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Cambridge English Advanced

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230 CEFR 220 Cambridge English 210 C2 Advanced 200 190 180 170 B2 160 150 B1 140 130 A2 120 110 A1 Handbook for teachers 100 for exams from 2016 Below 90 A1 80 Basic user Independent user Proficient user C1Exam content and overview Paper/timing Test content Test focus Part 1 A modified cloze test containing eight gaps followed by Candidates are expected to be able to: eight multiple-choice questions. demonstrate the ability to apply their knowledge and control of the language Part 2 A modified cloze test containing eight gaps. system by completing a number of tasks at text and sentence level; demonstrate a variety of reading skills including Part 3 A text containing eight gaps. Each gap corresponds to a understanding of specific information, text word. The stems of the missing words are given beside organisation features, implication, tone and the text and must be changed to form the missing word. text structure. Part 4 Six separate questions, each with a lead-in sentence and a gapped second sentence to be completed in three to READING AND six words, one of which is a given ‘key’ word. USE OF ENGLISH Part 5 A text followed by six 4-option multiple-choice 1 hr 30 mins questions. Part 6 Four short texts, followed by four cross-text multiple- matching questions. Part 7 A text from which six paragraphs have been removed and placed in jumbled order, together with an additional paragraph, after the text. Part 8 A text or several short texts, preceded by 10 multiple- matching questions. Part 1 One compulsory question. Candidates are expected to write an essay in response to a proposition to discuss, and accompanying text. WRITING 1 hr 30 mins Part 2 Candidates choose one task from a choice of three Candidates are expected to be able to write questions. non-specialised text types such as a letter, a report, a review or a proposal. Part 1 Three short extracts or exchanges between interacting Candidates are expected to be able to show speakers. There are two multiple-choice questions for understanding of feeling, attitude, detail, each extract. opinion, purpose, agreement and gist. Part 2 A monologue with a sentence-completion task which has eight items. LISTENING Approx. 40 mins Part 3 A text involving interacting speakers, with six multiple- choice questions. Part 4 Five short, themed monologues, with 10 multiple-matching questions. Part 1 A short conversation between the interlocutor and each Candidates are expected to be able to candidate (spoken questions). respond to questions and to interact in conversational English. Part 2 An individual ‘long turn’ for each candidate, followed by a response from the second candidate (visual and SPEAKING written stimuli, with spoken instructions). 15 mins (for pairs) Part 3 A two-way conversation between the candidates (written stimuli, with spoken instructions). Part 4 A discussion on topics related to Part 3 (spoken questions).CONTENTS Preface This handbook is for teachers who are preparing candidates for Cambridge English: Advanced, also known as Certificate in Advanced English (CAE). The introduction gives an overview of the exam and its place within Cambridge English Language Assessment. This is followed by a focus on each paper and includes content, advice on preparation and example papers. If you need further copies of this handbook, please email marketingsupportcambridgeenglish.org Contents About Cambridge English Language Assessment 2 Writing 29 The world’s most valuable range of English qualifications 2 General description 29 Key features of Cambridge English exams 2 Structure and tasks 29 Proven quality 3 The two parts of the Writing paper 30 Preparation 30 Cambridge English: Advanced – an overview 3 Sample paper 1 33 Exam formats 3 Assessment of Writing 34 Who is the exam for? 3 Sample scripts with examiner comments 38 Who recognises the exam? 3 Sample paper 2 44 What level is the exam? 3 Sample scripts with examiner comments 45 About the exam 4 Writing answer sheet 51 A thorough test of all areas of language ability 4 Marks and results 5 Listening 54 Exam support 6 General description 54 Support for teachers 6 Structure and tasks 54 Support for candidates 6 The four parts of the Listening paper 55 Preparation 55 Reading and Use of English 7 Sample paper 1 58 General description 7 Answer key to sample paper 1 65 Structure and tasks 7 Sample paper 2 66 The eight parts of the Reading and Use of English paper 8 Answer key to sample paper 2 73 Preparation 9 Candidate answer sheet 74 Sample paper 1 12 Answer key to sample paper 1 19 Speaking 75 Sample paper 2 20 General description 75 Answer key to sample paper 2 27 Structure and tasks 75 Candidate answer sheet 27 The four parts of the Speaking test 76 Preparation 77 Sample test 1 79 Sample test 2 82 Assessment of Speaking 85 Cambridge English: Advanced glossary 90 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 1ABOUT CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT The world’s most valuable range of English About Cambridge English qualifications Language Assessment Cambridge English Language Assessment offers the world’s leading range of qualifications for learners and teachers of English. Over Cambridge English: Advanced is developed by Cambridge English 5 million Cambridge English exams are taken each year in more than Language Assessment, part of the University of Cambridge. 130 countries. We are one of three major exam boards which form the Cambridge We offer assessments across the full spectrum of language ability – Assessment Group (Cambridge Assessment). More than 8 million for general communication, for professional and academic purposes, Cambridge Assessment exams are taken in over 170 countries and also for specific business English qualifications. All of our exams around the world every year. are aligned to the principles and approach of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). To find out more about Cambridge English exams and the CEFR, go to Cambridge English www.cambridgeenglish.org/cefr A range of exams to meet dierent needs One of the oldest universities in the world and one of the largest in the United Kingdom Proficiency (CPE) C2 C2 9 90 8 Advanced Business BULATS IELTS Departments of the University (CAE) Higher 7.5 C1 (BEC) C1 7 75 6.5 First First Business (FCE) for (FCE) Vantage 6 B2 Schools (BEC) B2 5.5 60 5 Preliminary Preliminary Business (PET) for (PET) Preliminary 4.5 B1 Schools (BEC) B1 4 40 Flyers Key (KET) Key (YLE Flyers) for Schools (KET) A2 A2 20 Movers (YLE Movers) A1 A1 Cambridge Assessment: the trading name for the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES) Starters (YLE Starters) Departments (exam boards) Key features of Cambridge English exams Cambridge English exams: Cambridge English Language • are based on realistic tasks and situations so that preparing for Assessment their exam gives learners real-life language skills Provider of the world’s most valuable range of qualifications for • accurately and consistently test all four language skills – reading, learners and teachers of English writing, listening and speaking • encourage positive learning experiences, and seek to achieve a Cambridge International positive impact on teaching wherever possible Examinations • are as fair as possible to all candidates, whatever their national, Prepares school students for life, helping them develop an ethnic and linguistic background, gender or disability. informed curiosity and a lasting passion for learning OCR: Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations One of the UK’s leading providers Oxford Cambridge and RSA of qualifications 2 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) Basic user Independent user Proficient userCAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED – AN OVERVIEW Proven quality What level is the exam? Our commitment to providing exams of the highest possible quality is Cambridge English: Advanced is targeted at Level C1 on the CEFR. underpinned by an extensive programme of research and evaluation. Achieving a certificate at this level proves that a candidate has Question papers are produced and pretested using rigorous reached a very advanced level of English required in demanding procedures to ensure accuracy and fairness, and the marking and academic and professional settings. grading of our exams is continuously monitored for consistency. More details can be found in our publication Principles of Good Practice, which can be downloaded free from www.cambridgeenglish.org/principles Cambridge English: Advanced – an overview Cambridge English: Advanced was originally introduced in 1991 and is a high-level qualification that is officially recognised by universities, employers and governments around the world. It proves that a candidate has a high level of English for use in academic or professional settings. Exam formats