What is Environmental Fluid mechanics

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5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment 5R18: ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS AND AIR POLLUTION Dispersion of Pollution in the Atmospheric Environment “Air and water, the two essential fluids on which all life depends, have become global garbage cans” “Mankind has probably done more damage to the Earth in the 20th century than in all of previous human history” (Jacques Yves Cousteau, 1910-1997) Prof. E. Mastorakos Hopkinson Lab Tel: 32690 E-mail: em257eng.cam.ac.uk 1 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment 1. Introduction 1.1 The problem About 90% of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuels. Energy is needed for transport (land, sea, air), electricity generation, heating in buildings and industrial processes (e.g. iron, steel, aluminium, paper, cement manufacture). Combustion occurs in boilers, refineries, glass melters, drying kilns, incinerators, industrial ovens and is also used to generate energy from biomass (e.g. from wood, straw, organic waste). Burning fossil fuels, however, may result in environmental pollution. There are many other sources of air pollution. The chemical industry (e.g. hydrocarbon vapours, freon, sulphur oxides), metallurgy (particulates), refineries, and even the domestic environment (e.g. particles from cooking, solvents in paint and varnishes) are just a few. Apart from emissions in the air, we also have pollution of the aqueous environment (sea, lakes, rivers) from industrial discharges, municipal waste (e.g. in landfills) and oil spills. The amount of pollutants emitted from all sources is strictly regulated by legislation in most of the developed world and forms the topic of political discussion and affects economic decisions. More pollutants are added to the list every year and their effects on human health come under increasing scrutiny. In most environmental pollution problems, the pollutant is released to the environment by the, almost always, turbulent flow of a carrier fluid. The pollutant mixes with the surrounding fluid (air or water) and undergoes chemical transformations. A proper account of “where the pollutant went” and “what happened to it” necessitates a theory of turbulent reacting flows, i.e. the simultaneous treatment of mixing and chemical reactions. Due to the complexity of this topic, in this course we will discuss a little of turbulent mixing, a little of atmospheric pollution reactions, and we will just touch on how the two phenomena may be treated together. In doing so, we will also touch on the extremely important field of Air Quality Modelling, which is an interdisciplinary fields borrowing elements from Fluid Mechanics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Meteorology and others. 1.2 Objectives The objectives of this series of lectures are:  To present the nature of atmospheric pollution.  To present commonly used pollutant dispersion models.  To make the student familiar with the topic of Air Quality Modelling.  To introduce the necessity to study turbulent reacting flows.  To introduce techniques for simulating turbulent reacting flows. At the end of the lectures, the student should:  Be able to make simple estimates of the amounts of pollutant reaching a given point far away from a pollution source.  Understand how the local meteorology may affect pollutant dispersion.  Understand some of the physics of turbulent mixing.  Be able to estimate how the turbulence may affect the rate of pollutant transformation.  Be familiar with techniques and software used in practical Air Quality Modelling.  Be able to design a Monte-Carlo simulation for stochastic phenomena. 4 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment 1.3 Structure of this course These lecture notes are organized as follows: elements of chemical kinetics, the nature of atmospheric pollutants and a little atmospheric chemistry are discussed in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, a description of the fundamentals of turbulent mixing is given. In Chapter 4, the model problem of dispersion of a chimney plume is discussed in detail. Chapter 5 presents some usual theories for turbulent reacting flows and emphasizes the use of Monte Carlo techniques to overcome the closure problems introduced by the turbulence. Although it is not crucial, we will be mostly considering gaseous flows. Simple computational codes of the type used in Air Quality Modelling for decision-making will be demonstrated and the assumptions behind them will be fully discussed. 