Lecture notes for Telecommunication networks

practical application of telecommunication and lecture notes on telecommunication switching systems, telecommunication switching systems lecture notes pdf free download
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Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering PRACTICAL WORK BOOK For Academic Session 2013 FUNDAMENTALS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING (TC-101) For FE (TC) Name: ___________________________________________ Roll Number: _____________________________________ Batch: ___________________________________________ Department: ______________________________________ Year: ____________________________________________ Department of Electronic Engineering NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi 1 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering LABORATORY WORK BOOK For The Course TC-101 FUNDAMENTALS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING Prepared By: Ms. Aisha Danish (I.T Manager(Js.)) Reviewed By: Dr. Irfan Ahmed (Associate Professor) Approved By: The Board of Studies of Department of Electronic Engineering 2 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Contents Lab Session Object Page No. Remarks 01 Introduction to various components of a PC, their 4-14 operation and interconnection Demonstration of telecom networks and identifying 15-23 02 various Network Cables and their Accessories Generation of Commonly used signals and performing 24-29 03 Basic Operations on signals To establish the spectrum of Amplitude Modulated 30-31 04 Signals Demonstration of Amplitude Modulation with and 32-36 05 without the suppression of the carrier Demonstration of AM demodulation 37-39 06 Demonstration of Frequency Modulation and its 40-43 07 applications 44-45 08 Demonstration of FM Demodulation To be familiar with the basic structure and applications of 46-49 09 Optical Fiber Cable 10 Introduction to Microwave Communication and 50-56 identification of different waveguide components Generation of signals and observing the effect of noise on 57-72 11 signals. 3 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering LAB SESSION 01 OBJECT Demonstrating various components of a PC and their interconnection. THEORY COMPONENTS OF A PC System Unit It is the main computer system cabinet in a PC, which usually houses the power supply, motherboard, and some storage devices. Figure: 1.1: System Unit 4 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Mother Board It is the main circuit board in a microprocessor system. It normally includes the microprocessor chip (or CPU), main memory (RAM) chips, all related support circuitry, and the expansion slots for plugging in additional components. It is also known as system board. Figure 1.2: Motherboard 5 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Figure 1.3: Motherboard (Rear view) Read Only Memory (ROM) It is a type of memory in which instructions to perform operations critical to a computer are stored on integrated (chips) in permanent, non-volatile form. The instructions are normally recorded on the chips by the manufacturer. Random Access Memory (RAM) It is the name given to the integrated circuits (chips) that make up main memory, which provides volatile temporary storage of data and program instructions that the CPU is using; data and instructions can be retrieved at random, no matter where they are located in main memory. RAM is used for storing operating system software instructions and for temporary storage of applications software instructions, input data, and output data. On the basis of pin configuration, two types of RAM chips are available in the market:  SIMM – Single Inline Memory Module, all pins are aligned on one side of the chip.  DIMM – Dual Inline Memory Module, pins are aligned on both sides of the chip. On the basis of internal cell design, two types of RAM are there: 6 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering  DRAM – Dynamic Random Access Memory, made of capacitors, used for most main memories.  SRAM – Static Random Access Memory, made of flip flops, used for some specialized purposes within the main memory. Cache Memory It is a special high-speed memory area that the CPU can quickly access. It comprises a small area of RAM created in addition to the computer’s main memory (RAM); a copy of the most frequently used data and instructions is kept in the cache so the CPU can look in the cache first, which makes the computer run faster. Cache memory is usually located right on the microprocessor chip. Disk Drive Devices into which a diskette (floppy disk) or hard disk is placed for storing and retrieving data. Figure:1.4 Floppy Disk Drive Floppy Disk It is a thin plastic disk, also called diskette, which can be magnetically encoded with data, 31/2 inches in diameter. Figure:1.5: Floppy Disk 7 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Hard Disk It is a direct access secondary storage device consisting of a rigid metal platter connected to a control spindle; the entire unit, including the read/write heads, is enclosed in a permanently sealed container. Hard disks store much more data than diskettes do. Figure:1.6: Hard Disk Compact Disk It is an optical disk whose data is laser-recorded by the disk manufacturer. The user cannot change it or write on the disk, he can only read the data. Processor Chip It is an integrated circuit (chip) containing the CPU circuitry for a microprocessor. CPU is the brain of the computer; the part of the computer composed of electrical circuitry directing most of the computer system’s activities. It consists of the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) connected by a bus. Parallel Ports A parallel port is a socket on the system unit for attaching peripheral devices that transmit 8 bits simultaneously; used mainly for connecting printers. 