Cambridge English: Advanced can be taken as either a paper-based or a computer-based exam. Who is the exam for? Cambridge English: Advanced is typically taken by high achievers who want to show they can: • follow an academic course at university level • communicate effectively at managerial and professional level • participate with confidence in workplace meetings or academic tutorials and seminars • carry out complex and challenging research • stand out and differentiate themselves. Who recognises the exam? • Cambridge English: Advanced is accepted by more than 6,000 organisations, employers and governments around the world as being a reliable, accurate and fair test of English. This includes universities and colleges in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, Europe and beyond. • The Australian government’s Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP) has approved Cambridge English: Advanced for a range of visa categories. • The exam is regulated by Ofqual, the statutory regulatory authority for external qualifications in England and its counterparts in Wales and Northern Ireland. • The UK’s Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) awards candidates with grade A in Cambridge English: Advanced 70 UCAS Tariff points towards their application to UK universities and higher education institutions. www.cambridgeenglish.org/ucas-points For more information about recognition go to www.cambridgeenglish.org/recognition CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 3ABOUT THE EXAM What can candidates do at Level C1? About the exam The Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) has researched what language learners can typically do at each CEFR Cambridge English: Advanced is a rigorous and thorough test of English level. They have described each level of ability using Can Do at Level C1. It covers all four language skills – reading, writing, listening statements, with examples taken from everyday life. Cambridge and speaking – and includes a fifth element focusing on the candidate’s English Language Assessment, as one of the founding members understanding of the structure of the language. of ALTE, uses this framework to ensure its exams reflect real-life language skills. A thorough test of all areas of language ability Typical Reading and Writing Listening and Speaking There are four papers: Reading and Use of English, Writing, Listening abilities and Speaking. The overall performance is calculated by averaging the scores achieved in Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking and Use of Overall CAN read quickly enough to cope CAN contribute effectively to general with an academic course, and CAN meetings and seminars within own English. The weighting of each of the four skills and Use of English ability take reasonably accurate notes area of work or keep up a casual is equal. in meetings or write a piece of conversation with a good degree Detailed information on each test paper is provided later in this work which shows an ability to of fluency, coping with abstract handbook, but the overall focus of each test is as follows: communicate. expressions. Social & CAN understand complex CAN pick up nuances of meaning/ Reading and Use of English: 1 hour 30 minutes Tourist opinions/arguments as expressed opinion. in serious newspapers. CAN keep up conversations of Candidates need to be able to understand texts from CAN write most letters they are a casual nature for an extended publications such as fiction and non-fiction books, journals, likely to be asked to do; such period of time and discuss abstract/ newspapers and magazines. errors as occur will not prevent cultural topics with a good degree Writing: 1 hour 30 minutes understanding of the message. of fluency and range of expression. Candidates have to show that they can produce two different Work CAN understand the general CAN follow discussion and pieces of writing: a compulsory essay in Part 1, and one from a meaning of more complex articles argument with only occasional choice of three tasks in Part 2. without serious misunderstanding. need for clarification, employing good compensation strategies to CAN, given enough time, write Listening: 40 minutes (approximately) overcome inadequacies. a report that communicates the Candidates need to show they can understand the meaning of desired message. CAN deal with unpredictable a range of spoken material, including lectures, radio broadcasts, questions. speeches and talks. Study CAN scan texts for relevant CAN follow up questions by information, and grasp main topic probing for more detail. Speaking: 15 minutes of text. CAN make critical remarks/express Candidates take the Speaking test with another candidate or in CAN write a piece of work disagreement without causing a group of three, and are tested on their ability to take part in whose message can be followed oenc ff e. different types of interaction: with the examiner, with the other throughout. candidate and by themselves. Each of the four test components contributes to a profile which defines the candidates’ overall communicative language ability at this level. 4 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERSABOUT THE EXAM Certificates Marks and results The certificate shows the candidate’s: Cambridge English: Advanced gives detailed, meaningful results. • score on the Cambridge English Scale for each of the four skills and Use of English • overall score on the Cambridge English Scale • grade • level on the CEFR • level on the UK National Qualifications Framework (NQF). Cambridge English Level 2 Certificate in ESOL International This is to certify that AN EXAMPLE has been awarded Grade B in the Certificate in Advanced English Council of Europe Level C1 All candidates receive a Statement of Results. Candidates whose Overall Score 195 performance ranges between CEFR Levels B2 and C2 (Cambridge Reading 203 Use of English 186 English Scale scores of 160–210) also receive a certificate . Writing 195 Listening 194 Speaking 196 Grade A: Cambridge English Scale scores of 200–210 Saul Nassé Date of Examination NOVEMBER (CAE1) 2015 Chief Executive Candidates sometimes show ability beyond Level C1. If a Place of Entry CAMBRIDGE Reference Number 15BGB9615003 candidate achieves a grade A in their exam, they will receive the Accreditation Number 500/2598/3 Certificate in Advanced English stating that they demonstrated This level refers to the UK National Qualifications Framework ability at Level C2. Date of issue 27/11/15 Grade B or C: Cambridge English Scale scores of 180–199 Certificate number 0042349350 If a candidate achieves grade B or C in their exam, they will be awarded the Certificate in Advanced English at Level C1. CEFR Level B2: Cambridge English Scale scores of 160–179 Special circumstances If a candidate’s performance is below Level C1, but falls within Cambridge English exams are designed to be fair to all test takers. For Level B2, they will receive a Cambridge English certificate stating more information about special circumstances, go to that they demonstrated ability at Level B2. www.cambridgeenglish.org/help Statements of Results The Statement of Results shows the candidate’s: • Score on the Cambridge English Scale for their performance in each of the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) and Use of English. • Score on the Cambridge English Scale for their overall performance in the exam. This overall score is the average of the separate scores given for each of the four skills and Use of English. • Grade. This is based on the candidate’s overall score. • Level on the CEFR. This is also based on the overall score. CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 5EXAM SUPPORT Registering candidates for an exam Exam support Exam entries must be made through an authorised Cambridge English examination centre. Official Cambridge English exam preparation materials Centre staff have all the latest information about our exams, and can To support teachers and help learners prepare for their exams, provide you with: Cambridge English Language Assessment and Cambridge University Press have developed a range of official support materials including • details of entry procedures coursebooks and practice tests. These official materials are available • copies of the exam regulations in both print and digital formats. • exam dates • current fees www.cambridgeenglish.org/exam-preparation • more information about Cambridge English: Advanced and other Cambridge English exams. Support for teachers We have more than 2,800 centres in over 130 countries – all are The Teaching English section of our website provides user-friendly, required to meet our high standards of exam administration, integrity, free resources for all teachers preparing students for our exams. security and customer service. Find your nearest centre at It includes: www.cambridgeenglish.org/centresearch General information – handbooks for teachers, sample papers. Further