internship programs with start-up companies and also attended relevant courses at local universities, such as Stanford University and the University of Pennsylvania. The number of students opting for the Student Exchange Programs (SEP) with partner overseas universities has also increased rapidly over the past few years. Renowned Professors and National Research Institutes Through the Temasek Professorship Scheme, the Faculty has attracted famous engineering scientists to lead and engage in cutting-edge research projects in Singapore. Over the years, the Faculty’s thriving research environment has facilitated outstanding research and development, as evidenced by the significant number of national research institutes that originated from the activities within the Engineering Faculty. Some notable examples of national research institutes are the Data Storage Institute, the Institute of Materials Research & Engineering, the Institute of Microelectronics, the Institute of High Performance Computing, and more recently, the Bioprocessing Technology Institute, the Institute for Infocomm Research and the Institute of Chemical & Engineering Sciences. Cutting-edge R & D with Industry Collaboration The Faculty actively promotes trans-disciplinary research. The Bioengineering Corridor and the Nanotechnology Corridor are results of such collaborations. We also collaborate with industry and strengthen them with the Faculty research expertise. Moreover, encouragement is given to our academic staff and students to expand their horizons with the founding of spin-off companies. The intake of students selected for the technopreneurship has also increased rapidly over the past few years. 7Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering an evolution that never ends Our Scope he Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering provides the critical link between the sciences, particularly the chemical and life sciences, and engineering by bridging the gap between molecular-level, laboratory-scale T studies of chemical and biological transformations and the large-scale industrial production operations. Moreover, with the recent revolution in molecular biology and life sciences, the Department also has expanded its traditional scope to include solutions to problems in systems biology, protein engineering, drug-delivery systems, and chemotherapeutic engineering, among others. The Department has also responded to the emergence of nanoscience and technology as a viable new frontier by expanding the classical role of chemical engineering in “scaling up” processes to make room for problems that require “scaling down” phenomena and processes for applications in labs-on-chips and plants-on-chips devices. The Evolution of the Department & Its Name If names alone are anything to go by, the evolution of the name of the Department provides a partial glimpse into the driving forces behind the profession of chemical engineering. Chemical Engineering at NUS began in 1975 in the Faculty of Science, but in 1979 it was incorporated into the Faculty of Engineering. Since then, the Department has played a pivotal role in supporting the dynamic growth of the chemical industry in Singapore. Then, in 1996, in response to the projections of the Economic Development Board, the Department took the leadership to introduce degree programs in environmental engineering and, in recognition of this initiative, it changed its name to the Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering in 1998. The success of the Department’s environmental engineering initiatives has now led to the formation of Environmental Science and Engineering Program (ESEP) within the Faculty, and this has allowed the Department to assume its current name, the Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, to give due recognition to the biochemical and biomolecular research and educational programmes in the Department. The inclusion of “Biomolecular Engineering” in the name is a further recognition of the role of biology as an enabling science in chemical engineering. Nevertheless, the Department continues to offer environmental science and engineering educational and research programs through ESEP. 8Core Areas Remain Strong While consolidating and extending its scope in biological and life sciences, the Department continues to maintain and enhance its strengths in traditional core areas such as process and systems engineering, catalysis and reaction engineering, advanced separation processes and transport phenomena. At the same time, it supports innovative activities in functionalized and smart materials (e.g., for biosensors, molecular and polymer electronics, novel smart membranes for separation processes and novel optoelectronic and photonic materials) and nanostructured materials (e.g., for new catalysts and fuel cells). The process systems engineering activities are now part of the broadened Chemical & Biological Systems Engineering (ChemBioSys) focus area, which encompasses our new activities in systems approach in the Advisory Boards biomolecular sciences (e.g., systems biology). An international Visiting Committee consisting of leading academic scientists and a Consultative Committee consisting of local industrial leaders Internationally