Dictionary of Media and Communications

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FrankRoberts,France,Researcher
Published Date:11-07-2017
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INTrodUCTIoN INTrodUCTIoN In 1938, a truly significant event took place that epitomized the power of the emerging role of the media in the modern world. That event was the radio adaptation of H.G. w ells’s novel about interplanetary invasion, The War of the Worlds. It was created by the famous actor and director, orson w elles, as a radio drama simulating the style of a news broadcast. w elles pulled off his “reality-inducing effect” by using a series of fake “on-the-spot” news reports describing the landing of Martian spaceships in New Jersey. An announcer would remind the radio audience, from time to time, that the show was fic- tional. But many listeners believed that what they were hearing was factual. In New Jersey, many people went into a state of panic, believing that Martians had actually invaded the earth. Concerned citizens notified the police and the army; some ran onto the streets shouting hysterically; and a few even contem- plated escaping somewhere—anywhere. The event was a watershed one in the history of the modern world, becoming itself a topic of media attention and, a year later, leading to the first psychological study of the effects of the media on common people, called the Cantril Study, after Hadley Cantril who headed a team of researchers at Princeton University. Cantril wanted to find out why some believed the fake reports and others not. After interviewing 135 subjects, the research team came to the conclusion that the key was critical thinking— better-educated listeners were more capable of recognizing the broadcast as a fake than less-educated ones. The Cantril report also laid the foundation for a systematic study of the media in universities and colleges, leading eventually to the establishment of departments, institutes, journals, book series, and the like for the study of mod- ern media. Since the 1940s, such study has skyrocketed, becoming an area of xiINTrodUCTIoN intense interest, not only on the part of academics and researchers, but also on the part of virtually everyone. A seemingly different path of study was opened up in the late 1940s by the late engineer Claude Shannon (1916–2001). Shannon was the one who laid the foundations for investigating the relation between communication (in all its forms) and technology. He did this by devising a theoretical framework intend- ed originally to improve the efficiency of telecommunication systems. Known as the “bull’s-eye model,” the framework was intended originally to identify the main components of such systems and describe in precise mathematical terms how they functioned in the transmission and reception of information. In bare outline form, Shannon’s model consisted of a sender aiming a message at a re- ceiver as if in a target range—hence the designation bull’s-eye model. Shannon also introduced terms such as feedback and noise into the lexicon of commu- nications study. However, few at the time saw a connection between the study of media and communications until a Canadian professor at the University of Toronto started to amalgamate the two domains in the 1950s. That profes- sor was the late Marshall McLuhan (1911–1980), whose work on the relation between media and communications technologies brought to common aware- ness the fact that culture, social evolution, and technology are intrinsically intertwined. ever since, the study of media and communication as an integrated phenomenon has been the rule in academia. McLuhan’s basic approach was to show that there exists a built-in synergy between media, mass communications technologies, and culture. He claimed that each major historical era took its character from the medium used most widely at the time. for example, he called the period from 1700 to the mid- 1900s the “Age of Print,” because in that period printed books were the chief media through which mass communications took place. But that is not all that occurred. The Age of Print changed the state of the world permanently, he sug- gested, because print literacy encouraged a radical new form of individualism and the subsequent growth of nationalism. The “electronic Age” displaced the Age of Print in the twentieth century. The consequences of that displacement also have been colossal. Because electronic technology has increased both the breadth and rapidity of communication, it has radically changed how people interact and behave socially. Phones, radios, computers, and instant messaging devices have influenced the lives of everyone, even those who use them spo- radically or who do not use them at all. The electronic Age may in fact be lead- ing, as McLuhan suspected, to the end of individualism and literacy-inspired notions of nationalism generated by the previous Age of Print. In a fundamental way, the study of the media-communication nexus is an exercise in unraveling the psychological reasons why we evolve through com- munication devices and why modern economies and political systems depend so much on these devices. w ithout the media and its supporting mass com- xiiINTrodUCTIoN munications technologies to “spread the message,” so to speak, fads and crazes such as sports spectacles, Hula Hoops, recipes, posters, songs, dance