1.4 Bibliography Csanady, G. T. (1973) Turbulent Diffusion in the Environment. Reidel Publishing Company. Chapter 3 is one of the classics in the field of turbulent mixing and goes deep in the physics involved and describes well the applications. Very useful for our Chapter 4. De Nevers, N. (1995) Air Pollution Control Engineering. McGraw Hill. Discusses various features of air pollution engineering (pollution control techniques, NOx chemistry, plume dispersion). Very useful for Chapters 2 and 4 of this course. Highly recommended and a very good addition to any engineer’s library. Jacobson, M. Z. (1999) Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modelling. Cambridge University Press. Discusses various features of air pollution and the current generation of atmospheric dispersion codes. Chapter 11 (pp. 298-307) is very useful for the various harmful effects of air pollution and the species that participate in smog formation and Ch. 2 (pp. 6-20) for the atmospheric structure. For those who like chemistry and who want to follow Air Quality Modelling as a profession. Pope, S.B. (2000) Turbulent Flows. Cambridge University Press. Not for the faint-hearted Chapter 3 describes in detail the pdf approach of turbulence, while Chapter 12 gives the full Monte Carlo treatment for turbulent flows. PhD level. Tennekes and Lumley (1972) An Introduction to Turbulence. MIT Press. Chapter 1 from this book is one of the best introductions to turbulence available and you should read it. Chapter 6 gives the probabilistic description of turbulence. Both chapters are recommended, but you may avoid the difficult mathematical bits of chapter 6. 5 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment 2. Atmospheric structure, chemistry and pollution In this Chapter, we will give a quick revision of terms and concepts from chemical kinetics, which are needed to allow us to use and understand atmospheric chemistry. Some particular features of pollution chemistry then follow and information on the structure of the atmosphere is given. 2.1 Fundamental concepts – revision of chemistry Mole and mass fractions, concentrations Assume that pollutant A reacts with species B, which could be another pollutant or a background species (e.g. N , O , H O in the air). The reaction rate depends on the amount of 2 2 2 reactant present. There are many ways to quantify the amount of a species in a mixture: concentration, mole (or volume) and mass fractions are the most usual. The ratio of the number of kmols, n , of a particular species i to the total number of kmols n in the mixture is the mole i tot fraction or volume fraction: n i X . (2.1) i n tot The mass fraction Y is defined as the mass of i divided by the total mass. Using the obvious i N N X Y 1, (2.2)  i i i1 i1 where N is the total number of species in our mixture, the following can be easily derived for Y and i the mixture molecular weight MW : MW i Y X , (2.3) i i MW 1 N N  Y i  MW X MW . (2.4)  i i  MW i i1 i1 Virtually always, the mixture molecular weight will be very close to that of air since the pollutant is dilute (i.e. even if it is heavy, its contribution to the weight of a kmol of mixture is very small). Equation (2.4) is included here only for completeness. The concentration (or molar concentration) of species i is defined as the number of kmols of the species per unit volume. The usual notation used for concentrations is C or the chemical i symbol of the species in square brackets, e.g. NO for nitric oxide, or A for our generic pollutant A. From this definition and Eq. (2.1), n X n i i tot C , (2.5) i V V 0 0 and using the equation of state PV=n R T (R is the universal gas constant), we get: tot 6 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment X n P i tot C X (2.6) i i 0 0 n R T / P R T tot This relates the concentration to the mole fraction. In most atmospheric pollution problems, the 3 3 concentrations are quoted in molecules/m or kmol/m and the volume fractions in parts per billion 3 (ppb). A very common unit is kg of pollutant per m of air, which is the molar concentration times the molecular weight of the species. We can also relate the concentration to the mass fraction: Y MW P Y i i C . (2.7) i 0 MW MW R T i i where  is the mixture density, e.g. the air density for our problems. Usually, the chemical reaction rate is expressed in terms of molar concentrations, while the conservation laws for mass and energy are expressed in terms of mass fractions. On the other hand, pollution monitoring equipment 3 measures usually the volume fractions or the kg/m of the pollutant. The above relations are useful for performing transformations between the various quantities, which is very often needed in practice. Global and elementary reactions Chemical reactions occur when molecules of one species collide with molecules of another species and, for some of these collisions, one or more new molecules will be created. The chemical reaction essentially involves a re-distribution of how atoms are bonded together in the molecule. To achieve this, chemical bonds must be broken during the impact (i.e. the molecules must have sufficient kinetic energy) and other bonds must be formed. As the energy of these bonds depends on the nature of the atoms and on geometrical factors, the energy content of the products of the collision may be different from the energy content of the colliding molecules. This is the origin of the heat released (or absorbed) in chemical reactions. We write often that, for example, methane is oxidised according to CH +2OCO +2H O. 4 2 2 2 This is an example of a global reaction. What we mean is that the overall process of oxidation uses 1 kmol of CH and 2 kmol of O to produce, if complete, 1 kmol of CO and 2 kmol of H O. We do 4 2 2 2 not mean that all this occurs during an actual molecular collision. This would be impossible to happen because it would involve too many bonds to break and too many bonds to form. However, the reactions CH + O  CH + OH 4 3 O + NO  NO + O 3 2 NO + OH + M  HNO + M 2 are possible. For example, the first of these involves breaking one C-H bond and forming a O-H one. These reactions are examples of elementary reactions, i.e. reactions that can occur during a molecular collision. The overall chemical transformation follows hundreds or thousands of such elementary reactions and many species and radicals appear. By the term “radicals” we mean very reactive unstable molecules like O, H, OH, or CH . The series of elementary reactions that 3 describes the overall process is called a reaction mechanism or detailed chemical mechanism. Most chemical transformations occur following reaction mechanisms, rather than single reactions. The concept of global reaction helps us visualize the overall process and stoichiometry in an engineering sense. But when we identify the elementary reactions we can talk in detail about what really happens. 