8 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Figure 1.7 : Parallel Port Serial Ports A serial port is a socket on the system unit for connecting peripheral devices, such as a modem or a mouse, that transmit data serially, one bit after the other. Figure 1.8 : Serial Port System Clock/Timer Every microprocessor contains a system clock. It controls how fast all the operations within a computer take place. The faster the clock the faster the processing; clock speed in measured in megahertz. Power Supply It is the source of electrical power to components housed in the system unit of a PC. 9 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Data Cables It is the communication path linking several devices to the microprocessor for transferring data. Power Cables It is the communication path linking several devices, including the microprocessor, to the power supply for provision of electrical power. Figure 1.9: Power Cables Expansion Slots In a PC, an area within the system cabinet where expansion cards, such as color graphic adapter cards and expanded memory cards, can be inserted and plugged into the computer’s circuitry. Figure 1.10: Expansion Slots 10 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Display Screens Color display screen is one that can display up to 16.7 million colors, depending on the type of display screen and graphics adapter cards used. Screens Video display screen is a device for viewing computer output. Two main types are: Cathode ray tube (CRT) - also called monitor or screen. Flat panel display - a type of display screen used on portable computers. They are much thinner, weigh less and use less power than CRTs. Graphic Adapter Cards Graphics adapter card, also known as video display adapter is a circuit board in the system unit that determines the display screen’s resolution, number of colors, and how fast images appear. The card and the monitor must be compatible models. These cards are the expansion cards plugged into expansion slot in system cabinet that allows compatible monitor to display bit- mapped graphics. They must be used with appropriate software. Commonly used types of adapter cards are: Color graphics adapter (CGA) - displays 4 colors as well as monochrome images. Video graphics array (VGA) - displays 16 colors. Figure 1.11: VGA Card Super video graphics array (SVGA) - displays up to 256 colors at a very high resolution. Extended graphics array (XGA) - supports up to 16.7 million colors at a very high resolution. 11 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Sound Cards Sound card is a circuit board in the system unit which helps producing sounds at the output devices. It plugs in to an expansion slot in the PC. Figure 1.12 : Sound Card Network Cards A network interface card, which is inserted into an expansion slot in a PC, enables the computer to send and receive messages on a LAN. Fig:1.13 Network Card Modem Cards Modem is a device for translating digital signals from a computer into analog signals for transmission over telephone lines and then back into digital signals again for processing, that is a modem must be hooked up at each end of the transmission. Modem stands for Modulatot/DEModulator 12 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Figure:1.14 Modem Card Math Coprocessor It is a specialized processor chip installed on the motherboard that helps the CPU process the mathematical calculations more quickly. EXERCISE 1. Find and list various hardware and their configuration attached to your system. Ans: ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 13 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering 2. Find out and write down the company name, model, brief specifications and price of the following PC hardware. Hard Disk S.No. Compan y Name Model Specifications Price 1 2 3 RAM S.No. Company Name Model Specifications Price 1 2 3 Motherboard S.No. Company Name Model Specifications Price 1 2 3 Processor S.No. Company Name Model Specifications Price 1 2 3 Modem Card S.No. Company Name Model Specifications Price 1 2 3 14 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering LAB SESSION 02 OBJECT Demonstration of Telecommunication Networks and identifying various network cables and their accessories THEORY A communications network is a collection of transmitters, receivers, and communications channels that send messages to one another. Some digital communications networks contain one or more routers that work together to transmit information to the correct user. An analog communications network consists of one or more switches that establish a connection between two or more users. A channel is the physical medium that carries a signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Examples of this