crazes, sitcoms, and clothing fashions, would hardly gain popularity. The world we live in is largely fabricated by a media-communications interconnection. No wonder, then, that studying this interconnection has become so critical. Mass communications technologies have literally brought about Huxley’s “brave new world”—a world described rather accurately by the prophetic 1999 movie, The Matrix. Like the main character of that movie, Neo, we all live our daily lives “on the screen” and our engagement with reality is more often than not through the “matrix”—which means both the network of circuits that defines computer technology and “womb.” w ith the advent of the Internet, new generations are now born within two kinds of wombs—the biological one and a technological one, as the movie so brilliantly brings out. The study of the media-communications nexus now has its own set of theo- ries and analytical frameworks. These provide concepts and discourses that can be applied in part or in whole to a study of all modern-day cultural trends or processes. The appeal of such study is that it leaves the interpretation of these processes open to variation. This is the reason why there is no one theory of the media, but many. Media analysts today use a blend of concepts and techniques at various stages of analysis and for diverse purposes. PurPose of This DiCTionary As McLuhan anticipated, the media and mass communications devices are at the center of our world, shaping lifestyle and worldview. relatively young by academic standards, media and communication studies started growing in the late 1950s, after McLuhan’s influential writings started receiving interna- tional attention. The field has since produced a vast repertory of notions, ideas, techniques, theories, and methods of analysis. Many of these were originally borrowed and adapted from cognate disciplines such as psychology, linguistics, semiotics, philosophy, anthropology, and sociology; but many others have been self-generated, and are thus new, interesting, and often controversial. Newcom- ers to this area may thus experience unease or consternation with the vast reper- tory of terms that populate the field. This dictionary is an attempt to provide a comprehensible map through that field. Thus it contains entries dealing with the basic ideas, concepts, personages, schools of thought, theories, and technical trends that come up recurrently in the literature on media and communication. Since the literature also makes frequent references to cognate fields such as semiotics, psychology, linguistics, mythology, literary studies, cultural anthropology, and a few others, some of the most frequently used terms and ideas within these are also included. I must warn the user, however, that to keep the proportions of this dictionary within xiiiINTrodUCTIoN the limits of a compact practical reference work, I have had to limit my choices to the main items that recur in the relevant literature. Inevitably, there will be some omissions and gaps. Nevertheless, I have tried to cast as broad a net as possible, so as to gather within two covers the bulk of the ideas and technical terms that the beginning student or interested general reader will need to know in order to decipher the relevant literature. Cross-references to other terms contained in this dictionary are indicated with small capitals. The commentary provided for each of the personages con- sists of a brief statement about his or her relevance and/or contribution to the field. only those personages to whom the technical literature regularly alludes have been included in this dictionary. A bibliography of relevant works is in- cluded at the back. Also listed are timelines for specific media or media genres, as well as a list of useful w eb sites. Hopefully, the user will find in it all the relevant information she or he might need for conducting a personal analysis of the media-communications nexus that now “rules the universe,” so to speak. I also hope to have provided a framework for understanding the world we live in and probably will live in for the foreseeable future. aCknowLeDgmenTs I wish to thank the editorial staff at M.e. Sharpe for all their advice, support, and expert help in the making of this dictionary. I am especially grateful to Peter Mavrikis, without whom this volume would never have come to fruition. Needless to say, I alone am responsible for any infelicities that remain in the volume. I also wish to thank Victoria College of the University of Toronto for having allowed me the privilege of teaching and coordinating its Program in Semiotics and Communication Theory over many years. Another debt of grati- tude goes to the many students I have taught. Their insights and enthusiasm have made my job simply wonderful They are the impetus for this dictionary. xivDictionary of Media and CommunicationsLAST ITeM a roll footage used in an cations: for example, bf = edited film sequence, con- boyfriend; gf = girlfriend. sisting mainly of interviews or images that relate to aBC see american A the theme or topic being Broadcasting Company showcased abduction in contrast to, but also a&e network abbreviation of in complement with, ntciidnuo arts and entertainment network (generalizing on the basis of obser- cable and satellite television channel vations of particular patterns inher- launched in 