7 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment The Law of Mass Action A large part of the science of Chemical Kinetics is centred on identifying which elementary reactions are possible under various conditions for various species and to prescribe the rate, i.e. how quickly these reactions take place. This is given by the Law of Mass Action. Consider the generic elementary reaction a R a R ... a M b P b P ... b M 1 1 2 2 M 1 1 2 2 M between reactants R , R , R , …, from which products P , P , P , …, are formed. M is an example 1 2 3 1 2 3 of species that appears on both sides. The rates of reactants consumption and products formation and the reaction rate are given by: dR dR dP dP 1 2 1 2 a , a , ...  b ,  b , ... 1 2 1 2 dt dt dt dt dM  b a (2.8) M M dt a a a 1 2 3  kR R R .... (2.9) 1 2 3 3 The parameter k is the reaction rate constant and R is the concentration (in kmol/m ) of reactant 1 R etc. Equation (2.8) is a statement of the stoichiometry of the reaction: every a kmol of R is 1 1 1 joined by a kmol of R , etc., to produce simultaneously b kmol of P , b kmol of P , etc.. If 2 2 1 1 2 2 b =a , then M is called a third body: it may not be altered, but its presence is crucial for the M M success of the reaction, as it provides energy to, or takes energy away from, the collision between the reactants. Equation (2.9) is the Law of Mass Action and states that the reaction rate is proportional to the reactants concentrations, raised to their respective stoichiometric coefficients (i.e. a , a , etc). The amount of products does not affect . The reaction rate constant k is not a 1 2 function of the reactants concentration and it is specific to the elementary reaction. Sometimes, Eq. (2.9) is used for a global reaction as an approximation. In that case, the reaction rate constant and the indices a , a , etc. are determined empirically. 1 2 The reaction rate constant The reaction rate constant is given by the Arrhenius law:  E act k Aexp (2.10)  0  R T where A is the pre-exponential factor and E is the activation energy. These quantities come from act experiment or statistical mechanics calculations. Out of all molecular collisions, only those with kinetic energy higher than the energy needed to break bonds inside the reactants’ molecules will 0 result in reaction. The proportion of these collisions is given by exp(E /R T) (from Kinetic act Theory of Gases). The reaction rate constant increases very fast with temperature. In many environmental pollution problems, the flows are isothermal or the temperature changes little, so the reaction rate constant may be taken as uniform in space. However, the temperature may change significantly during the day so that large changes in reaction rates can be observed between noon and midnight. 8 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment 2.2 Pollutants and their sources An overview The total emissions of the major regulated pollutants (i.e. controlled by legislation) have been categorized according to sectors of economic activity in Table 2.1, with the percentage contribution of each sector being typical for all industrialized countries. As we can see, transportation and electricity generation are the activities that make the highest contribution for almost all pollutants, apart from VOC’s, which are mostly emitted by industrial processes. More information and explanations for each of these pollutants, including some not shown in Table 2.1, is given next. Obviously, with the development of clean or pollution-abating technologies the total emission of these is decreasing, but with increasing economic activity they may be increasing. Also, each country may have very different emission inventories. Table 2.1. Estimates of the US emissions of the major regulated pollutants for 1991 (million tons per year) per category of source. (From de Nevers, 1995). Source category CO SO NO PM VOC x x 10 Transportation 43.49 0.99 7.26 1.51 5.08 Electricity generation 4.67 16.55 10.59 1.10 0.67 Industrial processes 4.69 3.16 0.60 1.84 7.86 Solid waste disposal 3.06 0.02 0.10 0.26 0.69 Miscellaneous 7.18 0.01 0.21 0.73 2.59 Total 62.09 20.73 18.76 5.44 16.89 Fuel contributions When we burn fuels, we have to deal with the impurities they may already contain, but also with pollutants that may be generated during combustion, for example nitric oxides (NO ) and soot. x Clean fuels like natural gas, propane, and good-quality gasoline do not contain impurities. In contrast, some fuels contain substances that, either directly or in modified form after passing through the combustion process, may cause harm when released. For example some heavy oils and diesels may contain sulphur and traces of metals, while various fuel-like substances