Spacecraft configuration design

orion spacecraft configurations, spacecraft thruster configurations, spacecraft thruster configuration pdf free download
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Published Date:23-07-2017
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Spacecraft Configurations Space System Design, MAE 342, Princeton University Robert Stengel • Angular control approaches • Low-Earth-orbit configurations – Satellite buses – Nanosats/cubesats – Earth resources satellites – Atmospheric science and meteorology satellites – Navigation satellites – Communications satellites – Astronomy satellites – Military satellites – Tethered satellites • Lunar configurations • Deep-space configurations 1 Copyright 2016 by Robert Stengel. All rights reserved. For educational use only. http://www.princeton.edu/stengel/MAE342.html Angular Attitude of Satellite Configurations • Spinning satellites –Angular attitude maintained by gyroscopic moment • Randomly oriented satellites and magnetic coil –Angular attitude is free to vary –Axisymmetric distribution of mass, solar cells, and instruments Television Infrared Observation (TIROS-7) Orbital Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio (OSCAR-1) ESSA-2 TIROS  Cartwheel 2Attitude-Controlled Satellite Configurations • Dual-spin satellites • Attitude-controlled satellites –Angular attitude maintained by gyroscopic –Angular attitude maintained by 3-axis control moment and thrusters system –Axisymmetric distribution of mass and solar cells –Non-symmetric distribution of mass, solar cells –Instruments and antennas do not spin and instruments INTELSAT-IVA NOAA-17 3 LADEE Bus Modules Satellite Buses Standardization of common components for a variety of missions Modular Common Spacecraft Bus Lander Congiguration 45 Hine et al Evolution of Lockheed- Martin A2100 Bus •1990s to present •Orbit maintenance with ion engines and hydrazine thrusters •Bi-propellant liquid apogee motor 6Satellite Buses Boeing (Hughes) 702 Bus Boeing Phoenix Bus 7 Bus Reliability Analysis Percentage of Insurance Claims by Anomaly Type Zandbergen: Frost & Sullivan, 2004 8Small Satellite Buses NRL TacSat-1, TBD AFRL TacSat-2, 2006 9 TacSat-1 Linux Instrumentation Bus TacSat-1 Computer 10CubeSats • Standardized module • 10-cm cube • 1 liter volume • Maximum mass = 1.33 kg • Multiple module designs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cubesat http://www.cubesatkit.com 11 CubeSats 12CubeSats Secondary payloads or launched directly from International Space Station 13 Micro-MAS 3U CubeSat https://directory.eoportal.org/web/eoportal/satellite-missions/m/micromas-1 14Near-Earth Spacecraft 15 Earth Observation Satellites • Mission –Determine properties of the earth s land and water features LandSat 2 • Typical instrumentation –Multi-spectral imaging (e.g., Aqua) • Scanning radiometer • Spectroradiometer • Microwave sounding • Infrared sounding • Humidity sounding SPOT-5 IKONOS-2 • Earth s radiation budget –Integration with meteorological satellites –Commercial and research operators –High-resolution optical imagery 16Atmospheric Science Satellites • Mission –Determine properties of Aeronomy of Ice in the the near-earth Mesosphere (AIM) Spacecraft environment • Typical instrumentation –Direct measurements of the ionosphere • Density, temperature, ionic concentrations, cosmic radiation –Magnetic and electric fields –Multi-spectral transmission measurements through the lower layers • Radio Satellite Charging at High • Light Altitudes (SCATHA) P78 –Spacecraft charging 17 Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) • Launched in 1991 • Deactivated in 2005 • Decayed in 2011 • Orbit altitude: 574 x 575 km • 5,900 kg • Power = 1.6 KW 18Two UARS Instruments • CLAES: nitrogen, chlorine, ozone, water, and methane from IR signature • IR radiometer: • Etalon: Fabry-Perot interferometer temperature, water vapor, measures light wavelengths nitrogen oxides, volcanic aerosols 19 Terra Earth/Atmosphere Observing Constellation • Earth Observing System combines data from formation of satellites • Successors to UARS