information If your local authorised exam centre is unable to answer your question, Detailed exam information – format, timing, number of please contact our helpdesk: questions, task types, mark scheme of each paper. www.cambridgeenglish.org/help Advice for teachers – developing students’ skills and preparing them for the exam. Downloadable lessons – a lesson for every part of every paper. Teaching qualifications – a comprehensive range of qualifications for new teachers and career development for more experienced teachers. Seminars and webinars – a wide range of exam-specific seminars and live and recorded webinars for both new and experienced teachers. Teacher development – resources to support teachers in their Continuing Professional Development. www.cambridgeenglish.org/teaching-english Support for candidates We provide learners with a wealth of exam resources and preparation materials throughout our website, including exam advice, sample papers, candidate guides, games and online learning resources. www.cambridgeenglish.org/learning-english Facebook Learners joining our lively Facebook community can get tips, take part in quizzes and talk to other English language learners. www.facebook.com/CambridgeCAE 6 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS Reading and Use of English General description Structure and tasks (cont.) PAPER FORMAT The paper contains eight parts. For PART 4 Parts 1 to 4, the test contains texts TASK TYPE Key word transformation with accompanying grammar and FOCUS Grammar, vocabulary, collocation vocabulary tasks, and separate items FORMAT Six separate items, each with a lead-in sentence with a grammar and vocabulary focus. and a gapped second sentence to be completed For Parts 5 to 8, the test contains a in three to six words, one of which is a given range of texts and accompanying ‘key’ word. reading comprehension tasks. TIMING 1 hour 30 minutes NO. OF QS 6 NO. OF PARTS 8 PART 5 NO. OF QUESTIONS 56 TASK TYPE Multiple choice TASK TYPES Multiple-choice cloze, open cloze, word formation, key word FOCUS Detail, opinion, attitude, tone, purpose, main transformation, multiple choice, cross- idea, implication, text organisation features text multiple matching, gapped text, (exemplification, comparison, reference). multiple matching. FORMAT A text followed by 4-option multiple-choice WORD COUNT 3,000–3,500 questions. MARKS For Parts 1–3, each correct answer NO. OF QS 6 receives 1 mark. For Part 4, each correct answer receives up to 2 marks. PART 6 For Parts 5–7, each correct answer TASK TYPE Cross-text multiple matching receives 2 marks. For Part 8, each FOCUS Understanding of opinion and attitude; correct answer receives 1 mark. comparing and contrasting of opinions and attitudes across texts. FORMAT Four short texts, followed by multiple-matching questions. Candidates must read across texts to match a prompt to elements in the texts. Structure and tasks NO. OF QS 4 PART 1 PART 7 TASK TYPE Multiple-choice cloze TASK TYPE Gapped text FOCUS Vocabulary, e.g. idioms, collocations, fixed FOCUS Cohesion, coherence, text structure, global phrases, complementation, phrasal verbs, meaning. semantic precision. FORMAT A text from which paragraphs have been FORMAT A modified cloze containing eight gaps followed removed and placed in jumbled order after the by eight 4-option multiple-choice items. text. Candidates must decide from where in the NO. OF QS 8 text the paragraphs have been removed. NO. OF QS 6 PART 2 TASK TYPE Open cloze PART 8 FOCUS Awareness and control of grammar with some TASK TYPE Multiple matching focus on vocabulary. FOCUS Detail, opinion, attitude, specific information. FORMAT A modified cloze containing eight gaps. FORMAT A text or several short texts, preceded by NO. OF QS 8 multiple-matching questions. Candidates must match a prompt to elements in the text. PART 3 NO. OF QS 10 TASK TYPE Word formation FOCUS Vocabulary, in particular the use of affixation, internal changes and compounding in word formation. FORMAT A text containing eight gaps. Each gap corresponds to a word. The stems of the missing words are given beside the text and must be changed to form the missing word. NO. OF QS 8 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 7READING AND USE OF ENGLISH how prefixes, suffixes, internal changes and compounds are used The eight parts of the Reading and in forming words. Candidates may be required to demonstrate understanding of the text beyond sentence level. Use of English paper PART 4 Key word transformation PART 1 Multiple-choice cloze In this part, there is an emphasis on grammar and vocabulary. In this part, there is an emphasis on vocabulary and grammar. ‡‡ Sample task and answer key: pages 14 and 19. ‡‡ Sample task and answer key: pages 12 and 19. Each answer in Part 4 receives 0, 1 or 2 marks. › Each correct answer in Part 1 receives 1 mark. › Part 4 consists of six questions (plus an example). Each question Part 1 consists of a text in which there are eight gaps (plus one gap contains three parts: a lead-in sentence, a key word, and a second as an example). Each gap represents a missing word or phrase. The sentence of which only the beginning and end are given. Candidates text is followed by eight sets of four words or phrases, each set have to fill the gap in the second sentence so that the completed corresponding to a gap. Candidates have to choose which one of the sentence is similar in meaning to the lead-in sentence. The gap must four words or phrases in the set fills the gap correctly. be filled with between three and six words, one of which must be the key word. They key word must not be changed in any way. Candidates are required to draw on their lexical knowledge and understanding of the text in order to fill the gaps. Some questions In this part of the paper the focus is both lexical and grammatical and test at a phrasal level, such as collocations and set phrases. Other a range of structures is tested. The ability to express a message in a questions test meaning at sentence level or beyond, with more different way shows flexibility and resource in the use of language. processing of the text required. A lexico-grammatical element may be The mark scheme splits the answers into two parts and candidates involved, such as when candidates have to choose the option which gain one mark for each part which is correct. fits correctly with a following preposition or verb form. PART 5 Multiple choice PART 2 Open cloze In this part, there is an emphasis on the understanding of a long text, In this part, there is an emphasis on grammar and vocabulary. including detail, opinion, tone, purpose, main idea, implication, attitude, ‡‡ Sample task and answer key: pages 13 and 19. and also text organisation features such as exemplification, comparison and reference. Each correct answer in Part 2 receives 1 mark. › ‡‡ Sample task and answer key: pages 15 and 19. Part 2 consists of a text in which there are eight gaps (plus one gap as an example). Candidates are required to draw on their knowledge of Each correct answer in Part 5 receives 2 marks. › the structure of the language and understanding of the text in order Part 5 consists of one long text, drawn from a variety of sources to fill the gaps. In this part, as there are no sets of words from which which include fiction. The text is followed by six 4-option multiple- to choose the answers, candidates have to think of a word which will choice questions which are presented in the same order as the fill the gap correctly. information in the text so that candidates can follow the development The focus of the gapped words is either grammatical, such as articles, of the text. auxiliaries, prepositions, pronouns, verb tenses and forms; or lexico- This task tests detailed understanding, including opinions and grammatical, such as phrasal verbs, linkers and words within fixed attitudes expressed; the ability to distinguish between, for example, phrases. The answer will always be a single word. In some cases, apparently similar viewpoints, outcomes or reasons. Candidates there may be more than one possible answer and this is allowed for in should be able to deduce meaning from context and interpret the the mark scheme. text for inference and style. They should also be able to understand The absence or misuse of punctuation is ignored, although spelling, text organisation features such as exemplification, comparison and as in all parts of the Use of English component, must be correct. reference, including lexical reference. The final question may depend on interpretation of the text as a whole, e.g. the writer’s purpose, PART 3 Word formation attitude or opinion. In this part, there is an emphasis on vocabulary. PART 6 Cross-text multiple matching ‡‡ Sample task and answer key: pages 13 and 19. In this part, there is an emphasis on identifying opinions and attitudes expressed across texts. Each correct answer in Part 3 receives 1 mark. › ‡‡ Sample task and answer key: pages 16 and 19. Part 3 consists of a text containing eight gaps (plus one gap as an example). At the end of some of the lines, and separated from the Each correct answer in Part 6 receives 2 marks. › text, there is a stem word in capital letters. Candidates need to form an appropriate word from given stem words to fill each gap. Part 6 consists of four short texts, on a related theme, followed by multiple-matching prompts. In total, there are four questions. The focus of this task is primarily lexical, though an understanding of structure is also required. It tests the candidates’ knowledge of 8 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERSREADING AND USE OF ENGLISH Candidates must read across texts to match a prompt to elements Preparation in the texts. The prompts require candidates to read across the four texts to understand the opinions and attitudes expressed in order to identify agreement and disagreement between the writers. The General items only provide information on the subject of the opinion, not the • The texts in Parts 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 all have titles. Encourage opinion itself: this is for the candidate to identify. Candidates may your students to pay attention to each title as it will indicate the need to identify an opinion expressed in one of the texts and then main theme of the text. identify which other text shares or contradicts this opinion, or they may need to identify which text differs from the other three in terms • Encourage your students to read through each text (Parts 1, 2 and of an expressed opinion. 3) carefully before beginning to answer the questions so that they have a clear idea of what it is about. PART 7 Gapped text • In Parts 2 and 4, there may be more than one permissible answer In this part, there is an emphasis on understanding how texts are for a question. However, students should only give one answer structured and the ability to follow text development. for each question. If they give two answers, and one of them is incorrect, they will not be given a mark. If they want to change an ‡‡ Sample task and answer key: pages 17 and 19. answer, they should rub it out. • All parts of the paper have detailed instructions and the Use of Each correct answer in Part 7 receives 2 marks. › English component also has completed examples. These should Part 7 consists of one long gapped text from which six paragraphs of be studied carefully so that your students know what kind of equal length have been removed and placed in jumbled order after answers they are expected to give and how they should show the text, together with a seventh paragraph which does not fit in any them on the answer sheet. of the gaps. The text is usually from a non-fiction source (including • Your students should be encouraged to read extensively so that journalism). This part tests comprehension of text structure, they build up a wide vocabulary and become familiar with the cohesion, coherence, and global meaning. many uses of different structures. This should enable them to Candidates are required to decide from where in the text each deal with a range of lexical items and grammatical structures in a paragraph has been removed. Each paragraph may be used only once, variety of text types. and there is one paragraph that candidates do not need to use. • Your students should read as widely as possible both in class and Candidates need to read the gapped text first in order to gain an at home. This will enable them to become familiar with a wide overall idea of the structure and the meaning of the text, and to notice range of language. In class encourage your students to interact carefully the information and ideas before and after each gap as well fully with each text by focusing on pre-reading questions. This as throughout the whole of the gapped text. They should then decide will help train them in prediction techniques. which paragraphs fit the gaps, remembering that each letter may • It is helpful to introduce a programme of reading at home. As only be used once and that there is one paragraph which they will not part of the weekly homework assignments, an idea might be need to use. to introduce a reading scheme which involves the students in providing verbal or written reviews on the texts they have PART 8 Multiple matching read. These could include: unabridged short stories or novels, In this part, there is an emphasis on locating specific information, detail, newspaper and magazine articles, non-fiction, etc. Where opinion and attitude in a text or a group of short texts. possible, your students should be encouraged to follow up on their hobbies and interests by reading magazines or looking ‡‡ Sample task and answer key: pages 18 and 19. on the internet for articles in English about sport, computers, fashion, etc. Research in these areas could also lead to a series of Each correct answer in Part 8 receives 1 mark. › short class talks or articles for a class project. A class or school magazine may also encourage interest in reading. Part 8 consists of one or two sets of questions followed by a single page of text: the text may be continuous, or divided into sections, or • It is important to make sure your students are familiar with the consist of a group of short texts. In total, there are 10 questions and format of the Reading component. It will be helpful to spend time four to six options. going through sample papers. The Reading component has a standard structure and format so that students will know what to Candidates are required to match the questions with the relevant expect in each part of the paper. information from the text. To do this, they need to understand detail, attitude or opinion in the question, and locate a section of text where • When studying for the paper, it will be useful for your students to that idea is expressed, discounting ideas in other sections which may refer to dictionaries and grammar books. However, they should appear similar, but which do not reflect the whole of the question also develop strategies for operating independently of reference accurately. Some of the options may be correct for more than one books (by, for example, guessing the meaning of unknown words question. from the context) as they are not permitted to take dictionaries into the exam with them. They should be encouraged to read a In addition to the use of letters, e.g. A–F, the range of possible text without thinking that they need to understand every word. answers may be presented in the form of a list of, for example, names Students often spend time worrying about the text at word level or people or places, titles of books or films or types of occupation. rather than trying to get a more global view of what it is about. CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 9READING AND USE OF ENGLISH Focus your students’ attention on understanding the overall tempting, but only one will be semantically and grammatically function and message of texts or sections of texts. correct in that particular context. • Your students need to read the instructions, title and sub-title of PART 2 each reading text carefully. This is meant to give them an idea of • Any preparation task which promotes grammatical accuracy is what to expect from the text; it will tell them where the pieces useful, especially those which focus on verb forms and the use of come from and/or what the text is about. If there is a visual, it auxiliary and modal verbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, is usually included to help with a reference in the text that the modifiers and determiners. students may not be familiar with, for example, a photo of a certain animal or place. • Remind your students that only one word is required for each answer. Answers of more than one word will not earn the mark. • Students should develop an efficient personal system for recording the new vocabulary they learn. They should record • Some gaps in this part can be filled by referring just to as much detail as possible, including information about the immediate phrase or sentence, but others will require complementation and collocations of the words learned. understanding of the paragraph or whole text. • Encourage your students to plan their time carefully and not to PART 3 spend too long on any one part of the test. They should try to make sure that they have a few minutes at the end of the test to • Preparation tasks which promote familiarity with the principles check through their answers. They can do the various parts of of word formation (use of prefixes, suffixes, internal changes, the test in any order, but it may be better to do them in the order compounding) will be helpful. of the question paper so as to avoid the possibility of putting • Remind your students that they need to understand the context answers in the wrong sections of the answer sheet. of each gap in the text to decide which class of word (noun, verb, • It is important that