used in incinerators (e.g. car tyres, plastics, municipal waste, hazardous wastes) may release hundreds of toxic substances if burned in the wrong way. Hence fuel-switching is an obvious method to reduce the amount of a particular pollutant emitted (e.g. from sulphur-containing coal to natural gas). Of course, this may lead to the emission of more of another pollutant. Carbon dioxide All the carbon in the fuel will eventually be transformed to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Another important source of carbon dioxide is cement manufacture. Carbon dioxide is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect, which is a term denoting the warming of the atmosphere due to the CO absorbing part of the radiation emitted by the earth surface. This may 2 then lead to global warming. Using fossil fuels will invariably lead to CO production and hence, at 2 the very least, we should make sure we burn fuels as efficiently as possible. Power generation is an 9 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment important player in the public debate concerning global climate change. Switching to renewable energies alleviates the danger of global warming. Carbon monoxide Incomplete combustion results in CO formation. Carbon monoxide is extremely dangerous and can cause death if inhaled in large concentrations because it inhibits the acquisition of oxygen in our blood stream. It is mostly emitted by cars (Table 2.1). The use of catalysts has helped to reduce the problem considerably by ensuring the oxidation of CO to CO . The trail of CO behind a 2 car is of interest to environmental regulation agencies and methods to predict and measure CO are being developed. Sulphur oxides When burning fuels with sulphur, like coal and diesel, all of the sulphur will be oxidised into SO and SO , collectively called SO . Other sources are processes like copper smelting. 2 3 x Sulphur oxides pose serious problems because: (i) SO dissolves in clouds to form sulphuric acid, x which can then be deposited to the earth by rain. This is called “acid rain” and has caused deforestation in Europe and North America and serious damage to structures (monuments, steel buildings). (ii) SO is a respiratory irritant and in large concentrations can cause death. Sulphur-rich x coal combustion for domestic use (e.g. for cooking or heating) has been responsible for thousands of deaths in London over the past centuries, notably during the “Great London Smog” in December 1952, in which about 4,000 people died. Current emission standards on sulphur oxide emissions are very strict and are met by post- combustion treatment of the exhaust gases. This is based mostly on scrubbing: mixing the exhaust gases with water droplets that contain limestone, which reacts with the oxide according to CaCO + 3 SO + 0.5O  CaSO + CO . The cost of the scrubbers is a very large percentage of a modern coal 2 2 4 2 power station. Nitrogen oxides Two of the most serious pollutants attributed to fossil fuel usage are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO ), collectively called NO . Usually, only NO is emitted, but this will react in 2 x the atmosphere to create NO (Section 2.3). Other sources of nitric oxides in the atmosphere include 2 agriculture (fertilizer production). Nitrogen oxides will form acid rain, by a similar mechanism to SO . At ground level and under sunlight, NO will release an oxygen atom that can then form ozone x 2 (O ) (more of this later). Ozone is very irritating for the respiratory system and causes impaired 3 vision. In addition, NO emitted by high-altitude airplanes participates in ozone destruction and hence contributes to the ozone hole problem. Nitrogen oxides are strictly regulated and lowNO x combustion equipment (burners, processes, cars, domestic heaters) has become today a huge business. Particulate matter and soot Combustion without excess air may lead to soot formation. By “soot” we mean solid particles of size less than 1m, which result in the yellow colour of flames and in the smoke emitted from diesel engines and some older gas turbines. The particulate matter may cause lung diseases and is hence controlled by legislation. The particulates are usually denoted by PM , which means 10 “particulate matter of size less than 10m”. Other anthropogenic sources of PM in the atmosphere 10 10 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment include ash particles from coal power stations, while natural sources are salt particles from breaking sea waves, pollen, dust, forest fires, and volcanic eruptions. VOC The term VOC refers to “volatile organic compounds”. By VOC we mean evaporated gasoline from petrol filling stations, vapours from refineries, organic solvents from paint and dry cleaning, and many others. These organic species are major contributors to smog and may be toxic or carcinogenic for humans. Their emissions are strictly regulated. Studies have found that glues and paints in our houses may have serious adverse health effects. There is a large effort today to switch to water-based paint, so that emissions of VOC’s are decreased. Heavy metals and dioxins If metals are contained in the reactants to our process (e.g. burner, kiln, chemical reactor), they may end up in the atmosphere (in pure form or in oxides) and they could be very dangerous (particularly Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Be, Cr, and Sb). This is