Advanced Operating Systems Lecture notes

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Advanced Operating Systems Lecture notes Dr. Clifford Neuman University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTECSci555: Advanced Operating Systems Lecture 1 – August 31, 2012 Dr. Clifford Neuman University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEAdministration Instructors  Dr. Clifford Neuman  csci555f12clifford.neuman.name  Office hours – SAL 212 –Friday 12:55 PM – 1:55 PM TA T.B.D  T.B.D. at usc dot edu  Office Hours – TBD Class details http://gost.isi.edu/555 Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEAdministration Class Home Page http://gost.isi.edu/555/  Announcements  Syllabus  Lecture Slides  Reading list Class e-mail: csci555usc.edu Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEAdministrative Information Reading list  65 papers and  20 book chapters  Concentrated toward the first half Text  Principles of Computer System Design  By Saltzer and Kaashoek  Also using second volume online Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEAdministrative Information Assignments  4 Reports, Due 11 p.m. Wednesday nights  Research Paper Due: last class  Exams Mid-Term: Friday, October 19 Final Exam: Friday, December 14 Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEAdministrative Information DEN site - Blackboard  Lecture webcast  Class forum on DEN  Grades Lecture notes to be posted before lecture Academic Integrity  READ IT – It applies to you Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEAcademic Integrity  I take Academic Integrity Seriously  Every year I have too many cases of cheating  Last year I assigned multiple F’s for the class  Occasionally students leave USC  What is and is not OK  I encourage you to work with others to learn the material  Do not to turn in the work of others  Do not give others your work to use as their own  Do not plagiarize from others (published or not)  Do not try to deceive the instructors  See section on web site and assignments  More guidelines on academic integrity  Links to university resources  Don’t just assume you know what is acceptable. Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEAdministration Grading 20%: Reading Reports 20%: Midterm 20%: Final 30%: Research Paper 10%: Class Participation & Quizes  Class forum participation  In class participation Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEHow to survive? Read the survival guide How to read papers Read the papers in advance  Be critical At least skim through Build your own notes Study group Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEWhat you should learn in this course You will gain a basic understanding of distributed system concepts. You will develop intuition for which approaches work, and which don’t. You will develop the ability to sense where bottlenecks lie in system design. You will remember where to look for more information when you are faced with a distributed system problem. Above all, you will learn how to be critical of what you are told by system designers. Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTESome things an operating system does (review) Memory Management Scheduling / Resource management Communication Protection and Security File Management - I/O Naming Synchronization User Interface Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEProgression of Operating Systems Primary goal of a distributed system:  Sharing Progression over past years  Dedicated machines  Batch Processing  Time Sharing  Workstations and PC’s  Distributed Systems  Devices Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEStructure of Distributed Systems Kernel  Basic functionality and protection Application Level  Does the real work Servers  Service and support functions needed by applications  Many functions that used to be in Kernel are now in servers. Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEStructure of Distributed Systems UP User Space User Space SVR SVR Kernel Kernel Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTENetwork vs. OS Layering (No direct mapping, colors to stimulate discussion) Application Layer Applications LIBRARIES Presentation Layer User Space Session Layer SERVICES Servers Transport Layer OS SERVICES Network Layer Kernel Link Layer Physical Hardware Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTECharacteristics of a Distributed System Basic characteristics:  Multiple Computers  Interconnections  Shared State Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEWhy Distributed Systems are Hard Scale:  Numeric  Geographic  Administrative Loss of control over parts of the system Unreliability of Messages Parts of the system down or inaccessible  Lamport: You know you have a distributed system when the crash of a computer you have never heard of stops you from getting any work done. Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEEnd-to-End Argument QUESTION: Where to place distributed systems functions? Layered system design: Different levels of abstraction for simplicity. Lower layer provides service to upper layer. Very well defined interfaces. Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTEE2E Argument (continued) E2E paper argues that functions should be moved closer to the application that uses them. Copyright © 1995-2012 Clifford Neuman - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTE

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