1984 that produces and ent in something) and dductineo broadcasts programs dealing with the (forming a conclusion on the basis arts and educational topics, as well of given premises); this term was as documentaries, biographies, and proposed by American philosopher popular entertainment formats. w eb c shearl Pierce to characterize a site: www.aetv.com method of reasoning carried out by informed hunches or “best guesses” a&r executive abbreviation of on the basis of previous experience, artists and repertoire executive knowledge, or understanding. In an executive of a record company classic mystery stories, the detective- who oversees artists and the record- protagonist solves a crime by using ing process abduction—that is, crime scene clues are interpreted in terms of skilled aaa see american academy of inference and previous experience. advertising aberrant decoding interpretation aaaa see american association of a media product or text that is not of advertising agencies the one intended by the creator of the product or text. The term was coined aai see audience appreciation by u o t brme e oc in 1965 to describe index what happens when a message that is put together according to a specific aB roll sequence of two segments code (a set of meanings) is inter- (video, musical), composed so that as preted according to another code. for one fades away the other one blends in example, specific groups who are ex- posed to a particular media message abbreviation shortening of words, (such as an ad for beer) will decode phrases, or sentences: for example, hi it differently—an abstinent group (hello); bye (good-bye). Abbreviation might see it as an immoral message, is a major feature of communication while another group might view it in online chat rooms, text messages, as a lifestyle message that promotes and other types of digital communi- beer as a component of that lifestyle. 3ABerrANT reAdING aberrant reading interpretation of a tion to show that the same position text in a way that was not intended or can be filled by other signs, but with expected by its author different meanings. for example, in the sentence The . . . ate the cake, aberration distortion of a video the empty slot can be filled by nouns image, caused by a corrupt signal or such as boy, girl, woman, or man. improper adjustment Absence is a technique for showing ways in which meaning is deter- aboriginal People’s Television net- mined. work abbreviated as aPTn televi- sion network launched in 1999 with absence-of-language technique headquarters in w innipeg (Canada) advertising strategy employing the devoted to broadcasting the stories omission of taglines, slogans, or any and cultural interests of Canada’s other kind of verbal commentary, first Nations. It is available nation- suggesting implicitly that a product ally on basic cable and via satellite. “speaks for itself.” Print ads without w eb site: www.aptn.ca captions and TV commercial scenes without dialogue or explanation above-the-fold 1. top part of the are common absence-of-language front page of a newspaper (story techniques. Sometimes, the technique and/or photo) that is visible when is intended to provoke the viewer the newspaper is folded; 2. the most through the image. valuable part of a w eb page, placed at the top part of the screen so that absolute cost actual cost of placing the user does not have to scroll down an ad in some medium (magazine, to see it; 3. any prominent story (in newspaper, radio, television, Internet) any medium) absolute time length of time that an above-the-line advertising promo- audio disc has been playing tional message for which a commis- sion is paid, such as commission for abstract data type in computer an ad in a magazine or a stand at a programming, a data set defined trade fair by the programmer in terms of the information it can contain and the above-the-title the location of credits operations that can be performed that appear before the title of a movie with it (for example, the names of the star- ring actors, the name of the director, abstract expressionism a move- and the name of the producer) ment in twentieth-century art that broke away from the concept of art absence the exclusion of a sign (a as representation, promoting instead word, a symbol) from a specific loca- a mode of painting that expresses the 4ACAdeMY of MoTIoN PICTUre Ar TS ANd SCIeNCeS absurdist theater also called theater of the absurd popular and influential nonrealistic drama genre of the 1950s and 1960s. Influenced by existential philosophy, and especially by Albert Camus’s essay “Le Mythe de Sisyphe” (1942; “The Myth of Sisyphus”), absurdist dramas are characterized by such features as the elimination of traditional plot lines, the reduction of language to a game, the downgrading of characters to archetypes, the allusion to settings and locations as nonspecific, and portrayals of the world as alienating and incomprehensible. Key works in the genre include Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot (1952) and eugène Ionesco’s Le Rhinocéros (1959). Upward (1929) by Wassily Kandinsky a C nielsen leading global market research firm, founded in 1923, best emotions spontaneously through the known for its n leisen ’s stgni ar , which measure audience size and re- act of transferring paint onto a can- vas. The term was used originally to action to media programs