a serious problem for municipal, toxic, and hospital waste incinerators. If the fuel contains chlorine, for example if it includes plastics (PVC), then there is a danger that dioxins may be formed  not at the flame, but on medium-temperature metal surfaces in the stack or inside the waste itself. Dioxins are chlorinated aromatic organic compounds whose chemistry is not very well known. They are extremely dangerous because they are carcinogenic even in concentrations of part per trillion. Municipal waste incinerators are needed to decrease the volume of waste going to landfills and to generate some power, but their use is controversial because of the danger of dioxins. If the plant operates at the design point, the exhaust is probably free of dangerous substances because a lot of attention has been given to the clean-up stage. However, open, uncontrolled burning of any waste or plastic material is extremely dangerous. Other sources of dioxins used to be the paper industry, where chlorine-containing compounds were used for bleaching the pulp and ended up in the waste stream of the paper mill, but this problem seems to have improved considerably with the introduction of new chlorine-free techniques. 2.3 Some chemistry of atmospheric pollution Smog formation One of the most important environmental problems is smog formation (Smoke + Fog), also called photochemical pollution. This is the brown colour we sometimes see above polluted cities and consists of a very large number of chemicals, but the most important are nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO ), ozone (O ), and hydrocarbons (VOC). Some of the reactions participating 2 3 in smog formation are discussed below. Oxidation of NO to NO 2 Of the two possibilities: 2NO + O  2NO R-I 2 2 NO + O  NO + O R-II 3 2 2 the second is about four orders of magnitude faster. Therefore, the formation of nitrogen dioxide from the emitted NO depends on the availability of ozone. 11 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment Photolytic reactions A very important characteristic of smog is that it requires sunlight, which causes the photolysis of various chemicals into smaller fragments (‘photo’ = light; ‘lysis’ = breaking). Examples of sequences of reactions triggered or followed by photolysis: NO + hv  O + NO R-III 2 O + O + M  O + M R-IV 2 3 O + H O  2OH R-V 2 and NO + NO + H O  2HNO R-VI 2 2 2 HNO + hv  NO + OH R-VII 2 The rate of photolytic reactions is usually given by an expression equivalent to Eq. (2.10), with the pre-exponential factor taken as a function of incident solar radiation. Hence the photolytic reaction rates are functions of the cloud cover and latitude in a given location, in addition to the time of the day and season. Smog is more common in sunny cities and in the summer because R-III (and other photolytic reactions) proceeds faster. The photostationary state Reactions R-II, R-III and R-IV suggest the following “cycle” for ozone: R-III produces an oxygen atom, which results in ozone formation through R-IV, which then reacts with NO in R-II. It is a common assumption that these reactions proceed very fast compared to others in smog chemistry and then the oxygen atom and ozone reach a quasi-steady state, called the “photostationary state”. If we assume that dO/dt =0 and dO /dt=0 and we use the Law of Mass 3 Action for the three reactions (R-II to R-IV), we get that k NO III 2 O  (2.11) 3 k NO II where k and k are the reaction rate constants for R-II and R-III respectively. Therefore we II III expect ozone (and smog) to be in high concentrations around midday when the photolytic reaction R-III has its peak. We also expect ozone to decrease to low values at night. Both these observations are approximately borne out by measurements. Above heavily polluted cities in the mornings, Eq. (2.11) is not very accurate due to the presence of VOC’s, which also produce NO , as we shall see 2 below. In the afternoons, when VOC’s tend to decrease due to their own photolysis, Eq. (2.11) is not a bad approximation. The hydrocarbons A prerequisite for smog is the presence of hydrocarbons, collectively called VOC’s. A global reaction describing their participation in smog formation is NO + VOC  NO + VOC R-VIII 2 where VOC denotes some other organic radical. The NO will then follow the cycle in R-II, R-III 2 and R-IV, which releases ozone. During the VOC chemistry, the major eye irritant CH COO NO 3 2 2 may also appear (called peroxyacetyl nitrate or PAN). We see therefore that a combination of 12 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment nitrogen oxide emission and hydrocarbons will under the action of sunlight cause serious pollution. The situation is worse above cities than above rural areas due to the high emissions from cars and other activities. The chemistry of smog formation is extremely more complex than the above over- simplified picture and is the subject of intensive research. Acid rain Sulphur from oils and coal is usually oxidised during combustion and is then emitted in the form of SO , which will react in the atmosphere according to: 2 SO + OH  HSO R-VIII 2 3 HSO + O  SO + HO R-VIII 3 2 3 2 SO + H O  H SO R-IX 3 2 2 4 i.e. sulphuric acid is formed. This is absorbed on water droplets and may be deposited on the ground by rain. This is the notorious “acid rain”, a term that also includes nitric acid that is similarly formed. The situation has improved the last decade with the use of scrubbers in power stations, which capture SO before it is emitted. 