Organizational communication Lecture notes

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An Introduction to Organizational Communication v. 0.0This is the book An Introduction to Organizational Communication (v. 0.0). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/ 3.0/) license. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. This book was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz (http://lardbucket.org) in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Additionally, per the publisher's request, their name has been removed in some passages. 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You can browse or download additional books there. iiTable of Contents About the Authors................................................................................................................. 1 Preface..................................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 1: Introduction to Organizational Communication ....................................... 7 What is an Organization? .............................................................................................................................. 9 What is Communication? ............................................................................................................................ 26 History of Organizational Communication ............................................................................................... 32 Approaches to Organizational Communication Research ....................................................................... 40 Chapter Exercises......................................................................................................................................... 58 Chapter 2: Organizational Communication Ethics....................................................... 63 Nature of Ethics............................................................................................................................................ 65 Business Ethics ............................................................................................................................................. 73 Communication Ethics................................................................................................................................. 81 Organizational Communication Ethics ...................................................................................................... 87 Chapter Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 104 Chapter 3: Classical Theories of Organizational Communication .......................... 108 The Classical Perspective .......................................................................................................................... 110 Human Relations Theories........................................................................................................................ 119 Human Resources Theories....................................................................................................................... 127 Chapter Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 137 Chapter 4: Modern Theories of Organizational Communication ........................... 142 Rethinking the Organization .................................................................................................................... 144 Rethinking Communication...................................................................................................................... 165 Representative Modern Theories............................................................................................................. 183 Chapter Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 194 Chapter 5: Communicating Between and Among Internal Stakeholders ............. 199 Formal Communication Networks ........................................................................................................... 202 Informal Communication Networks ........................................................................................................ 243 Chapter Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 263 iiiChapter 6: Organizational Communication Climate, Culture, and Globalization268 Psychological Life of Organizations ......................................................................................................... 269 From Climate to Culture: A History of Research..................................................................................... 270 Components of Organizational Culture ................................................................................................... 271 The Process of Organizational Culture .................................................................................................... 272 Analyzing Climate and Culture................................................................................................................. 273 Outcomes of Organizational Climate and Culture .................................................................................. 274 Globalization............................................................................................................................................... 275 Chapter 7: Leader and Follower Behaviors & Perspectives ..................................... 276 Approaches to Leadership......................................................................................................................... 282 Followership ............................................................................................................................................... 304 Mentoring and Coaching........................................................................................................................... 317 Chapter Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 335 Chapter 8: Organizational Identity and Diversity ..................................................... 338 Identity and the Organization .................................................................................................................. 341 Identity and the Organization Member................................................................................................... 362 Diversity and the Organization ................................................................................................................ 