your students are familiar with the adjective or adverb) is required. instructions on the front page of the question paper, and for each • Sometimes a plural form or a specific part of a verb will be part of the test. Your students should also be familiar with the required. technique of indicating their answers on the separate answer sheet so that they can do this quickly and accurately. Students • Sometimes a negative prefix will be required. There is usually at need to be shown how to do this and have practice doing this in least one word requiring a negative prefix in each Part 3 task, so a timed exercise. They must record their answers on the answer advise your students to look out for these. sheet. When writing their answers on the answer sheet, they PART 4 must be careful to make sure that they put the answer by the appropriate question number. This is especially important if they • Transformation tasks which increase awareness of expressions leave some questions unanswered. They must also be sure to with parallel or synonymous meanings, and develop flexibility in write in capital letters in Parts 2, 3 and 4. the use of language, are good preparation for this part. • When your students are familiar with the different task types, • Remind your students that the key word MUST be used in each it is a good idea to discuss which part(s) take them longer to answer and that the key word may NOT be changed in any way. complete. Following this discussion you can suggest possible • Also remind your students that their answer must NOT exceed timings for each task. Your students need to be reminded that six words. Contractions count as two words. Parts 4, 5, 6 and 7 are allocated 2 marks per question, while Parts 1, 2, 3 and 8 are allocated 1 mark per question. Students at PART 5 Cambridge English: Advanced level need to process large quantities of text in a defined time-scale and therefore need practice in • Your students should familiarise themselves with a wide range planning their time carefully. of sources, registers, topics and lexical fields. Preparation should include practice in reading a text quickly for a first overall • Remind your students to check the spelling of their answers as impression, followed by close reading of the text in order to incorrect spelling will lose them marks. prevent any misunderstanding. • Remind your students that handwriting should be clear so that it • Your students should read each question and underline the part can be read easily by the markers. of the text which answers the question. They should then look at the options and decide which one is the closest in answering By part the question. Students often make the mistake of only briefly referring to the text when answering a question, and just choose PART 1 an answer which sounds plausible or reflects their own ideas. It is • When studying vocabulary in preparation for the paper, your often useful to ask each student to justify their answer to the rest students should pay attention to collocation, the different shades of the class. of meaning within sets of similar words, and complementation • Ask your students to check the questions which take the form of (e.g. whether words are followed by a certain preposition, or by a incomplete sentences very carefully; the whole sentence has to gerund or an infinitive, etc.). match what is written in the text and not just the phrase in option • Advise your students to consider all the options carefully A, B, C or D. before deciding on an answer. Some of the options may be very 10 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERSREADING AND USE OF ENGLISH • Make sure that your students read texts in which opinion, • You should alert your students to the dangers of approaching attitudes and feelings are expressed, e.g. interviews with famous the gapped-text task as an exercise requiring them merely to people talking about how they began their careers and what identify extracts from the text and sections in the text containing made them successful, or short stories about how characters feel the same words, including names and dates. The task is designed about the situation they find themselves in. Activities which focus to test understanding of the development of ideas, opinion and on recognising and evaluating attitude and opinion and which events rather than the recognition of individual words. enhance your students’ abilities to infer underlying meaning will PART 8 also be helpful. • Your students will need practice in skimming and scanning texts • Your students should be given practice in text organisation in order to prepare for the multiple-matching task. They should features. For example, there may be a question which tests the practise scanning texts for the particular information required ability to differentiate between a main idea and an example, or and not feel that they must read every word in the text. It is also one which asks the students to connect an abstract argument important that they have enough practice in timing their reading. with a concrete illustration. Items may test comparison and contrast, both literal and metaphorical or the understanding of • Remind your students that the questions for the multiple- cohesive devices and structures. matching task are printed before the text so that the candidates know what to look for in the text. • It is important that your students avoid just matching words in the text with words in the question or option. • Draw your students’ attention to the particular wording of questions, since these are intended to lead the reader to specific PART 6 information, and to disregard irrelevant information. It can be • Your students should familiarise themselves with texts which helpful for students to underline key words in the questions as give different views on a related theme – such as different reviews this helps when trying to find the information in the text which of the same book or four experts giving their opinion on a subject. provides the answers. • The texts will have an academic flavour without presuming • Sometimes a question may consist of two parts, for example: in-depth subject-specific knowledge, so practice in dealing with a writer’s surprise at being confronted by a difficult situation. both the complexity of vocabulary and the structures, such as Students may find evidence of a difficult situation in a section noun phrases, commonly found in academic texts, will be useful. of the text but fail to realise that it may be the wrong section as no surprise is expressed in that part. It is important that your • Students should be encouraged to read the texts first of all to students understand that they need to find a paraphrase of the determine the general attitude of each writer to the subject under whole question, not just one part. discussion. Underlining the part or parts of a text which give an opinion or attitude and then identifying whether this is negative • Discourage your students from selecting an answer solely on the or positive is helpful. basis of matching a word in the question with a word in the text, since careful reading of a particular part of the text is required to • Your students should then look at each question and underline ensure an accurate match in terms of meaning. the key words. If a question is asking for ‘a similar or different opinion to’ for example, writer C, on a subject, they should • Give your students plenty of opportunity to read articles and underline what aspect of C’s opinion is being tested and then reviews where different people discuss work, books, hobbies, etc. identify and underline that opinion in C. The task will then involve Ask your students to prepare their own questions, perhaps as a looking at all the other writers and identifying the similar or homework exercise to be used later in class. This will help them different opinion. gain a better understanding of how the test is constructed and will also give them some insight into what clues they need to look PART 7 for when doing this part. • Your students should be encouraged to read the text as a whole, and not to focus on each gap separately. They need to understand that getting an idea of the structure and understanding that development of the theme of the text are both important prerequisites to doing the task. Students frequently make the wrong choices by selecting an option which fits the text before the gap, and neglecting to check that the text after the gap follows on smoothly. • Sometimes your students will need to choose carefully between two paragraphs as possible answers and will need practice in making decisions about which is the most logical paragraph to fill the particular gap. Give your students plenty of practice in recognising a wide range of linguistic devices which mark the logical and cohesive development of a text, e.g. words and phrases indicating time, cause and effect, contrasting arguments, paraphrasing of vocabulary, use of pronouns, repetition and the use of verb tenses. CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 11READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 READING AND USE OF ENGLISH EXAM LEVEL P APER SAMPLE P APER 1 SAMPLE PAPER 12 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS Part 1 1 A catch B win C achieve D receive For questions 1 – 8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). 