Accredited Programs advise the Department in serving the profession. The chemical engineering undergraduate degree program is accredited by the Institution of International Visiting Committee Chemical Engineers (UK), and recognised by Prof. Matthew Tirrell, Dean of Engineering, University of California at Santa ABET (USA) as “substantially equivalent”. Both Barbara & Prof. Gintaras V Reklaitis, Purdue University (+ vacancy to be the undergraduate and postgraduate programs filled) . attract students with superior academic credentials. Regional demand for chemical and biomolecular engineers has grown in recent Consultative Committee years. In response, the first-year undergraduate Mr. Kenneth Bradley (Pfizer Asia Pacific), Mr. Foong Chee Leong (National intake has risen from 20 in 1979 to more than Environment Agency), Mr. Edwin T F Khew (Singapore Association for 260 in 2004. To date, thousands of the Environmental Occupational Health & Safety Companies), Mr. Philip Parker Department’s graduates are working in a (Petrochemical Corporation of Singapore), Mr. Tan Hien Meng (ExxonMobil wide spectrum of the chemical, micro- Asia Pacific), Dr. Richard A Williams (Merck Sharp & Dohme), electronics and biomedical industries. and Dr. Patrick Yeung (Schering-Plough). 9New Frontiers in Biological & Biomolecular Engineering With its latest metamorphosis, the Department is poised once again to support Singapore’s recent transformation to play a pivotal role in the fast-growing areas of biological and the life sciences, and biomedicine and biomolecular engineering. For example, ASTAR’s Bioprocessing Technology Institute is an outgrowth of the Bioprocessing Technology Centre at the Faculty, which had grown out of the Bioprocessing Technology Unit set up in 1990 in the Department. In order to provide undergraduates with a strong foundation in biological and the life sciences, the Department has introduced the Chemical Sciences Program jointly with the Department of Chemistry, with the sponsorship of the Office of Life Sciences and with the support of ASTAR, in August 2003. In addition, with the sponsorship of the Economic Development Board, the Department also continues to provide Biopharmaceutical Engineering Specialization at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Other Departmental research programs encompass bioprocessing, biomolecular engineering and biomedical engineering (the latter jointly with our Division of Bioengineering). It is also embarking on other programs which take advantage of recent developments in cell biology, genomics and metabolic engineering, among others. Extensive and Impressive Facilities & Staff The Department enjoys modern laboratory facilities and an array of state-of-the art instruments. It has about 50 faculty members, with excellent credentials from leading institutions from around the world, and a team of nearly 40 support staff. The faculty members are recognised internationally for their research work published in prestigious journals and for their authorship of popular textbooks. This international recognition has led to a number of joint initiatives with leading universities in North America, Europe and Asia. An example is the Joint M.Sc. and Ph.D. Programs with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the US, which is ranked among the top five engineering institutions there. The Department’s strength is in the classical core areas, such as process systems engineering, process control and optimization, catalysis, reaction engineering and separation processes, and has equally strong activities in emerging areas such as interfacial engineering, functionalized and smart materials and nanostructured materials. Combined with these strengths, its expansion into biomolecular engineering provides a comprehensive educational and research environment designed to equip students to contribute to research and industry in Singapore and worldwide and to maintain its position in the forefront of st chemical engineering in the 21 century. 10The Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at NUS provides a critical intellectual link between engineering and physical & life sciences. Equipped with a comprehensive research infrastructure with top-notch facilities for carrying out cutting-edge research, the Department is home to creative and robust research activities that may be conveniently classified as follows: • Chemical Engineering Sciences • Biomolecular & Biomedical Engineering • Chemical & Biological Systems Engineering • Functionalized and Nanostructured Materials & Devices • Environmental Science & Engineering 11 Our Research Thrusts – from classical to contemporarychemical engineering sciences hemical engineering as a distinct discipline is now more than a century old. Over these years, it has evolved from simple chemical analysis and empiricism into a mature field that combines the understanding and predictive capabilities C of the fundamental physical sciences to achieve the final goal of design and control of industrial scale applications. Research in Chemical Engineering Sciences in the Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at NUS includes chemical thermodynamics, reaction engineering and catalysis, transport phenomena, separation processes, and