and events. w eb site: www.acnielsen.com describe russian-born artist w assily Kandinsky’s painting style between academy a ward also called the 1910 and 1914. Influenced by euro- pean avant-garde artists, the abstract oscar prestigious honor c onferred annually by the a ymedac fo expressionist movement found its main home in New York City in the m noito Perutci a s t r dna s secneic in the United States to out- 1950s. Abstract expressionist paint- ings consist mainly of shapes result- standing actors, directors, composers, and others involved in motion pictures ing from the gestures made by the artist’s hand, called action paintings; academy of motion Picture arts or compositions of colors and shapes for their own sake, called color field and sciences professional organiza- tion founded in 1927 to promote the paintings. Jackson Pollock, w illem de Kooning, Mark rothko, Helen advancement of the motion picture industry; composed of over 6,000 frankenthaler, and robert Mother- well are some well-known abstract motion picture professionals, includ- ing actors, directors, writers, produc- expressionists. 5ACAdeMY rATIo ers, and technical artists. w eb site: access number telephone number www.oscars.org dialed by a computer to link it to an Internet service provider or other academy ratio the ratio (1.33 to 1) type of network provider of the width of a film frame to the height of the frame, as standard- access panel group monitored for ized by the Academy of Motion research purposes so as to document Picture Arts and Sciences before the their television viewing habits development of widescreen format access provider see internet ser- acceleration factor increased vice provider efficiency in communications technologies, which causes a more access television television that immediate impact of events upon the broadcasts independently of state media controls, usually with a small budget and reaching a limited area accent distinctive manner in which a language is pronounced, character- accessed voices individuals who are istic either of individuals, a region, given exposure by the media (celeb- a social group, or some other com- rities, politicians, experts) because munity their views are considered to be distinctive or, at least, not necessarily access ability of people to view, representative of those of the general investigate, or question the products, public activities, or motives of major media outlets and companies accessing practice of including ver- bal quotations and taped interviews access channel in cable television, a from various media originating from people not employed by the media nonbroadcast channel dedicated to lo- cal issues (for example, educational, organizations governmental, among others) accessory shoe camera bracket to which an accessory such as a flash access controller 1. device that moves image data to a video control- unit may be attached ler; 2. hardware that provides data link connectivity for area network accordion insert advertisement inserted in a magazine, folded in an providers such as ethernet accordion style access head disk drive component of a computer that moves to a specific acculturation adaptive process by which change in culture occurs when part of the disk’s surface to read the information stored there two or more societies (with their own 6ACroNYM cultural traditions) come into contact acoustics study of the wave pat- for an extended period of time. often terns produced by language sounds the result is a bidirectional adapta- ( consonants, vowels, tones, etc.). tion, whereby the beliefs, conven- Now classified as a branch of tions, customs, and art forms of each Pshiocetn , the physical analysis of society in contact become fused or linguistic sound waves is traced to mixed (to varying degrees); or one Tonempfindungen als physiologische society may undergo partial or total Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik adaptation to the culture of the other (1863; On the Sensation of Tone as society (or societies). a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music) by the German physi- accumulation audience-counting cist h amnenr ovn h tz melohl . method by which people exposed Acoustic phoneticians record and to a specific media product are analyze speech waves with devices counted once within a specified time and instruments designed to identify period recurrent patterns. acid house electronic disco music acquiescent audience people who popular in the 1980s, associated with are receptive to advertising and the use of the drug ecstasy are more likely to be impressed by humorous, clever , or eye-catching acid jazz musical genre consisting of ads a blend of funk, jazz, and soul music that emerged in the 1980s acquisitions editor editor of a book publishing house who seeks new acid rock type of rock music popular works or evaluates submissions in the 1960s that used peculiar instru- mental effects suggestive of psyche- acronym word, form, or abbre- delic (hallucinatory) experiences viation constructed with the initial letters of a phrase, expression, or a Corn acronym for a classifica- group of words (or parts of words): tion of residential neighborhoods for example, CD = compact disc, consumer research method of clas- DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid, laser sifying residential areas according to = light amplification by