2 A perception B awareness C insight D vision Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. 3 A Opposite B Opposed C Contrary D Contradictory Example: 4 A care B bother C desire D hope 0 A straight B common C everyday D conventional 5 A concludes B disputes C reasons D argues A B C D 0 6 A misguided B misled C misdirected D misinformed Studying black bears 7 A error B doubt C illusion D impression After years studying North America’s black bears in the (0) …….. way, wildlife biologist Luke 8 A expand B spread C widen D extend Robertson felt no closer to understanding the creatures. He realised that he had to (1) …….. their trust. Abandoning scientific detachment, he took the daring step of forming relationships with the animals, bringing them food to gain their acceptance. The (2) …….. this has given him into their behaviour has allowed him to dispel certain myths about bears. (3) …….. to popular belief, he contends that bears do not (4) …….. as much for fruit as previously supposed. He also (5) …….. claims that they are ferocious. He says that people should not be (6) …….. by behaviour such as swatting paws on the ground, as this is a defensive, rather than an aggressive, act. However, Robertson is no sentimentalist. After devoting years of his life to the bears, he is under no (7) …….. about their feelings for him. It is clear that their interest in him does not (8) …….. beyond the food he brings. READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 READING AND USE OF ENGLISH EXAM LEVEL P APER SAMPLE P APER 1 SAMPLE PAPER CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 13 Part 2 Part 3 For questions 17 – 24, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the For questions 9 – 16, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet. Example: 0 P R O F E S S I ONA L Example: 0 I S Training sports champions The origin of language What are the abilities that a (0) …….. sports person needs? To PROFESSION The truth (0) …….. nobody really knows how language first began. Did we all start talking at around guarantee that opponents can be (17) …….. , speed, stamina and COME the same time (9) …….. of the manner in which our brains had begun to develop? agility are essential, not to mention outstanding natural talent. Both a rigorous and comprehensive (18) …….. regime and a highly nutritious FIT Although there is a lack of clear evidence, people have come up with various theories about the diet are vital for top-level performance. It is carbohydrates, rather than origins of language. One recent theory is that human beings have evolved in (10) …….. a way that proteins and fat, that provide athletes with the (19) …….. they need to ENDURE we are programmed for language from the moment of birth. In (11) …….. words, language came compete. This means that pasta is more (20) …….. than eggs or about as a result of an evolutionary change in our brains at some stage. BENEFIT meat. Such a diet enables them to move very energetically when Language (12) …….. well be programmed into the brain but, (13) …….. this, people still need required. Failure to follow a sensible diet can result in the (21) …….. ABLE stimulus from others around them. From studies, we know that (14) …….. children are isolated from to maintain stamina. human contact and have not learnt to construct sentences before they are ten, it is doubtful they will Regular training to increase muscular (22) …….. is also a vital part of a STRONG ever do so. This research shows, if (15) …….. else, that language is a social activity, not something professional’s regime, and this is (23) …….. done by exercising with TYPE invented (16) …….. isolation. weights. Sports people are prone to injury but a quality training regime can ensure that the (24) …….. of these can be minimised. SEVERE READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 14 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS Part 4 For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and 28 I’m disappointed with the Fishers’ new album when I compare it to their previous one. six words, including the word given. Here is an example (0). COMPARISON Example: I think the Fishers’ new album is ……………………………….... their previous one. 0 James would only speak to the head of department alone. ON James ………………………………… to the head of department alone. 29 Anna got the job even though she didn’t have much experience in public relations. The gap can be filled with the words ‘insisted on speaking’, so you write: SPITE Example: 0 INSISTED ON SPEAKING Anna got the job ……………………………….... of experience in public relations. Write only the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet. 30 ‘I must warn you how dangerous it is to cycle at night without any lights,’ said the police officer 25 My brother now earns far less than he did when he was younger. to Max. NEARLY DANGERS My brother …………………………………. much now as he did when he was younger. Max received a ……………………………….... at night without any lights from the police officer. 26 They are demolishing the old bus station and replacing it with a new one. PULLED The old bus station is …………………………………. with a new one. 27 The number of students now at university has reached an all-time high, apparently. THE The number of students now at university is …………………………………. been, apparently. READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 READING AND USE OF ENGLISH EXAM LEVEL P APER SAMPLE P APER 1 SAMPLE PAPER CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 15 Part 5 31 What problem regarding colour does the writer explain in the first paragraph? You are going to read the introduction to a book about the history of colour. For questions 31 – 36, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text. A Our view of colour is strongly affected by changing fashion. B Analysis is complicated by the bewildering number of natural colours. Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. C Colours can have different associations in different parts of the world. D Certain popular books have dismissed colour as insignificant. Introduction to a book about the history of colour 32 What is the first reason the writer gives for the lack of academic work on the history of colour? This book examines how the ever-changing role of colour in society has been reflected in manuscripts, stained glass, clothing, painting and popular culture. Colour is a natural phenomenon, of course, but it is also a complex cultural construct that resists generalization and, indeed, analysis itself. No doubt this is why serious works A There are problems of reliability associated with the artefacts available. devoted to colour are rare, and rarer still are those that aim to study it in historical context. Many authors search B Historians have seen colour as being outside their field of expertise. for the universal or archetypal truths they imagine reside in colour, but for the historian, such truths do not exist. C Colour has been rather looked down upon as a fit subject for academic study. Colour is first and foremost a social phenomenon. There is no transcultural truth to colour perception, despite D Very little documentation exists for historians to use. what many books based on poorly grasped neurobiology or – even worse – on pseudoesoteric pop psychology would have us believe. Such books unfortunately clutter the bibliography on the subject, and even do it harm. 33 The writer suggests that the priority when conducting historical research on colour is to The silence of historians on the subject of colour, or more particularly their difficulty in conceiving colour as a subject separate from other historical phenomena, is the result of three different sets of problems. The first concerns documentation and preservation. We see the colours transmitted to us by the past as time has altered A ignore the interpretations of other modern day historians. them and not as they were originally. Moreover, we see them under light conditions that often are entirely B focus one’s interest as far back as the prehistoric era. different from those known by past societies. And finally, over the decades we have developed the habit of C find some way of organising the mass of available data. looking at objects from the past in black-and-white photographs and, despite the current diffusion of colour photography, our ways of thinking about and reacting to these objects seem to have remained more or less black D relate pictures to information from other sources. and white. 