Aqua • Studying ozone, air quality, and climate –High-resolution dynamics limb sounder –Microwave limb sounder –Ozone monitoring instrument –Tropospheric emission Aura spectrometer • A-Train constellation also includes multi-national Cloudsat, Calipso, Metop-1, and Parasol satellites 20Meteorology Satellites Geostationalry Operational Observation Satellite (GOES) • Mission –Determine global and local weather • Geostationary Operational Defense Meteorological Environmental Satellites (GOES), Satellite Program (DMSP) Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft operated by NOAA • Typical instrumentation –Multi-spectral imaging of the atmosphere –Data relay from buoys, search & rescue 21 beacons –Solar monitoring Evolution of TIROS 22Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-NOP) http://goes.gsfc.nasa.gov/text/GOES-N_Databook/databook.pdf 23 GOES Expanded View 24GOES Coverage Emphasizes the Western Hemisphere 25 GOES Weather Watch System 26GOES Sub-Systems (details in future slide sets) Communication Thermal Control Telemetry and Command Electric Power Attitude Control Propulsion 27 Navigation Satellites GPS Satellite •Mission –Aid position and velocity determination •Global Positioning System (GPS) Implementation –24 satellites (minimum) in circular, medium earth orbit –6 orbital planes, 55° inclination –Atomic clocks provide precise time reference GPS Receiver –Broadcast ephemeris (i.e., orbital elements) –Pseudo-random pulse code •GLONASS, Galileo, Compass, DORIS, IRNSS, QZSS 28Communication Satellites • Mission –Facilitate global communications • Implementation –Transponders with dedicated coverage areas –Most satellites are in geosynchronous Iridium Satellite Boeing 702 orbit –Iridium constellation of 66 satellites in low earth orbit • Direct connection from satellite to phone Iridium Constellation 29 Geosynchronous Communication Satellites in Orbit, June 2006 30Astronomy Satellites: Hubble • Mission –Conduct astronomical observations outside the earth s atmosphere • Typical instrumentation –Multi-spectral imaging –Hubble Telescope serviced by Space Shuttle missions (590-km orbit) –T elescope aberration repaired by astronauts Before After 31 Astronomy Satellites: Hubble 32Astronomy Satellites Chandra X-ray observatory (Shuttle launch, 1999) James Webb Infrared Telescope to be located at L Lagrange 2 point James Webb Telescope, 2018 Chandra, 1999 33 STEREO, 2006 (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) • Dual satellites – Nearly identical space-based observatories - one ahead of other in Earth orbit – Stereoscopic measurements to study the Sun and the nature of its coronal mass ejections, or CMEs. • Scientific objectives – Understand the causes and mechanisms of coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation. – Characterize the propagation of CMEs through the heliosphere. – Discover the mechanisms and sites of energetic particle acceleration in the low corona and the interplanetary medium. – Improve the determination of the structure of the ambient solar wind. http://stereo.gsfc.nasa.gov/instruments/instruments.shtml 34Military Satellites Milstar •Missions –Secure observations from space –Early warning –Reconnaissance –Intelligence SBIRS –Communications –Navigation –Weather DSP –Weaponry 35 DARPA SeeMe Constellation • Two dozen small satellites • Low-altitude orbits, 60-90-day mission duration • Imaging of remote locations with 90-min delay • Downlink to handheld units 36Orbital Express: ASTRO and NEXTSat • DARPA, 2007 –Automatic rendezvous, docking, and undocking –On-orbit transfer of replaceable units –6DOF robot arm –V ideo guidance sensor –Atlas 5 launch 37 USAF X-37B • Reusable experimental/ operational vehicle • Unmanned “mini- Space Shuttle” • Highly classified project • Rocketdyne AR2-3 motor • H O /JP-8 2 2 • Isp = 245 s 38Tethered Satellites Space Shuttle STS-75 Tethered Satellite Experiment, Feb 1996 http://www.nss.org/resources/library/shuttlevideos/shuttle75.htm 39 Gravity-Gradient-Stabilized Satellites NRL TiPS Transit NASA TSS 40

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