colloidal and interfacial phenomena. Chemical Thermodynamics Activities in chemical thermodynamics have evolved from classical macroscopic phase and reaction equilibrium studies to understanding behavior at the molecular level using statistical thermodynamics. Accordingly, recent efforts in this area are targeted at fundamental understanding of sub-microscopic ensembles. Such ensembles are found in macromolecular and colloidal systems, e.g., the folding and conformation of polymeric and protein structures. Similar investigations are important for understanding the behavior and stability of solid-state nano-materials for microelectronic, catalytic and biomolecular applications. Reaction Engineering Current chemical reaction engineering research in the Department is focused on detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies, which synergistically complement activities in reactor design for novel syntheses and optimization of existing industrially important applications. Among the significant activities in heterogeneous catalysis are ab-initio mechanistic studies for hydrocarbon reactions, photo-catalysis for environmental pollution control, and asymmetric reactions for chiral fine chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. The homogenous catalysis efforts are focused on atmospheric and liquid-phase organometallic reactions. The roles of radicals and halogens in the redox cycling of toxic metals, such as mercury in the troposphere and photochemical transformations of selected airborne organic compounds, are key mechanistic considerations in atmospheric chemistry. In organometallic liquid-phase catalytic syntheses, advanced in-situ spectroscopies and computationally intensive chemometrics play the crucial role of determining the kinetics and establishing mechanisms. In a bioelectrochemical extension of spectroscopic applications, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is utilized for perishable food quality control. 12Separation Processes Separation processes constitute major operations in the chemical, Transport Phenomena biochemical and pharmaceutical process industries. Research in this area consists of both fundamental and applied studies, spanning both Study of transport phenomena is another important mechanical and diffusional separation processes. Mechanical foundation on which the field of chemical engineering separations include cake and deep-bed filtration for solid-liquid sciences rests. It finds its mathematical origin in the separations, cyclone and post cyclone separations of fine particles from gaseous streams, and ferro-fluid separations. On the other hand, constitutive equations that define the conservation of diffusional processes include asymmetric and composite membranes material, energy and momentum in a continuum for gas separation, nanofiltration and pervaporation for mechanics setting. Activities in this field extend over liquid- biopharmaceutical separation and purification, liquid membranes for solid, gas-solid, gas-liquid, and gas-liquid-solid systems. metal extraction and separation of bio-products. In addition, diffusional processes include adsorption for gas separation, Fundamental investigations of thin film polymerization, hydrocarbon and metal adsorption from waste streams using organic, crystallization kinetics, surface energy evolution and inorganic and microbial adsorbents, and protein separation. The thermal stability of liquid-crystalline polymers are being primary focus in gas membrane development is on the science linking conducted. These will find use in high-performance synthesis conditions to morphology and performance. The scope of adsorption studies for separation ranges from fundamental studies in electronic display devices, among other applications. The equilibrium, kinetics, surface reaction (for chemisorption) and column development of continuum models for the transport dynamics to the development and simulation of industrially relevant dynamics of granular materials is giving insight into processes. Specific process interests include gas separation by pressure instabilities associated with granular flow. Modeling of swing adsorption, and coupled reaction and separation in simulated moving beds. nucleation and growth of bubbles in viscous shear flows is identified as an important research area in order to Colloids, Interfaces & Complex Fluids understand and optimize the removal of volatile Colloidal and interfacial phenomena are important both in industrial components from polymer melts during processing. The processes and in consumer applications. Common day-to-day analytical solutions of bubble growth models under realistic consumer items, such as numerous pharmaceutical and health care products, some food products and beverages, colorants and paints, assumptions form an integral component of this study. etc., are colloidal dispersions. Colloidal dispersions are part of a class Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of photo- of materials that are known as complex fluids. Notable examples catalytic reactors, gas-solid separators and filtration systems include liquid-crystalline materials, polymer solutions and gels, are revealing insights that are difficult to ascertain by other surfactant assemblies, and