stimulated the type of people who live in them, emission of radiation, IQ = intelli- the type of homes in which they live, gence quotient. Acronymy is a major and other such categories feature of the language used in online social sites such as chat rooms, text acoustic rock style of rock music messages, and other types of digital played mainly on acoustic instru- communication venues: for example, ments (instruments without amplifi- cm = call me; ruok? = are you OK?; cation) g2g = got to go. 7ACTA dIUrNA Acta diurna (Acta publica or Acta action theory in some philosophi- populi) the first known newspaper, cal systems, the idea that actions are written on a tablet, which reported on different from behaviors. The term matters of public interest in ancient comes up occasionally in media rome, after 27 b .c .e . studies in discussions of the relation between media and its effects on hu- actant in narrative theories, a recur- man behavior. rent role that manifests itself in stories across the world and across time: for actionmedia trade name of a digital example, a hero, an opponent, a helper, video system developed by Intel that etc. The notion was developed primar - allows a computer to record, play ily by the twentieth-century french se- back, and manipulate video miotician a sadrigl J neilu gsamier , who claimed that actants relate to each active audience in sues and ti gra - other in a binary fashion, giving the isnot cfia y throe , the people who narrative its trajectory and plot form: do not accept a media representation subject vs. object, sender vs. receiver, or text as it is presented to them, but helper vs. opponent, and so on. interpret it, or interact with it, for their own purposes and in their own actantial theory model of narrative way, regardless of the intention of the analysis based on the concept of creator of the representation or text nat atc active listening manner of listening action code 1. doce used to describe to a speaker, group, or media product events in a narrative; 2. commands (such as a documentary, feature film, used in computer programming or television program) so as to take into serious consideration the point of action code script (abbreviated as view being put forward a Cs) scripting language used in some modem doom source ports active participation way in which media intrude upon and influence action genre story that revolves the stories they are supposed to be around pugilistic action, martial arts reporting impartially action, or some other form of violent combat featuring a large number of active pixel region area of a com- action sequences puter screen that displays graphic information action replay repeat of a brief filmed segment, often in slow motion active reader in esus nad ifti gar - siton ac y roeth , the individual who action shot scene involving move- does not read a media representation ment in a film or television program or text as it is presented to him or her, 8AdBUSTerS using it instead for his or her own ad impression opportunity to see purposes and in his or her own an advertisement; in online advertis- way, regardless of the intentions of ing, ad impressions are the number the maker of the representation or of times an ad is downloaded from a text w eb page active video part of a video signal ad panel see advertisement panel that contains picture information adage also called aphorism formula- activism theory, doctrine, or practice ic statement designed to bring out some of assertive, often militant, action, generally accepted intuition, experi- such as mass demonstrations or ence, or truth, gaining currency over strikes, used as a means of opposing time: for example, haste makes waste; or supporting a controversial issue, necessity is the mother of invention. entity, or person adaptive control expenditure model actual malice reckless disregard of used by advertisers that takes into ac- the truth or falsity of some published count consumer responses to adver- or broadcast story tising campaigns. It does so typically by using statistical methods that actuality the live recording of an indicate the success of a campaign event on location as it actually un- and, thus, how much money can be folds poured into it. ad see advertisement adbusters Canadian group of social activists with a popular w eb site ad agency see advertising agency and magazine who are critical of the advertising process itself. The w eb ad campaign see advertising site and magazine of the same name campaign were founded in 1989 by Kalle Lasn and Bill Schmalz in Vancouver. The ad copy printed text or spoken words organization offers not only serious critiques of advertising and consum- in an advertisement erism, but also many clever parodies of advertising campaigns, articles, ad Council see advertising Council and forums on how one can recog- nize media manipulation, information ad hoc balancing of interests in on lawsuits and legislation on con- sumer issues, and links for sending first Amendment cases, factors that should be taken into consideration in e-mails to big businesses to contest their marketing strategies. w eb site: determining how much freedom the press is granted www.adbusters.org 9Added VALUe added value extra or additional pro- ies of media reception and communi- motion service or benefit that a pub- cation problems. lication can offer its advertisers, such as supplements