34 In the fourth paragraph, the writer says that the historian writing about colour should be careful The second set of problems concerns methodology. As soon as the historian seeks to study colour, he must grapple with a host of factors all at once: physics, chemistry, materials, and techniques of production, as well as iconography, ideology, and the symbolic meanings that colours convey. How to make sense of all of these A not to analyse in an old-fashioned way. elements? How can one establish an analytical model facilitating the study of images and coloured objects? No B when making basic distinctions between key ideas. researcher, no method, has yet been able to resolve these problems, because among the numerous facts C not to make unwise predictions. pertaining to colour, a researcher tends to select those facts that support his study and to conveniently forget those that contradict it. This is clearly a poor way to conduct research. And it is made worse by the temptation D when using certain terms and concepts. to apply to the objects and images of a given historical period information found in texts of that period. The proper method – at least in the first phase of analysis – is to proceed as do palaeontologists (who must study 35 In the fifth paragraph, the writer says there needs to be further research done on cave paintings without the aid of texts): by extrapolating from the images and the objects themselves a logic and a system based on various concrete factors such as the rate of occurrence of particular objects and motifs, their distribution and disposition. In short, one undertakes the internal structural analysis with which any study of an A the history of colour in relation to objects in the world around us. image or coloured object should begin. B the concerns he has raised in an earlier publication. The third set of problems is philosophical: it is wrong to project our own conceptions and definitions of colour C the many ways in which artists have used colour over the years. onto the images, objects and monuments of past centuries. Our judgements and values are not those of previous D the relationship between artistic works and the history of colour. societies (and no doubt they will change again in the future). For the writer-historian looking at the definitions and taxonomy of colour, the danger of anachronism is very real. For example, the spectrum with its natural 36 An idea recurring in the text is that people who have studied colour have order of colours was unknown before the seventeenth century, while the notion of primary and secondary colours did not become common until the nineteenth century. These are not eternal notions but stages in the ever-changing history of knowledge. A failed to keep up with scientific developments. B not understood its global significance. I have reflected on such issues at greater length in my previous work, so while the present book does address certain of them, for the most part it is devoted to other topics. Nor is it concerned only with the history of colour C found it difficult to be fully objective. in images and artworks – in any case that area still has many gaps to be filled. Rather, the aim of this book is to D been muddled about their basic aims. examine all kinds of objects in order to consider the different facets of the history of colour and to show how far beyond the artistic sphere this history reaches. The history of painting is one thing; that of colour is another, much larger, question. Most studies devoted to the history of colour err in considering only the pictorial, artistic or scientific realms. But the lessons to be learned from colour and its real interest lie elsewhere. READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 16 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS Part 6 You are going to read four reviews of a book about how architecture can affect the emotions. For Which reviewer questions 37 – 40, choose from the reviews A – D. The reviews may be chosen more than once. has a different opinion from the others on the confidence with which de Botton discusses The Architecture of Happiness 37 architecture? Four reviewers comment on philosopher Alain De Botton’s book A shares reviewer A’s opinion whether architects should take note of de Botton’s ideas? 38 Alain de Botton is a brave and highly intelligent writer who writes about complex subjects, clarifying the arcane for the layman. Now, with typical self-assurance, he has turned to the subject of architecture. The essential theme of his book is how architecture influences mood and behaviour. It is expresses a similar view to reviewer B regarding the extent to which architects share not about the specifically architectural characteristics of space and design, but much more about the 39 de Botton’s concerns? emotions that architecture inspires in the users of buildings. Yet architects do not normally talk nowadays very much about emotion and beauty. They talk about design and function. De Botton's message, then, is fairly simple but worthwhile precisely because it is simple, readable and timely. His has a different view to reviewer C on the originality of some of de Botton’s ideas? commendable aim is to encourage architects, and society more generally, to pay more attention to the 40 psychological consequences of design in architecture: architecture should be treated as something that affects all our lives, our happiness and well-being. B Alain de Botton raises important, previously unasked, questions concerning the quest for beauty in architecture, or its rejection or denial. Yet one is left with the feeling that he needed the help and support of earlier authors on the subject to walk him across the daunting threshold of architecture itself. And he is given to making extraordinary claims: ‘Architecture is perplexing ... in how inconsistent is its capacity to generate the happiness on which its claim to our attention is founded.’ If architecture's capacity to generate happiness is inconsistent, this might be because happiness has rarely been something architects think about. De Botton never once discusses the importance of such dull, yet determining, matters as finance or planning laws, much less inventions such as the lift or reinforced concrete. He appears to believe that architects are still masters of their art, when increasingly they are cogs in a global machine for building in which beauty, and how de Botton feels about it, are increasingly beside the point. C In The Architecture of Happiness, Alain de Botton has a great time making bold and amusing judgements about architecture, with lavish and imaginative references, but anyone in search of privileged insights into the substance of building design should be warned that he is not looking at drain schedules or pipe runs. He worries away, as many architects do, at how inert material things can convey meaning and alter consciousness. Although he is a rigorous thinker, most of de Botton’s revelations, such as the contradictions in Le Corbusier's theory and practice, are not particularly new. However, this is an engaging and intelligent book on architecture and something everyone, professionals within the field in particular, should read. D Do we want our buildings merely to shelter us, or do we also want them to speak to us? Can the right sort of architecture even improve our character? Music mirrors the dynamics of our emotional lives. Mightn’t architecture work the same way? De Botton thinks so, and in The Architecture of Happiness he makes the most of this theme on his jolly trip through the world of architecture. De Botton certainly writes with conviction and, while focusing on happiness can be a lovely way to make sense of architectural beauty, it probably won’t be of much help in resolving conflicts of taste. READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 READING AND USE OF ENGLISH EXAM LEVEL P APER SAMPLE P APER 1 SAMPLE PAPER CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 17 Part 7 You are going to read an extract from a magazine article. Six paragraphs have been removed from A The recruitment of men to the D They probably used deciduous and the extract. Choose from the paragraphs A – G the one which fits each gap (41 – 46). There is one armed forces during the conflict coniferous woodland for shelter, extra paragraph which you do not need to use. in Europe from 1914 to 1918 meant particularly in winter, and hunted over there was very little persecution, since more open areas such as forest edge, Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. gamekeepers went off to fight. As the open woodland, thickets and scrub, number of gamekeepers decreased, grassy areas and marsh. The wildcat the wildcat began to increase its range, was probably driven into more Scottish Wildcat recolonising many of its former haunts. mountainous areas by a combination of Extinction was narrowly averted. deforestation and persecution. On my living-room wall I have a painting of a western Scotland. This is a cause for real wildcat by John Holmes of which I am concern, given that the animals in these areas B The wildcat waits for a while in rapt E As the animals emerge, their curiosity extremely fond. It depicts a snarling, spitting have less contact with domestic cats and are concentration, ears twitching and eyes is aroused by every movement and animal, teeth bared and back arched: a taut therefore purer. watching, seeing everything and rustle in the vegetation. Later they will coiled spring ready to unleash some unknown hearing everything, trying to detect the accompany their mother on hunting fury. 44 tell-tale movement of a vole or a trips, learning quickly, and soon mouse. But there is nothing, and in become adept hunters themselves. 