2 2.4 Some comments on the atmosphere It is important to realize that the atmosphere at various heights behaves very differently, not only in terms of the chemistry that takes place, but also in terms of the fluid mechanics we see. Most pollution problems occur at the lower levels, although the ozone hole and global warming are issues of the higher levels too. Here, we present briefly the structure of the lower atmosphere, which will be necessary for understanding the atmospheric dispersion processes in Chapter 4. Atmospheric structure Pressure, temperature, “standard atmosphere” The pressure, density, and temperature of the atmosphere are related with height through dp g (2.12) dz pRT (2.13) dT g  (2.14) dz c p 0 where R=R /MW . Equation (2.14) gives the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR) as 9.3 K/km. We air very often use the “standard atmosphere” lapse rate, an average over all seasons of the year and across many regions of the globe, which is about 6.5 K/km. This can then be used in Eqs. (2.12) and (2.13) to find the vertical pressure and density distribution. The boundary layer and the troposphere, inversions The troposphere is the first 11 km above sea level and contains 75% of the mass of the whole atmosphere. It is usually divided into the boundary layer and the free troposphere. The boundary layer depth ranges between 500 and 3000 m and it is divided into the surface layer (the 13 Boundary layer 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment first 10% closest to the ground) and the neutral convective layer, also called the mixed layer. At the top of the boundary layer, we have the inversion layer. This structure is shown on Fig. 2.1. It is important to realize that because the ground changes temperature quicker than the air, it affects the air immediately above it and hence the temperature locally in the surface layer may have a different gradient than the DALR. Therefore, the vertical temperature gradient will be different during the day and at night, which affects the stability of the layer. At night, the surface layer and a large part of the mixed layer become stable as the temperature increases with height due to radiative cooling of the ground. At the top of the boundary layer, the temperature gradient is usually positive (i.e. stable) and the turbulence dies there. This is the inversion layer. Between the inversion and the neutral layers, we have the so-called entrainment zone, which is where we see often cloud formation. Because it is not easy to penetrate the inversion layer, it can be considered as the ceiling of pollution. Therefore, most of the pollution emitted at ground level will disperse approximately up to the first 3 km of the atmosphere, with further diffusion to the free troposphere being a slower process. Free troposphere Free troposphere 3000 m 3000 m Inversion layer Inversion layer Entrainment zone Entrainment zone Cloud layer Neutral residual layer DALR Neutral convective mixed layer Stable boundary layer 300 m Surface layer Surface layer Nighttime Temperature Daytime Temperature Figure 2.1 Variation of temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer with height during day and night (from Jacobson, 1998). Mixing height Figure 2.1 also serves to visualize another very important quantity in the field of atmospheric pollution dispersion: that of the mixing height. With this we simply mean the height above ground where the inversion occurs, which means that the turbulence dies and hence stops mixing. So, for Fig. 2.1 during day, the mixing height would be at 3000 m. For dawn and early morning, the situation is better visualized in Fig. 2.2, where we look at various times progressively after sunrise. Curve A shows a stable stratification at dawn. The air is 14 Altitude5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment still due to the damping effect of the stable atmosphere during the night and hence no mixing can occur. As the ground heats up due to the sun radiation, the temperature profile becomes like that of Curve B and the mixing height is small, say 100 m. Therefore, the first 100 m will have turbulence and mixing can occur. As time goes on, the mixing height increases because the unstable layer close to the ground becomes thicker. At mid or late afternoon, the mixing height has reached the inversion layer of the atmospheric boundary layer shown in Fig. 2.1. The fact that the mixing height changes during the day and that often no significant mixing may be expected at night, has tremendous implications for local pollution episodes, as we will discuss more fully in Chapter 4. A: Dawn B: Dawn + 2h C: Dawn + 4h D: Midafternoon A DALR C B D Temperature Figure 2.2 Variation of the temperature at various times during a typical morning. The mixing height increases with time. (Adapted from De Nevers, 1995.) 