375 Chapter Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 392 Chapter 9: Teams in the Workplace .............................................................................. 397 Group........................................................................................................................................................... 399 Types of Teams........................................................................................................................................... 408 The Downside to Teams............................................................................................................................. 413 Group Communication Roles .................................................................................................................... 420 Chapter Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 429 Chapter 10: Recruiting, Socializing, and Disengaging.............................................. 433 Recruiting ................................................................................................................................................... 434 Socializing................................................................................................................................................... 450 Disengaging ................................................................................................................................................ 467 Chapter Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 473 Chapter 11: Teams in the Workplace............................................................................ 476 Group vs. Team........................................................................................................................................... 477 Characteristics of Teams ........................................................................................................................... 478 Types of Teams........................................................................................................................................... 479 The Downside to Teams............................................................................................................................. 480 ivChapter 12: Entering, Socializing, and Disengaging ................................................. 481 Entering....................................................................................................................................................... 482 Socializing................................................................................................................................................... 483 Disengaging ................................................................................................................................................ 484 Chapter 13: Technology in Organizations ................................................................... 485 Innovation in Organizations ..................................................................................................................... 486 A Brief History of Technology in Organizations..................................................................................... 487 Why We Use Technology ........................................................................................................................... 488 Benefits of Technology on Organizational Outcomes ............................................................................ 489 Knowledge Management........................................................................................................................... 490 The Downside to Technology in the Organization ................................................................................. 491 Chapter 14: Stress, Conflict, and Negotiation............................................................. 492 Stress ........................................................................................................................................................... 493 Conflict ........................................................................................................................................................ 494 Negotiation ................................................................................................................................................. 495 Chapter 15: The Dark Side of Organizational Communication ............................... 496 Aggression in the Workplace.................................................................................................................... 497 Discrimination in the Workplace ............................................................................................................. 498 Employee Behavior .................................................................................................................................... 499 Organizational Behavior ........................................................................................................................... 500 Outcomes of the Dark Side ........................................................................................................................ 501 Chapter 16: Corporate Communications: Communicating with External Stakeholders ...................................................................................................................... 502 Communication with an Organization’s Environment .......................................................................... 503 Types of External Stakeholders................................................................................................................ 504 Public Relations and Marketing ............................................................................................................... 505 Sales............................................................................................................................................................. 506 Customer Service ....................................................................................................................................... 507 Chapter 17: Strategic Communication (issue management, risk communication, & crisis communication).................................................................................................. 