biological materials. The practical means. The power of CFD modeling has also been significance of the interaction between the structural (thermodynamic), mechanical and fluid dynamic aspects of complex fluids extends extended to develop a general simulation program for beyond their implications to conventional colloids. Understanding the targeted treatment of tumors. These CFD studies are stability of these suspensions often determines their shelf-life and is complemented by parallel experimental programs. Other required for quality control. The research in complex fluids includes notable interests include transport in micropores with experimental, computational and theoretical rheological studies focused on constructing a link between the microstructure and applications in separation and catalysis, and macroscopic properties of complex fluids. Interest in colloidal systems transport in drying with applications targeted at also extends to electrokinetic phenomena, which has applications in food processing. the electrophoretic separation of proteins. As the above description illustrates, the activities in Chemical Engineering Sciences are designed to provide the crucial underlying foundation that binds research activities in materials and devices, systems engineering and biomolecular sciences in the Department. 13biomolecular & biomedical engineering he transformation of biology, in the 1960’s and 70’s, from a descriptive science to a molecular science and our increasing ability to manipulate biological cells at the genetic level have led in recent years to the emergence of what is often T referred to as new biology and systems biology. These developments have at least two important implications to chemical engineers: (i) Biology at the molecular level is a chemical science, with biological processes controlled by the underlying reaction kinetics, chemical change (molecular transformation), transport phenomena, and their implications to cellular and metacellular behavior; and (ii) Biological cells are cellular factories. Both of these imply that chemical engineering can play a central role in developing a new breed of engineering scientists, with a solid background in biology and chemistry combined with the quantitative-integrative skills of the engineer. The connection between biological sciences and chemical engineering has long been recognized in the profession. Our Department at NUS was, in fact, one of the first in the world to include basic biochemistry as a required module in the undergraduate program. The term Biomolecular Engineering is defined by the US National Institutes of Health as research (and, by extension, education) at the interface of chemical engineering and biology with an emphasis on studies at the molecular level, and the inclusion of the term in the name of the Department recognizes the role of biology as an enabling science in chemical engineering. The Departmental programs in biomolecular and biomedical engineering (the latter jointly with our Division of Bioengineering) includes research on separation of biomolecules, development of biomaterials and drug delivery. And recently the Department has expanded the scope to include tissue engineering, biological routes to nanosynthesis, encapsulation and bioanalytics, and protein engineering. Biologics & Bioseparation Separation and purification are the two vital steps in the production of biopharmaceuticals. Development of novel separation techniques for rapid, selective and economic recovery of recombinant proteins is of interest for downstream processing. To this end, a chemical extraction technique for inclusion body (IB) processing has been developed and tested on proteins of commercial and scientific importance. Integration of emulsion liquid membrane, reverse micelle using bi-functional surfactants, and affinity separation for enhanced protein purification is also underway. 14Drug Delivery Novel Bioanalytic Devices & Methods Advanced drug delivery has received An emerging dimension in nanotechnology is the production considerable attention in recent years. of various nanostructured materials guided by a nanoscale Activity in this Department includes protein scaffold as an alternative to existing physico-chemical fabrication of lipid bilayer vesicles and approaches, such as chemical vapor deposition. The idea is to fuse peptide sequences of desired characteristics to generate biodegradable polymer nanoparticles novel proteins without affecting their original structure or for the delivery of chemotherapeutic function. These engineered proteins are expected to facilitate drugs with higher efficacy and the nano-patterning of functional inorganic materials, such as reduced side effects. Understanding metal oxides, in a controlled manner. Illustration of a surface-exposed interactions between the cell membrane protein, which can membranes and drug molecules is Encapsulated substances find an increasing number of be engineered to adsorb heavy metals. important in drug delivery and is also applications in biotechnology, bioanalytics, medicine and a host of other areas. Microencapsulation of polymerase chain reaction being investigated. (PCR), is a potentially important method for bioanalytics. Microencapsulation allows performing