2.5 Global warming “Global warming” is a much-used (and abused) phrase. It refers to the increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere caused by an enhanced greenhouse effect, which in turn is caused by increased concentrations of some gases in the atmosphere. “Climate change” is a more general term that refers to changes in the climate (which can include cooling) due to the anthropogenic emissions. Cooling in one point of the planet may be caused by warming in another point, so a discussion of the greenhouse effect, and how this is affected by emissions, is necessary for understanding all these phenomena. For a nice summary, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming The key scientific topic is the radiative balance in the atmosphere, which is discussed next. Consider Fig. 2.3, which shows a planet in the path of radiation. Assume an incoming solar flux of 15 Altitude 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment 2 S (W/m ) incident on the outer layers of the atmosphere. This solar radiation is intercepted by the 2 planet’s projected area (R ), where R is the planet’s radius, Assume that the surface is uniform (i.e. same radiative properties and temperature everywhere) and let us neglect at this stage the presence of the atmosphere. Thermodynamic equilibrium implies that the net heat falling on the surface balances the heat emitted by the surface: 2 2 4 R (1-)S = 4R T (2.15) s giving 1/4 T = (1-)S / 4  (2.16) s where T is the surface temperature,  the emissivity of the surface,  the albedo (the fraction of s 8 incident radiation that is reflected),  the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (equal to 5.6710 2 4 W/m /K ). For Earth, the emissivity and the albedo are not constant (they depend on the nature of the surface, whether it is covered by water, ice, vegetation etc), but some average values are 0.61 and 0.3 respectively. These effective values include the presence of the atmosphere, clouds etc. 2 Given that S  1367 W/m , we get that T = 288 K. This is an estimate of the Earth’s average s surface temperature, in the sense of an effective radiative temperature. Eq. (2.16) also shows the great sensitivity of the surface temperature in changes of solar radiation, albedo and emissivity; 1 K change can be brought about by 1-2% change in these parameters. Note that the greenhouse effect (discussed below) is already included in the effective values of emissivity and albedo. S 2 Area: R Figure 2.3 Simplified view of Earth’s receiving radiation from the sun. In a more detailed view, Fig. 2.4 shows the various heat exchange processes taking place between the Earth’s surface and the incoming solar radiation (note that in this picture the solar radiation is 2 expressed in terms of m of the total Earth’s surface area). The greenhouse gases (mainly water vapour, methane, and CO ) absorb some of the radiated heat from the surface and re-radiate it back 2 16 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment to the surface, which results in a warming of the surface. If there were no greenhouse gases at all, the surface would be very cold for human life, while if their concentration increases, the re-radiated fraction increases. The presence of atmospheric aerosols (natural or man-made) increases the reflection of the sun’s radiation, and therefore their presence can act so as to reduce the surface temperature. The power generation and the transport sectors produce significant amounts of aerosols and their effect on climate change is a very important topic of current research. More on aerosols in a later part of this course. th Figure 2.4 Energy exchanges in the atmosphere (From the IPCC 4 Assessment Report; “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Basis”, CUP, 2007) 17 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment 2.6 Overview Figure 2.5 gives in summary form the key pollutants encountered in the atmosphere, both at urban scale and at global scale. Figure 2.5 Paths of the various atmospheric pollutants (source: unknown. Note from author: apologies, this is too nice a diagram not to show because I cannot find its source). 18 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment 2.7 Worked Examples Example 2.1 An air quality monitoring station measured one early morning that the volume fractions of NO, ozone and NO were 30, 40, and 170 ppb respectively. What were the corresponding 2 3 3 3 concentrations in kmol/m , in molecules/m , and in kg/m ? The atmospheric conditions at the time of the measurement were 980 mbar pressure and 10ºC temperature. Solution 0 5 0 From Eq. (2.6), C X P / R T , and using P=0.98x10 Pa, T=283 K, R =8315 J/kmol/K, i i 9 3 9 3 we get that C 30x10 x 98x10 / (8315 x 283) = 1.24 x10 kmol/m . Note that the 30 ppb NO 9 3 becomes a volume fraction of 30x10 . Similarly for the other species. To transform the kmol/m 3 26 into molecules/m , we need to multiply by Avogadro’s Number, 6.022x10 molecules/kmol. To get 3 the concentration in kg/m , we multiply the molar concentration by the molecular weight of the species. Example 2.2 Estimate the mass of the air in the atmospheric boundary layer, assuming a total height of 3 km and a linear reduction of temperature with height of 6.5 K/km (the “standard atmosphere”) from a mean ground-level temperature of 288 K. Solution The standard atmosphere gives that , where z is measured in km and T(z) T(0) 6.5z T(0)=288K. The total mass of the air M(z) in the atmosphere up to a height z per unit area is given z by M (z)dz . Writing dT / dzaand using the hydrostatic balance equation dP/ dzg ,  0 differentiation of the equation of state gives: pRT d aR g dz  dp / dz d / dzRTRdT / dz RTd / dzgRa  R T(0) az g 1 aR (z) g aRT(0) azT(0) az  ln ln(z)(0) . So at z=3 km, the density of  (0) aR T(0) T(0)  3 air is 0.9 kg/m and the temperature 268.5 K (4.5 C). The density variation can now be integrated to give: z 1(0) g m1 m1 M (z)dzT(0) T(z) , m1.  