508 Corporate Issue Management................................................................................................................... 509 Risk Communication.................................................................................................................................. 510 Crisis Communication ............................................................................................................................... 511 vChapter 18: The Professional Side of Organizational Communication ................. 512 Organizational Development .................................................................................................................... 513 Communication Analysis........................................................................................................................... 514 Organizational Change .............................................................................................................................. 515 Workplace Learning................................................................................................................................... 516 Human Performance Improvement ......................................................................................................... 517 Chapter 19: Organizational Communication and Your First Job out of College.. 518 viChapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication PLEASE NOTE: This book is currently in draft form; material is not final. Why Organizational Communication Matters PLEASE NOTE: This book is currently in draft form; material is not final. Welcome to your first book in organizational communication. This book assumes that you have some background in the field of human communication and probably minimal exposure to the world of organization studies. In the Preface of this book, which we strongly encourage you to read, we discussed the reasons why studying organizational communication matters in the 21st Century. Your average employed person working in the United States averages 7.5 hours of work per day (7.9 hours on the week days; 5.5 hours on the weekend). This study from the US Department of LaborThe US Department of Labor. (2010). American time-use survey—2010 results Press release. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/ news.release/pdf/atus.pdf further noted that these are just the hours a person spends in a traditional working environment. People further spend about 36 minutes a week interacting with an educational organization, about 43 minutes shopping, and about 16 minutes attending religious services or volunteering. When people traditionally hear the word “organization” they most often jump right to the idea of a workplace. However, an organization is a much broader term and covers a lot more ground than just someone’s workplace. As such, time that is spent in an educational environment, shopping, attending religious services, and volunteering are also examples of someone interacting with or in an organization. This book looks at organizational communication as a broad term that encompasses a wide array of organizational types, which we’ll explore in more detail elsewhere 7Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication in this chapter. Even if you just take the average 7.5 hours per day an individual spends “working” in an organization, you will end up in an organizational environment a little over 111 days per year. If you work for 40 years, you’ll basically spend 12 of those years at work. We don’t tell you this to scare you, but to help you understand the importance of knowing how to interact and behave in organizations. So, let’s get started 8Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication 1.1 What is an Organization? PLEASE NOTE: This book is currently in draft form; material is not final. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the three common components of the various definitions of the term “organization.” 2. Differentiate among the four types of organizations: mutual benefit, business concerns, service, and commonweal. As with any academic endeavor, one must understand what one is studying before one can delve into the specifics and intricacies of the subject matter. For this reason, this section is going to start by defining what is meant by the term “organization” and then looking at three different ways of categorizing different types of organization. Defining “Organization” Many people have attempted to define what is meant by the word “organization.” Instead of following suit and throwing yet another definition into the mix, we’ve selected a number of definitions from common dictionary definitions to ones used by business, psychology, economics, and communication scholars. Table 1.1 "Defining “Organization”" contains a partial list of the different types of definitions seen across various academic disciplines. Table 1.1 Defining “Organization” Dictionary Definition (1) the act of organizing or the state of being organized; (2) an organized structure or whole; (3) a business or administrative concern united and constructed for a particular end (4) a body of administrative officials, as of a political party, a government department, etc (5) order or system; method.organization. (2009). Collins English Dictionary—Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved March 18, 2012, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/organization 9Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication General Business Definitions “a system of consciously coordinated activities of two or more persons.”Barnard, C. I. (1938). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pg. 73. “The accomplishment of an objective requires collective effort, men set up an organization designed to coordinate the activities of many persons and to furnish incentives for others to join them for this purpose.”Blau, P. M., & Scott, W. R. (1962). Formal organizations: A comparative approach. San Francisco: Chandler, pg. 5. “A social unit of people, systematically structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals on a continuing basis. All organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between functions and positions, and subdivides and delegates roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out defined tasks. Organizations are open systems in that they affect and are affected by the environment beyond their boundaries.”organization. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2012, from BusinessDictionary.com website: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ organization.html “a Body of individuals working under a defined system of rules, assignments procedures, and relationships designed to achieve identifiable objectives and goals.”Greenwald, H. P. (2008). Organizations: Management without control. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, pg. 6. Organizational Behavior Definitions “a social unit within which people have achieved somewhat stable relations (not necessarily face-to-face) among themselves in order to facilitate obtaining a set of objectives or goals.”Litterer, J. A. (1963). Organizations: Structured behavior. New York: John Wiley and Sons, pg. 5. “an organization is a complex system, which includes as subsystems: (1) management, to interrelate and integrate through appropriate linking processes all the elements of the system in a manner designed to achieve the organizational objectives, and (2) a sufficient number of people so that constant face-to-face interaction is impossible.”Lundgren, E. F. (1974). Organizational management: Systems and process. San Francisco: Canfield Press, pg. 7. Economics Definition A short hand expression for the integrated aggregation of those persons who are primarily involved in: “(1) the undertaking or managing of risk and the handling of economic uncertainty; (2) planning and innovation; (3) coordination, administration and control; (4) and routine supervision” of an enterprise.Harbison, F. (1959). Entrepreneurial organization as a factor in economic development. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70, 364–379, pg. 365. Industrial/Organizational Psychology Definition “work consists of patterned human behavior and the ‘equipment’ consists of the human beings.”Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York, NY: John Wile & Sons, pg. 55. “lively sets of interrelated systems task, structure, technology, people, and the environment designed to perform complicated tasks.”Levitt, H. J. (1972). Managerial 1.1 What is an Organization? 10Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication psychology: An introduction to individuals, pairs, and groups in organizations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pg. 265. Organizational Communication Definitions “social collectives in which people develop ritualized patterns of interaction in an attempt to coordinate their activities and efforts in the ongoing accomplishment of personal and group goals.”Kreps, G. L. (1986). Organizational communication. New York: Longman, pg. 5. “including five critical features—namely, the existence of a social collectivity, organizational and individual goals, coordinated activity, organizational structure, and the embedding of the organization with an environment of other organizations.”Miller, K. (2012). Organizational communication: Approaches and processes (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Wasdworth-Cengage, pg. 11. “Communicative structures of control.”Mumby, D. (in press). Organizational communication. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. “an organized collection of individuals working interdependently within a relatively structured, organized, open system to achieve common goals.”Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (2009). Organizational communication for survival: Making work, work (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, pg. 1. “an aggregate of persons, arranged in predetermined patterns of relationships, in order to accomplish stated objectives.”Redding, W. C. (1964). The organizational communicator. In W. C. Redding & G. A Sanborn (Eds.), Business and industrial communication: A source book (pp. 29–58). New York: Harper & Row, pg. 33. After reading this laundry list of different definitions for the word “organization,” you may wonder how you to determine which one is the best? Well, to be honest—we think they all have something to offer. When you look at the various definitions for the word “organization,” you will start to see a certain pattern emerge of consistent themes within the definition. Jason WrenchWrench, J. S. (in press). Communicating within the modern workplace: Challenges and prospects. In J. S. Wrench (Ed.), Workplace communication for the 21st century: Tools and strategies that impact the bottom line: Vol. 1. Internal workplace communication. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. examined a similar list of definitions and concluded that there are three primary features that run through all definitions of the term “organization”: the structure, the goal, and the people. Organizational Structures The first major theme commonly seen in the various definitions of the word 1 “organization” has to do with structure . When we talk about how organizations 1. How an organization functions are structured, we are talking primarily about how they function in terms of what in terms of what happens both happens both within an organization and how an organizations functions within its within the organization itself external environment. For our purposes, we will look at structure in terms of four and within its external environment. 1.1 What is an Organization? 11Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication basic processes: external environment, input, throughput, and output (Figure 1.1 "Organizational Structures") Figure 1.1 Organizational Structures External Environment The first factor to consider when thinking about an organization is the external 2 environment that an organization exists in. The external environment consists of all vendors, competitors, customers, and other stakeholders who can have an impact on the organization itself but exist outside the boundaries of the organization. Changes in the external environment where an organization exists will have an effect on the organization itself. For example, image that the government is going to pose new regulations on your industry, these new regulations will have an effect on how the organization must function. When it comes to how organizations interact with its external environment, we often refer 3 to two different types of boundaries. An organization that has open boundaries allows for the free flow of information to the organization and is more likely able to 4 adapt to changes that occurs within the environment. Closed boundaries , on the other hand, occur when an organization tries to insulate itself from what is occurring within its environment. When an organization has closed boundaries, that organization ends up being less aware of what is going on within the external environment and sets itself up for major problems or obsolescence. 