or special sections admass segment of society at which an ntiisg darev cam P inag is aimed addendum section of a book, maga- zine, or w eb site that is tacked on, administrative research term first usually at the end, such as an appen- used by Pual l refsaaldz in 1941 dix or a further reading section to describe the type of research car- ried out by teams of researchers or addressable technology equipment institutions, using empirical methods enabling a program provider (such as (such as opinion polling) and seeking a cable television provider) to switch to answer clearly defined problems to pay services (who watches TV, why they watch it, how effective are advertising mes- addressee in r namo J nosboka ’s sages, and so on) model of communication, the receiver(s) of a message; the person(s) adnorm measure of readership aver- to whom a message is addressed ages for print publications over a two-year period, used as a baseline addresser in r amno Jonsbkoa ’s for comparing specific ads on average model of communication, term refer- terms ring to the sender(s) of a message; that is, the person(s) who addresses a adobe acrobat trade name for soft- message to someone ware developed by Adobe Systems that converts documents and format- adjacency commercial break be- ted pages in such a way that they can tween television programs be viewed on a computer adler, alfred (1870–1937) Austrian adobe Photoshop graphics edit- psychiatrist who coined the term ing software developed by Adobe inferiority complex, which he saw as Systems the primary source of characteristic behaviors and of most neuroses—in adorno, Theodor (1903–1969) contrast to f duer ’s emphasis on influential German Marxist thinker sexual drives as the primary psychic who was a leading figure in the so- forces. Adler’s most influential works called f t rranfku s clhoo . Adorno are Über den nervösen Charakter berated pop culture as an aberra- (1912; The Nervous Constitution) tion of true culture. He and m xa and Menschenkenntnis (1927; Under- h koherremi (another frankfurt standing Human Nature). His works School founder) coined the term are often cited in psychological stud- utre cul y industr to describe the 10AdVer TISeMeNT PANeL process by which mass forms of advance statement given to the culture were produced—in analogy media in advance of an event’s occur- with the industrial manufacturing rence so as to optimize coverage of commercial products. Adorno did not see pop culture as a threat to adventure spy genre narrative that social authority, but rather as a way involves espionage, mystery, crime, to homogenize cultural products so and/or adventure that they can be consumed easily and without thought. His ideas are often adventure story action tale revolving cited in media studies. His work The around daring heroes and sly villains Culture Industry: Selected Essays on in fantastic situations. robert Louis Mass Culture (english translation Stevenson’s novel Treasure Island published posthumously in 1991) is (1883) is an example of this popular considered significant. form of children’s literature. adperson previously adman advergame term that appeared in person whose job is in the field of Wired magazine’s “Jargon w atch” advertising column in 2001, now applied to free online games commissioned by major aDr see automatic dialogue companies to promote their prod- replacement ucts. Advergaming is the practice of using games to advertise a product, organization, or viewpoint. Typically, aDsL see asymmetrical Digital subscriber Line companies provide interactive games on their w eb sites in order to draw adspeak kind of jargon used in the potential customers to them so that users will spend more time on the advertising field w eb sites, becoming more aware of their products. adspend amount of money spent on advertising a particular product advertisement abbreviated as ad adult contemporary music genre public promotion of a product or service by means of a notice, such as popular music that appeals mainly to an older audience; this genre can a poster, newspaper display, or paid announcement in some electronic or include music that was once aimed primarily at teenagers, such as the digital medium, designed to attract public attention or patronage music of frank Sinatra, the Beatles, the rolling Stones, or Madonna advertisement panel abbreviated adult movie also called porn as ad panel specially designed advertising space in a newspaper or movie sexually explicit movie that is primarily of prurient interest magazine 11AdVer TISer advertiser manufacturer, service and Baltimore). In the first decade company, retailer, or supplier that of the twentieth century advertising advertises its product(s) or service(s) agencies began to hire psychologists to help create campaigns designed advertising public announcement, to increase the desire to buy goods promotion, support, or endorsement through persuasion techniques. of a product, a service, a business, American psychologist John B. a person, an event, etc., in order to w atson, for instance, was hired by attract or increase interest. A poster the J. w alter Thompson Agency. found in Thebes, dated to 1000 b .c .e ., Today the ad agency business has which offered gold for the capture of developed into an enterprise so huge a runaway slave, reveals that adver- that, for some critics, it has come tising has been