millions of PCRs in parallel Biomaterials Synthesis & Development in a single reaction tube. Efficient techniques are being Biodegradable polymers play a key role in drug delivery, gene therapy developed for PCR encapsulation. Similarly, the enzymes catalase and tissue engineering. New biocompatible polymers with targeted and glucose-oxidase have also been successfully encapsulated in their solid state, which opens the door to a new class of properties are being synthesized and characterized. For example, the micro-bioreactors with an extremely high loading density of functionalization of polymers with peptides, proteins, carbohydrates biologically active compound. and chemical functional groups is used to control cell-material interaction. The synthesis of new biodegradable polymers derived Another potential application in bioanalytics uses from the extracellular matrix of the body can eliminate a negative microelectronic/mechanic devices with integrated DNA or immune response and increase host acceptance. antibodies. A new technology has been developed for the integration of biological materials (DNA) into these devices during microfabrication. The devices will have medical and Tissue Engineering environmental applications. Another research avenue being Current research in tissue engineering focuses on efforts making pursued is remote manipulation of DNA hybridization. This is tissues mechanically more robust as well as modifying adhesion achieved by grafting a nanoparticle onto a DNA double helix. characteristics of the engineered tissues. New scaffolds with molecular Local heating of the nanoparticle due to inductive coupling can alignment are developed for sustaining the day-to-day stress and wear separate the double strands of the DNA. Once the grafting that they face after implantation. Moreover, surfaces play an important position and their effects on DNA hybridization are understood, role in the development of a suitable scaffold for tissue engineering. the technique may find a host of new applications including gene chips and PCR. Grafting low-molecular weight polyethylene glycol onto a polymer can effectively prevent cell and protein adhesion, while attaching The concept of inductive coupling manipulation can be extended peptides and extracellular matrix molecules can enhance cell adhesion. to other biomolecular systems to study protein function and The objective is to understand the effects of these factors on in-vitro protein-protein interaction. Protein refolding is a key issue cultured liver cells. Research work is also underway using a novel determining the overall success of the production of therapeutic system of drug encapsulated microspheres as a support scaffold to proteins. Research is aimed at developing efficient surface refolding strategies for various pharmaceutical proteins. overcome the current liver-tissue thickness limitations. This can be easily integrated with the chemical extraction process for further process intensification. 15chemical & biological systems engineering he Chemical & Biological Systems Engineering (ChemBioSys) research group in the Department is one of the largest academic process systems engineering research groups worldwide. In addition to the traditional process systems T engineering research areas such as process design, operations, control, and safety, our activities have expanded into the biological and enterprise domains. Design & Optimization Modeling, design and simulation of reaction, separation and coupled reaction-separation processes from first principles are common interests shared between ChemBioSys and Chemical Engineering Sciences. Artificial neural networks and regression techniques are used for modeling plant data and for predicting plant emissions and pollutants in order to reduce emissions at the source. Identification of process models using multivariate data constitutes another facet of modeling activities. Based on these modeling capabilities, multi-objective optimization of complex industrial processes, such as reformers for hydrogen production, crackers for ethylene, and styrene reactors are carried out using an adaptation of the non- dominating sorting genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. The optimization studies lead to potentially significant cost savings and enhanced productivity. Reliable equation-solving methods for phase equilibrium calculations are developed and applied to simulation and optimization of multi-phase distillation. Stochastic optimization methods are also used for phase equilibrium calculations by global minimization of free energy. Advanced Process Control A significant component of our research is in the area of advanced process control. Activities in this area include closed-loop system identification, control methodologies for decentralized control systems and multivariable processes, process monitoring, and control loop performance assessment. Fuzzy logic control has been applied to non-linear systems. Data-based control strategies and monitoring tools for process fault detection and diagnosis are also in progress to benefit from the increasing number of variables that are measured and stored in a modern plant. Tools and procedures are developed for measuring the performance of control loops and to determine the causes for poor loop performance. Some specific experimental systems of industrial relevance chosen for the above studies are pH control, on-line monitoring and control of crystallization processes in protein and pharmaceutical systems, and control of fermentation reactors. 