2. All of the vendors, competitors, Input customers, and other stakeholders who can have an 5 impact on the organization The next major aspect of an organization’s environment involves inputs. Inputs itself but exist outside the are those resources that an organization brings in from the external environment boundaries of the organization. in order for the organization to accomplish its goals. Typically, resources can be 3. Organizations that allow for discussed in three general categories: physical materials, people, and information. the free flow of information to First, organizations bring in physical materials that it needs to accomplish its goals. the organization and is more likely able to adapt to changes Whether its computers, desks, light fixtures, or supplies necessary to build silicon that occurs within the microchips, organizations rely on a variety of vendors in the external environment environment. to provide physical materials. 4. When an organization insulates itself from what is occurring The second type of input necessary from the external environment involves people. within its external environment. People can either come in the forms of workers, which are necessary resources for any organization. An organization is reliant on bringing in skilled workers to help 5. Those resources that an the organization accomplish its goals. One of the biggest complaints many organization brings in from the external environment in order organizations have is a lack of skilled or qualified workers. Depending on the for the organization to organization, skills or qualifications can run from specific college or graduate accomplish its goals. 1.1 What is an Organization? 12Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication degrees to specific industry experience to specific technical know-how. According to Julian L. Alssid, executive director of the Workforce Strategy Center in New York, "Employers seem to be less willing to invest in training in this economy. Again, it is the combination of the right credential and practical experience they look for."Balderrama, A. (2010, February 22). Available jobs, not enough skilled workers online article. Retrieved from http://msn.careerbuilder.com/Article/ MSN-2192-Job-Search-Available-Jobs-Not-Enough-Skilled-Workers/, Paragraph 7. 6 The final type of input an organization needs is information. Information refers to any data that is necessary for an organization to possess in an effort to create knowledge.Atwood, C. G. (2009). Knowledge management basics: A complete how-to guide. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press. According to the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), data is “is raw and without context and can exist in any form, usable or not.”ASTD. (2006). Managing organizational knowledge. In E. Biech (series Ed.), ASTD Learning System, Vol. 8. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press, pg. 2. Often organizations end up with piles of data including customer service reports, market trends, and other material typically in the raw, numerical form. Organizations then turn this data into information by giving the data meaning through some kind of interpretation. While most people think of data as purely numerical, there are other non-numerical types of data that can be important to turn into information. For example, if the US congress passes a new law that impacts how your organization must handle customer records, the law may not specifically say how your organization must comply with the law. In this case, the new law is data and your organization must turn that law into usable information in the form of its own policies and procedures. When you combine information with understanding that leads to action, information is transformed from information to knowledge. So, how do organizations go about acquiring data that can lead to action? ASTD discusses two types of external environment scanning processes that organizations can employ: proactive and reactive.ASTD. (2006). Managing organizational 6. Any data that is necessary for knowledge. In E. Biech (series Ed.), ASTD Learning System, Vol. 8. Alexandria, VA: an organization to possess in 7 an effort to create knowledge. ASTD Press. First, proactive scanning occurs when an organization actively looks for data or existing information that could be transformed into useable knowledge. 7. When an organization actively For example, doing research on what your competitors in an effort to stay on top of looks for data or existing information that could be your market is an example of proactive scanning. The second type of scanning, 8 transformed into useable reactive scanning occurs when an organization faces a specific problem or crisis knowledge. and then either makes sense of data/information it poses or searches the external 8. When an organization faces a environment for data or information that could be useful. Ideally, if an organization specific problem or crisis and does a good job with proactive scanning, reactive scanning will not be necessary then either makes sense of very often. When an organization is forced to use reactive scanning, time gets data/information it poses or wasted as they attempt to find the data/information and turn it into actionable searches the external environment for data or knowledge. information that could be useful. 1.1 What is an Organization? 13Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication Throughput 9 Throughput is ultimately what an organization does with inputs within the confines of the organization itself. Throughput can range from the use physical materials, people, and information to how organizations structure themselves internally to create goal oriented throughput. While we cannot discuss every possible way an organization can utilize inputs, we should note that the issue of internal organizational structure is very important at this level of an organizations. For this reason, we really must discuss two ways that organizations commonly structure hierarchies. 