m m1 aR aT(0) 0 2 With a=6.5 K/km and z=3 km, the total mass per unit area becomes 3143.7 kg/m . Note that if we had used the average value between (0)+(3km)/2 we would have obtained a mass per unit 2 area of 3160.5 kg/m . The fact that this estimate is so good reflects the fact that inside the boundary layer the density changes almost linearly with height (but not outside it). 2 To find the total mass, we must multiply by the surface area of the Earth, which is 4R , earth 18 and this gives a total mass in the boundary layer of 1.6x10 kg. This corresponds to about 30% of the mass of the whole atmosphere. 19 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment Example 2.3 Assume that the average car emits 0.2 kg CO per km driven. The average user drives 2 10,000 km per year and there are about 450,000,000 cars in the world today. Estimate the yearly increase of CO in the atmosphere in ppb due to car emissions. 2 Solution 11 The total CO released per year from all cars is 0.2 x 10,000 x 450,000,000=9x10 kg per 2 18 18 year. From Example 2.2, the total atmospheric mass will be 1.6x10 /0.3=5.3x10 kg. Then the 11 18 volume fraction of CO will be from Eq. (2.3): X =Y x (29/44) = (9x10 /5.3x10 ) x (29/44), 2 CO2 CO2 i.e. 112 ppb increase per year. The measured increase in CO concentration in the atmosphere is about 1100 ppb per year 2 (Jacobson, 1998). This includes power generation, industry and land use. Figures including the whole of the transport sector (e.g. buses, trucks, trains etc.) and with more exact values for the average mileage and CO emitted per vehicle give that the contribution of transport is about 24% of 2 12 the CO releases, which is estimated to be a total of 6.2x10 kg/year. 2 20 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment 3. Statistical description of turbulent mixing In this Chapter, we will derive the governing equation for a reacting scalar in a turbulent flow and we will demonstrate why the turbulence affects the mean reaction rate. We will also present concepts from probability theory that are useful for understanding why the concentration fluctuations are important in environmental pollution and for providing measures to describe these. The material here is needed background for understanding the practical Air Quality Modelling techniques introduced in later Chapters. 3.1 Governing equation for a reacting scalar Conservation of mass Consider an infinitesimal control volume V (Fig. 3.1). Inside the CV we have a uniform mixture of species undergoing chemical reactions. Mass may cross the surfaces of the CV. For simplicity of presentation we assume a one-dimensional geometry. Then, the principle of mass conservation of each species i reads: Rate of accumulation = Rate at which species comes in – Rate at which species leaves + Rate of generation due to reaction In mathematical terms, (m Y ) V i  myz (mm)yz wV (3.1) i i i i t with the following definitions: m (kg) total mass of mixture inside the control volume, m = x y z V V Y (-) mass fraction of i i -3  (kg m ) mixture density -2 -1  m (kg m s ) mass flow of species i per unit time per unit surface, the mass flux i -3 -1  w (kg m s ) mass of species generated per unit volume per unit time due to chemical i reactions T+dT Y+dY T,Y,u u+du Chemical reaction    +d m"i+dm"i m"i dV=dxdydz Figure 3.1 Control volume for derivation of species conservation equation. 21 5R18: Environmental Fluid Mechanics Pollution dispersion in the environment Letting x go to zero, we obtain the species conservation equation:  (Y )m i i   w (3.2) i tx Equation (3.2) is a partial differential equation (in time and space) and to be in a position to solve it, we need expressions for the mass flux and the rate of generation due to chemistry. The latter was covered in Section 2.1, while the former is discussed next. Mass flux, mass transfer and Fick’s Law of diffusion The mass flux  for each species that appears in the species conservation equation is m i composed of two parts: an advective and a diffusive part. This result is given here without proof, as it can be proven from the Kinetic Theory of Gases (4A9, Part IIB).  m m m (3.3) i i,ADV i,DIFF The advective mass flux is due to the bulk fluid motion and is given by: m Y m Yu (3.4) i,ADV i i For the purposes of this course, the diffusive mass flux is given by Fick’s Law: Y i mD (3.5) i,DIFF x Fick’s Law states that the mass flux is proportional to the gradient of the mass fraction of the species. This is a diffusion process because it tends to make concentration gradients more uniform, 2 i.e. it mixes the various species together. The coefficient D (m /s) is the diffusion coefficient and, in general, depends on the nature of the diffusing species. For gases, it is a common approximation that the diffusion of heat and mass follow the same rate, i.e. D is related to the conductivity :  D (3.6) c p Equation (3.6) serves us to estimate D because tabulated values of conductivity and heat capacity are usually available. Throughout this course we assume that the diffusivity will be given by Eq. (3.6) with , , and c taken as those of air at atmospheric conditions. p Final instantaneous species conservation equation With these expressions, the species conservation equation takes the final form: (Y )(uY )Y  i i i  D w (3.7)  i txxx  22

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