41 another leap he disappears into the Part of the problem stems from the fact that the gloom. F This is what makes many people think accepted physical description of the species that the wildcat is a species in its own However, the physical differences are tangible. originates from the selective nature of the C The results, which are expected shortly, right. Research currently being The wildcat is a much larger animal, weighing examination process by the British Natural will be fascinating. But anyone who undertaken by Scottish Natural in some cases up to seven kilos, the same History Museum at the start of the century, and has seen a wildcat will be in little doubt Heritage is investigating whether the as a typical male fox. The coat pattern is this has been used as the type-definition for that there is indeed a unique and wildcat really is distinct from its home- superficially similar to a domestic tabby cat but the animal ever since. Animals that did not distinctive animal living in the Scottish living cousin, or whether it is nothing it is all stripes and no spots. The tail is thicker conform to that large blunt-tailed ‘tabby’ Highlands, whatever his background. more than a wild-living form of the and blunter, with three to five black rings. The description were discarded as not being domestic cat. animal has an altogether heavier look. wildcats. In other words, an artificial collection of specimens was built up, exhibiting the The Scottish wildcat was originally G It is a typical image most folk have of features considered typical of the wildcat. distinguished as a separate subspecies in the beast, but it is very much a false 1912, but it is now generally recognised that The current research aims to resolve this one, for the wildcat is little more than a there is little difference between the Scottish potential problem. It is attempting to find out bigger version of the domestic cat, and and other European populations. According to whether there are any physical features which probably shows his anger as often. an excellent report on the wildcat printed in characterise the so-called wild-living cats. 1991, the animals originally occurred in a variety of habitats throughout Europe. 45 42 But what of his lifestyle? Wildcat kittens are usually born in May/June in a secluded den, It was during the nineteenth century, with the secreted in a gap amongst boulders. Another establishment of many estates used by favourite location is in the roots of a tree. landowners for hunting, that the wildcat became a nuisance and its rapid decline really 46 began; 198 wildcats were killed in three years in the area of Glengarry, for example. Rabbits are a favourite prey, and some of the However, things were later to improve for the best areas to see wildcats are at rabbit species. warrens close to the forest and moorland edge. Mice, small birds and even insects also form a 43 large part of the diet, and the animal may occasionally take young deer. The future is by no means secure, though, and The wildcat is one of the Scottish Highlands’ recent evidence suggests that the wildcat is most exciting animals. Catch a glimpse of one particularly vulnerable to local eradication, and the memory will linger forever. especially in the remoter parts of northern and READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 READING AND USE OF ENGLISH SAMPLE PAPER 1 18 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: ADVANCED HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS Part 8 Starting out on your career You are going to read a magazine article in which five career consultants give advice about starting a Are you a graduate trying to plan out the best career path for yourself? We’ve asked five careers career. For questions 47 – 56, choose from the consultants (A – E). The consultants may be chosen consultants to give some tips on how to go about it. more than once. Consultant A real depth of knowledge. If you are a graduate, Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. A university degree is no guarantee of a job, spending five or six years in the same job is and job hunting in itself requires a whole set of not too long provided that you take full skills. If you find you are not getting past the advantage of the experience. However, do not first interview, ask yourself what is happening. use this as an excuse for apathy. Graduates Is it a failure to communicate or are there some sometimes fail to take ownership of their skills you lack? Once you see patterns careers and take the initiative. It is up to you to Which consultant makes the following statements? emerging it will help you decide whether the make the most of what’s available within a gaps you have identified can be filled company, and to monitor your progress in case relatively easily. If you cannot work out what you need to move on. This applies particularly the mismatch is, get back to the selection panel if you are still not sure where your career path Keep your final objective in mind when you are planning to change jobs. 47 with more probing questions, and find out lies. what you need to do to bring yourself up to the level of qualification that would make you Consultant D It takes time to become familiar with the characteristics of a company you have joined. 48 more attractive to them: but be careful to make It is helpful to think through what kind of this sound like a genuine request rather than a experience you need to get your dream job and challenge or complaint. it is not a problem to move around to a certain You should demonstrate determination to improve your job prospects. 49 extent. But in the early stages of your career Consultant B you need a definite strategy for reaching your Do not be too dispirited if you are turned down goal, so think about that carefully before Make sure your approach for information is positive in tone. 50 for a job, but think about the reasons the deciding to move on from your first job. You employers give. They often say it is because must cultivate patience to master any role. others are ‘better qualified’, but they use the There is no guarantee that you will get It is not certain that you will be given very much support in your job initially. 51 term loosely. Those who made the second adequate training, and research has shown that interview might have been studying the same if you do not receive proper help in a new role, subject as you and be of similar ability level, it can take 18 months to master it. Stay optimistic in spite of setbacks. 52 but they had something which made them a closer match to the selector’s ideal. That could Consultant E be experience gained through projects or A prospective employer does not want to see Promotion isn’t the only way to increase your expertise. 53 vacation work, or it might be that they were that you have changed jobs every six months better at communicating what they could offer. with no thread running between them. You Do not take the comments at face value: think need to be able to demonstrate the quality of Ask for information about your shortcomings. 54 back to the interviews that generated them and your experience to a future employer, and too make a list of where you think the shortfall in many moves too quickly can be a bad thing. your performance lies. With this sort of In any company it takes three to six months for Some information you are given may not give a complete picture. 55 analytical approach you will eventually get a new employee to get up to speed with the your foot in the door. structure and the culture of the company. From the company’s perspective, they will not It will be some time before you start giving your employers their money’s worth. 56 Consultant C receive any return on the investment in your Deciding how long you should stay in your salary until you have been there for 18 months. first job is a tough call. Stay too long and This is when they begin to get most value from future employers may question your drive and you – you are still fired up and enthusiastic. If ambition. Of course, it depends where you are you leave after six months it has not been a aiming. There can be advantages in moving good investment – and may make other sideways rather than up, if you want to gain employers wary.