10 A hierarchy is a categorization system where individuals/departments are ranked over other individuals/departments based on skills, centrality, and status. First, organizations can place people/departments over others because of specific skill sets. For example, managers are placed over workers because of their skills in managing people. While we know this isn’t always why people get promoted, the general idea of a management class of people is because managers can help organize employees towards the organization’s goal(s). Second, people can be ranked over others because of their centrality to the organization’s goals. For example, if your organization is a tech company, the product developers may be ranged structurally over people in customer support or marketing because without the product developers there is no need for customer support or marketing. Lastly, organizations can be organized based on status, an individual’s relative position to others as a result of esteem, privilege, or responsibility. When someone gets promoted to a higher position, her or his status increases in terms of a formal hierarchy. Whether that promotion is a result of esteem, privilege, or responsibility doesn’t matter at this point, only the elevation within the hierarchy. Now that we’ve discussed what a hierarchy is, let’s talk about the two common ways that organizations are typically patterned: flat vs. tall hierarchies (Figure 1.2 "Hierarchies"). Figure 1.2 Hierarchies 9. What an organization does with inputs within the confines of the organization itself. 11 The first image in Figure 1.2 "Hierarchies" represents tall hierarchies , they are 10. A categorization system where called such because they represent many, many hierarchical layers between those individuals/departments are ranked over other individuals/ at the bottom of the hierarchy and those at the top of the hierarchy. Two commonly departments based on skills, discussed tall hierarchies are the Catholic Church and the US military. With the centrality, and status. Catholic Church, you have the average parishioner at the bottom of the hierarchy 11. Any stimuli that could elicit the Pope at the top of the hierarchy. In the US military, you have your average meaning that is not contained enlisted soldier at the bottom of the hierarchy and the President of the United in words themselves. 1.1 What is an Organization? 14Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication States (in her/his commander in chief title) at the top of the hierarchy. In both cases, the people at the bottom have little or no communication with those at the top of the hierarchy. 12 The second image in Figure 1.2 "Hierarchies" represents flat hierarchies where there are only a couple of hierarchical layers between those at the bottom and those at the top of the hierarchy. Think of these organizations like mom and pop restaurants. In a typical small restaurant, the owner may also serve as the chef and may only have a handful of waitstaff, table bussers, and dish cleaners as employees. In these hierarchies, it is very easy for those at the bottom of the hierarchy to communicate with those at the top of the hierarchy. Output 13 The final aspect related to organizational structure is output , which is the ultimate product or service that an organization disseminates back to the external environment. Whether one is create the components of a cell phone or sending computer technicians to people’s homes, every organization is designed to produce some kind of service or product for the external environment. Even nonprofit organizations like the American Red Cross are producing a range of both products and services for the external environment. Organizational Goals Organizations have many goals, but it helps to clarify those goals into a simple typology (classification into ordered categories). Edward Gross examined the various types of organizational goals and created a simple typology consisting of five distinct goals that organizations have: output, adaptation, management, motivation, and positional.Gross, E. (1969). The definition of organizational goals. The British Journal of Sociology, 20, 277–294. Output The first type of goal that organizations commonly have are referred to as output goals, or organizational goals that are “reflected, immediately or in the future, in some product, service, skill or orientation which will affect (and is intended to affect) that society.”Gross, E. (1969). The definition of organizational goals. The British Journal of Sociology, 20, 277–294, pg. 287. While Gross was initially discussing 12. goals in terms of educational organizations, the goals also apply to other organizational types as well. In essence, every organization has some type of output 13. The ultimate product or goal that will be released back into the external environment. For a pizza chain, the service that an organization disseminates back to the output goal could be the pizza it delivers to your house (product); the customer external environment. 1.1 What is an Organization? 15Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication service it gives customers (service); or the expertise in pizza making it brings to the enterprise (skill). Adaptation The second type of organizational goal argued by Edward Gross are adaptation goals, or goals that an organization has in terms of adapting to the external environment.Gross, E. (1969). The definition of organizational goals. The British Journal of Sociology, 20, 277–294. All organizations exist in environments that change, and successful organizations are going to change and adapt to that external environment. One of the biggest risks many organizations face if they do not adapt to the external environment is obsolescence, which “occurs when there is a significant decline in customer desire for an organization’s products or services.”Wrench, J. S. (2012). Casing organizational communication. Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt, pg. 11. Many organizations becomes so focused on making a specific product that the product eventually is no longer wanted or needed by customers, which will lead to the eventual death of an organization. Management The next type of organizational goal discussed by Edward Gross are management goals, which involves three types of decisions: (1) who will manage or run an organization, (2) how to handle conflict management, and (3) output goal prioritization.Gross, E. (1969). The definition of organizational goals. The British Journal of Sociology, 20, 277–294. First, organizations need to decide on the formal structure of an organization and who will exist at various rungs of the hierarchy. In addition to determining the formal structure, these goals also determine what type of and who holds power within the organizational hierarchy. Second, managerial goals focus on how conflicts within the organization will be handled. Organizations have a vested interest in keeping the organization running smoothly, so too much conflict can lead to interpersonal or inter-departmental bickering that has negative consequences for the organization. Lastly, management goals determine the overarching direction of the organization itself. As the saying goes, someone has to steer the ship. We’ll discuss different types of leaders in Chapter 7 "Leader and Follower Behaviors & Perspectives", but for now we’ll just note that having a clear direction and clear prioritization of the products and services an organization has is very important for the health of an organization. If an organization tries to do too much, the organization may end up scatter-brained and not function as a cohesive whole. If the organization tries to do one and only one thing, the organization may become obsolescent. Overall, people in management must place output goal prioritization very high on the to-do-list. 1.1 What is an Organization? 16Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication Motivation The fourth common goal organizations have, as discussed by Edward Gross, are motivational goals or goals set out to ensure that all employees are satisfied and remain loyal to the organization.Gross, E. (1969). The definition of organizational goals. The British Journal of Sociology, 20, 277–294. There is a wealth of research that has examined the importance of employee motivation on job satisfaction and worker productivity.Latham, G. P. (2007). Work motivation: History, theory, research, and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. In a study conducted by Whitman, Van Rooy, and ViswesvaranWhitman, D. S., Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Satisfaction, citizenship behaviors, and performance in work units: A meta-analysis of collective construct relations. Personnel Psychology, 63, 41–81. doi:10.1111/ j.1744-6570.2009.01162.x, the researchers examined the relationship between job satisfaction and employee productivity across 73 different research studies that have examined the subject. Overall, the researchers concluded that satisfied employees were more productive. Secondly, ensuring that employees are motivated also helps to ensure that employees remain loyal to an organization. According to Hart and Thompson, employee loyalty is “an individual’s perception that both parties to a relationship employee and organization have fulfilled reciprocal expectations that 1) demote enduring attachment between two parties, and that 2) involve self-sacrifice in the face of alternatives, and that 3) are laden with obligations of duty.”Hart, D. W., & Thompson, J. A. (2007). Untangling employee loyalty: A psychological contract perspective. Business Ethics Quarterly, 17, 297–323, pg. 300. By this definition employees are loyal because they knowingly enter into a relationship with an organization, sacrifice part of themselves to the organization (and vice versa), and thus feel a sense of obligation or duty to the organization. Of course, loyalty only works when an employee feels that the organization is standing up to its end of the reciprocal expectations. If an employee feels that an organization is not meeting its basic obligations, then the employee will view that organization unkindly and the employees loyalty will diminish over time.Hajdin, M. (2005). Employee Loyalty: An Examination. Journal Of Business Ethics, 59, 259–280. doi:10.1007/s10551-005-3438-4 As such, organizations must strive to make one of its goals ensuring that it is meeting its basic obligations towards employees in an effort to foster employee loyalty. Positional The final type of organizational goal described by Edward Gross are positional goals, which are goals that attempt to position an organization within the environment in comparison to other organizations within the same market.Gross, E. (1969). The definition of organizational goals. The British Journal of Sociology, 20, 277–294. For example, imagine that your organization is an automotive tool manufacturer. Your organization will attempt to position itself against other automotive tool manufacturers that exist in the market. There are two common ways to position 1.1 What is an Organization? 17Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication one’s self within a specific market: 1) higher volume at a lower price or 2) higher quality at a higher price. The first way to position one’s self within a market is to create more products or faster service at a cheaper cost. The second way to position one’s self in the market is to create a luxury product/service that costs more. While the product or service costs more, you provide the appearance of being the luxury brand. In a 2011 article in PCWorld, the authors mention that 56% of new cellphone users were purchasing an Android device as compared to only 28% that purchased an iOS (iPhone) device.Kellog, D. (2011, September 26). In U.S. market, new smartphone buyers increasingly embracing Android Press release. Retrieved from http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/in-u-s-market-new- smartphone-buyers-increasingly-embracing-android/ Simply put, the Android is cheaper and there are more versions of the Android available for cellphone subscribers. Only Apple makes iOS compatible cellphones and they are typically more expensive than Android devices. Apple has historically set itself up as a luxury line in the computing industry while PCs and now Android cellphones are cheaper and made for the mass market. Interestingly, iPhones actually only account for 4% of the overall cell phone market in November 2011, but accounted for 52% of industry profits.Hamburger, E. (2011, December 7). These charts tell the real story of Android vs. Business Insider. iPhone. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/android-vs-iphone-charts-2011-12 Clearly, the iPhone may not be getting a strong percentage of the market share, but it is still beating out its competition. Organizational People The final characteristic common the various definitions of the word “organization” involves people. In Jason Wrench’s original discussion of the three common themes related to people, he discussed interdependency, interaction, and leadership.Wrench, J. S. (in press). Communicating within the modern workplace: Challenges and prospects. In J. S. Wrench (Ed.), Workplace communication for the 21st century: Tools and strategies that impact the bottom line: Vol. 1. Internal workplace communication. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. For our purposes, we also pose the notion of control as an important factor related to people as well. Interdependency The first term associated with people in organizations is the concept of 14 interdependency. Interdependency is mutual dependence or depending on one another. Interdependency is the notion that people within an organization are dependent upon one another to achieve the organization’s goals. If one part of the organization stops functioning properly, it will impact the other parts of the organization. For example, imagine you are a copyeditor for a publisher in New 14. Mutual dependence or York City. If you get behind on your job, the graphic designers, marketing depending on one another. 1.1 What is an Organization? 18Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication professionals, printers, and other groups of people will also get behind. At the same time, interdependency can also help an organization. If you working with a solid group of colleagues, if something happens to get you behind others can help pull the slack and keep things moving forward on schedule. Overall, people impact each other in organizations. Interaction Our interactions with others help define and create what is an organization. Without the interactions we have with our coworkers, customers, and other stakeholders, an organization really doesn’t exist. For this reason, you can almost say that the “thing” we call an organization doesn’t really exist because it’s not a physical structure, but rather an organization is the outcome of our interactions with others. An organization may have physical things within it (desks, computers, pencils, etc.), but the actual organization is ultimately the people that make exist. At the same time, people within an organization also interact with each other in various roles in an effort to accomplish the organization’s goal(s). People within organizations and people who come in contact with organizations are constantly in a state of interaction. As we will learn later in this book, organizations have many different stakeholders (an individual or group that has an interest in the organization), and each different set of stakeholders requires different communication strategies. Ultimately, communicative interaction is one of the most basic functions of any organization. Control As the definition of organization from Dennis Mumby, organizations are inherently entities that must control the behavior of its members while members generally strive for their own sets of needs.Mumby, D. (in press). Organizational communication. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. When one group has one set of needs and desires and another has a different set of needs and desires, we refer to these groups as being in dialectical tensions. Table 1.2 "Dialectical Tensions" contains many of the dialectical tensions that exist between organizations and its various members. Table 1.2 Dialectical Tensions What the Organization Needs/Wants What Workers Need/Want Minimize Costs Maximize Salary/Benefit Package Systemization of Job Duties Autonomy to do one’s job 1.1 What is an Organization? 19Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Communication What the Organization Needs/Wants What Workers Need/Want Ability to Streamline the Organization Job Stability Agreement Dissent Transparency Privacy Conventionality Innovation Organization-Focused Self-Focused Permanence Change Rights of the Organization Rights of the Individual Work life Social life As a result of these inherent dialectical tensions, organizations try to stack the deck in its favor to maximize its needs and desires, and subsequently minimizes the needs and desires of workers in the process. Let’s briefly examine each of these dialectical tensions in turn. Minimize Costs vs. Maximize Salary/Benefits. The first dialectical tensions occurs when organizations try to keep their overhead costs low while workers try to maximize what they earn in terms of both salary and benefits (insurance, stock options, retirement, etc.). Systemization vs. Autonomy. Organizations like stability, so they prefer workers who learn how to do a specific task and then systematize that task in the most efficient manner. As such, organizations (especially in manufacturing contexts) will train in explicit detail exactly how an employee should accomplish a task. Workers, on the other hand, prefer to have autonomy when making decisions for how best to accomplish their daily work and do not enjoy being micromanaged. Streamline vs. Stability. Organizations are fundamentally focused on the bottom line, and therefore often want to have the ability to streamline the organization in an attempt to maximize profits. If an organization can lay off workers and maintain maximum productivity, then it’s often in the organization’s best interest to do so. While streamlining is good for an organization, it can create a chaotic environment for employees who crave job stability. Workers want to know that their work is appreciated and it will keep them employed. Agreement vs. Dissent. The next dialectical tension listed here is agreement vs. dissent. In this tension, organizations prefer for workers to blindly follow and do what organizational leaders dictate. Workers, on the other hand, want to have a 1.1 What is an Organization? 20

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