16Artificial Intelligence, Supply Chain & Logistics In recent years, our activities have expanded into exciting contemporary domains such as artificial intelligence applications, supply chain management & logistics, and ab initio kinetic modeling for green chemistry and product design. Work has been initiated on optimal design of multi-functional and miniaturized process units. The main objective is to develop efficient methodologies and tools to obtain innovative and non-intuitive solutions for the design and operation of these complex systems. The current research encompasses a wide range of length and time scales, ranging from individual molecules to global clusters of multinational enterprises in the context of supply chain management, and from nanoseconds for elementary reactions to months and even years of plant operations. Illustrative examples include computer- aided design of molecules and catalysts, design and evaluation of benign processes, alarm and abnormal situation management, scheduling of non-continuous multi-product batch plants, enterprise-wide modeling, and global supply chain management. The methodologies that are most commonly used for these problems include mixed integer mathematical Biological Systems Engineering programming, discrete optimization techniques, Recent developments in life sciences have opened doors to formidable specialized heuristic procedures, artificial intelligence, new challenges and opportunities. Chemical sciences coupled with multivariate statistics and signal processing. The sophisticated computational techniques, ranging from statistical data fundamental contributions are in the areas of knowledge analysis and optimization to artificial intelligence, provide an excellent representation, knowledge extraction, and partially or platform for deriving deep insight into biological systems. Modeling fully automated decision support for complex, dynamic and regulation of human physiological systems, and development of systems. Methods and tools resulting from the application computational approaches for information modeling and analysis of of a systems approach have become routine and biological systems are some of the topics currently pursued. indispensable in both industry and academia. 17functionalized and nanostructured materials & devices esearch in materials and devices is a cornerstone of the activities in the Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering. Our historical strengths in synthesis of organic and inorganic functional materials through molecular R engineering and their characterisation for chemical, environmental and microelectronic applications have evolved into the new and emerging disciplines of molecular surface-functionalization and nanotechnology. Thus materials research in the Department encompasses scales from the molecular to the macroscopic. Research in the area of molecularly-engineered functional materials is focused on a wide variety of applications and in understanding the structure and effect of processing on the properties. Molecularly-Engineered Inorganic Materials Examples of activities in the area of catalyst development are novel solid catalysts using surface-modified MCM-41 as a support for environmentally friendly chemical processes, molecular engineering of deNOx catalysts, catalysts for decomposition of nitrogen- containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (NPAC), and understanding of Co-Mo-S active sites in Co/Mo/Al O type catalysts for hydrodesulfurization. Another important example 2 3 is CO-resistant electrocatalysts for room-temperature direct methanol fuel cells. In the area of asymmetric syntheses, novel solid chiral catalysts are developed for epoxidation, hydrogenation and hydroformylation through functionalization of novel high-surface- area mesoporous metal oxides, such as MCM-41, MCM-48 and SBA-15, or dendrimers using chiral functional ligands/organometallics. Notable activities in the area of adsorbent development are templated synthesis of novel porous carbon structures for hydrogen storage, functionalized adsorbents for environmental applications, molecularly tailored adsorbents for the separation of low molecular weight gases, imprinted porous silica materials for separation and purification of biological compounds, and porous polymer microspheres with adjustable pore size as selective ion- exchange resins. Potential of perovskite oxide as high temperature oxygen selective adsorbent is also explored. Perovskite-based dense ceramic membranes have been successfully fabricated on asymmetric porous supports for applications in coupled separation-partial oxidation processes. Inorganic membranes are also fabricated on porous oxide supports for liquid- phase and gas-phase separation applications and tin oxide-graphite composites are developed as cost effective variants of electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. 18

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