practiced since antiq- to symbolize the style of American uity. In both the ancient and medieval capitalism—a style based on hype worlds, advertising was also carried and evangelical fervor. out by town criers—people who read advertising materials to the public— advertising boycott boycott orga- since many people were illiterate. In nized against companies so as to the seventeenth century, the London persuade them to abandon an adver- Gazette became the first newspaper tising campaign for a specific social to set aside a section for purposes of or political reason advertising. Book p ublishers, seed companies, railroads, and steamship advertising brief list of objectives lines were among the early users and instructions issued by a company of nationwide advertising. Today, to an advertising agency for advertising has morphed into a the design of an tgniis dvare dominant form of social discourse amc P iagn influencing lifestyle, worldview, economic systems, politics, and advertising campaign abbreviated even traditional values, since it is as ad campaign series of advertise- designed to suggest how people can ments constructed around the same best satisfy their needs and reach theme or using the same style, which their goals. together attempt to make the identi- cal pitch for a product in a specific advertising agency abbreviated as way. for example, the Mcdonald’s ad agency company that creates ad - “I’m lovin’ it” campaign directed itsing ver cma P iagns for products. its message to a young audience; the The first modern agency was founded deBeer’s “diamonds are forever” in 1841 by Philadelphia entrepreneur campaign used images of elegance, Volney B. Palmer. A few years later, romanticism, and the like to pitch its Palmer opened offices in major east message about the beauty and classic Coast cities (New York, Boston, elegance of the company’s diamonds. 12AerIAL advertising Council abbreviated magazine, radio program, television as ad Council private nonprofit slot) organization founded in 1942 that advertising specialties special items, produces and disseminates public such as T-shirts, mugs, pens, or cards, service announcements on behalf of given away as part of an advertising various sponsors. w eb site: www. campaign adcouncil.org advertising techniques procedures advertising impressions number of designed to inform or persuade times that an advertisement actually people. Among the most common reaches an intended audience, that is, techniques are the tnitteon a - the total number of views by all audi- etnggit idleanhe , the basic appeal, ence members the comparison of products, the Prctdou ahrceactr , er Peinotti in advertising media communication nistig veadr , the slngao , and the channels that carry advertising mes- iotsnleimta . sages to consumers. These include print media (newspapers, magazines, advertising time amount of time pamphlets), electronic media (radio, on radio or television set aside for television), outdoor signs and posters, advertising phone directories, direct mailings, novelties, and the Internet. advertorial advertisement that has the appearance of a news article or advertising page exposure measure editorial, in a print publication of the opportunity for readers to see a particular print advertisement, advice column section of a news- whether or not they actually look at paper, magazine, or w eb page that the ad is intended to give advice to readers who have sent in questions or queries advertising plan explicit outline of what goals an advertising campaign advocacy advertising type of adver- should achieve, how to accomplish tising used to promote a particular those goals, and how to determine position on a controversial political whether or not the campaign was suc- or social issue cessful in achieving those goals advocacy journalism type of jour- advertising rate amount of money nalism intended to promote a position charged for advertising space or time on a political, controversial, or social issue advertising space any space avail- able for advertising in a media aerial also called antenna metal- product (for example, newspaper, lic apparatus used for sending and/or 13AerIAL AdVer TISING receiving electromagnetic waves or among the greatest works of theater signals ever written. aerial advertising ads of products affective behavior category of hu- or services displayed in the air from man behavior based on feelings, balloons or planes sentiments, and emotions aerial perspective technique of mak- affiliate local radio or television sta- ing objects appear more distant by tion that is part of a national network portraying them less sharply; based on the phenomenon of atmospheric affiliate fee monthly fee that cable distortion programming services charge local cable operators for the right to carry aerial shot camera shot taken from a their programs high position above the action affiliate marketing practice of pro- aesthesia in both art criticism and moting companies that pay to have psychology, a subject’s sensory and their products or services advertised emotional reaction to a stimulus on a centralized w eb site (a melody, painting, etc.), inducing a heightened sensitivity to its affiliate partner company that puts beauty advertising for other companies on its own w eb site aesthetics the perception and experi- affiliate program form of advertis- ence of beauty and meaning in art; aesthetics deals in particular with the ing on the Internet in which busi- nesses use banners or buttons on their question of whether such perception exists in the mind of the interpreter w eb sites to advertise the products or services of another business or whether it is an intrinsic part of a work of art (independent of an affirmative disclosure identifying interpreter). The term was introduced in 1753 by the German philosopher the source of information contained in an advertisement, required by the Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Media scholarship has shown that federal Trade Commission or other authority, which may not be desired aesthetic value is often determined by tradition, trends, and other social by the advertiser. This consists gener- ally in some statement that admits to pressures on tastes, regardless of the intrinsic value of a work. for ex- some limitation in the product or the offer made. ample, in the early eighteenth century the plays of w illiam Shakespeare afrocentric talk term coined by were viewed as barbaric and obscene. Today, they are considered to be American researcher Jennifer w ood 14AIdA to refer to the use of oral storytell- agency commission agency’s fee for ing traditions and themes by African designing and placing advertisements Americans to make sense of their world and thus to build self-identity agency roster list of different adver- and a sense of dignity tising agencies that work for the same company afropop contemporary music from Africa and African communities agenda list of items or issues to be covered (e.g., by the media) in order afropop w orldwide public radio of their purported importance international that features a rfo Po P music. w eb site: www.afropop.org agenda setting according to one theory, influential role played by the afterimage visual sensation in which media in their determination of which an image persists after the visual issues are covered and their relative stimulus has been removed; for ex- order of importance ample, the spot of light one sees following a burst of light, such as that agent person who is authorized to act from the flash of a camera as the representative of another party (for example, a literary agent who afterpiece short comedic entertain- represents a writer) ment that follows the performance of a play aggregator w eb site that collects syndicated news from other w eb sites agate line standard measure of news- paper advertising space, used espe- aggressive cues theoretical model cially for classified advertisements that identifies certain classes of (1 column wide by 1/14 inch deep) people as acceptable media targets for real-world aggression age profile audience for a particular media event, ad, or product, classified agit-prop practice of using the media according to age group to spread propaganda agency 1. means or mode of acting agora 1. a gathering place; in par- or behaving in a socially meaningful ticular, the marketplace in ancient way; 2. ability of individuals to act Greece; 2. a marketplace on the self-consciously and to exert their Internet will through involvement in social practices; 3. an establishment that ai see artificial intelligence conducts business for another party (e.g., an stngii dvera aiD a acronym for attention, ycegan ) interest, Desire, and action model 15AIded reCALL of how to use advertising to get the consumers’ attention, then develop their interest in a product, followed by consumers’ desire to purchase the product, and finally resulting in consumers’ action to actually go out and purchase it aided recall research method frequently used to determine what consumers remember about an adver- tisement they have seen or heard air see average issue readership Album cover of Yellow Submarine (1969) airbrush technique for covering im- text or its representation of a theme. perfections or removing flaws from photographic images famous album covers include those created for the Velvet Underground airdate date of a radio or television by a dny Wraolh , featuring the im- broadcast age of a banana, and several created for the Beatles, especially the Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band airplay occasion when a recording is broadcast on the radio, or the number (1967) cover. of times a record is actually played alienation term coined by k ral airtime amount of time given to m rax to describe a sensed estrange- a program in radio and television ment from other people, society, or broadcasting work. Today, psychiatrists define alienation as a blocking or disso- ciation of a person’s feelings. Some airwaves radio waves making broad- casting possible philosophers believe that alienation is produced by a shallow and dep- album recording of music that is ersonalized society. fourth-century theologian Saint Augustine wrote issued and marketed as a single product, e.g., a record album or a Cd that. due to its sinful nature, human- ity was alienated from God. To Aus- album trian psychoanalyst s nmdigu f uedr , album cover jacket of a record alienation resulted from the split be- album (originally for a 33 1/3 rpm tween the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind. french social record album), often of interest either because of its relation to the musical theorist Émile durkheim suggested 16

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