include the atmosphere for sound communications, glass optical fibers for some kinds of optical communications, coaxial cables for communications by way of the voltages and electric currents in them, and free space for communications using visible light, infrared waves, ultraviolet light, and radio waves. This last channel is called the "free space channel". The sending of radio waves from one place to another has nothing to do with the presence or absence of an atmosphere between the two. Radio waves travel through a perfect vacuum just as easily as they travel through air, fog, clouds, or any other kind of gas besides air. Examples of Telecommunication Networks LAN WAN PSTN Satellite Networks Cellular Networks Data Transmission Media and Forms To get from here to there, data must move through a medium. A telephone line, a cable, or the atmosphere, are all transmission media, or channels. But before the data can be communicated, it must be converted into a form suitable for communication. The basic forms, into which data can be converted for communication, are as follows:  Electronic pulses or charges – used to transmit data over telephone lines and cables. 15 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Media used – coaxial cables, twisted pair cables.  Electromagnetic Waves – used to transmit data through the air via microwave dishes and satellites. Media used – microwave and satellite systems.  Light pulses – used to transmit data through glass fibers. Media used – fiber optics. Infrared or spread spectrum or standard radio waves – used for some newer types of wireless data transmission. Primary Cable Types The vast majority of networks today are connected by some sort of wire or cabling acting as a medium. There is a variety of cables that can meet the varying needs and sizes of networks, from large to small, of which three types are most commonly used: Coaxial Cable Twisted Pair Cable Fiber Optics Coaxial Cables Coaxial cables are relatively inexpensive, light, flexible and easy to work with. They can transmit voice, video and data. They are more resistant to interference and attenuation than twisted pairs cabling. Attenuation is the loss of signal strength, which begins to occur as the signal travels further along a copper cable. Coaxial is a good choice for longer distances and for reliability supporting higher data rates with less sophisticated equipment. Television cables are coaxial cables. Composition In its simplest form, coaxial consist of a core made of solid copper surrounded by insulation, a braided metal shielding, and an outer cover. One layer of foil insulation and one layer of braided metal shielding is referred to as dual shielded. However, quad shielding is available for environments that are subject to higher interference. Quad shielding consists of two layers of foil insulation and two layers of braided metal shielding. Shielding protects transmitted data by absorbing stray electronic signals, called noise, so that they do not get onto the cable and distort the data 16 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Types There are two types of coaxial cables:  Thinnet  Thicknet Figure 2.1: Coaxial Cable Connection Hardware Both thicknet and thinnet use connection components, known as BNC (British Naval connector or Bayonet Nut Connector or Bayonet Neill Concelman), to make the connection between the cables and the computers. There are several important components in the BNC family, including the following:  The BNC cable connector – this connector is either soldered or crimped to the end of a cable.  The BNC T connector – it joins the network interface card in the computer to the network cable. 17 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Figure 2.2: BNC T Connector  The BNC barrel connector – it is used to join two lengths of thinnet cable to make a longer length. Figure 2.3: BNC Barrel Connector  The BNC terminator – it closes each end of the bus cable to absorb stray signals. Without it, a bus network will not function. 18 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Figure 2.4: BNC Terminator  Transceiver – it is a device that connects the thinnet coaxial to the larger thicknet coaxial cable. Twisted Pair Cables Twisted pair cables are used if LAN is under budget constraints and when relatively easy installation is required where connections are simple. Composition In its simplest form, twisted pair cable consists of two insulated strands of copper wire twisted around each other. A number of twisted pair wires are often grouped together and enclosed in a protective sheath to form a cable. The actual number of pairs in a cable varies. Twisting cancels out electrical noise from adjacent pairs and from other sources such as motors, relays, and transformers. There are two types of twisted pair cables:  Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)  Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Unshielded Twisted Pair UTP using the 10BaseT specification is the most popular type of twisted pair cable and is fast becoming the most popular LAN cabling. The maximum cable length segment is 100 meters or about 328 feet. UTP consists of two insulated copper wires. Depending on the particular purpose there are UTP specifications, which govern how many twists are permitted per foot of cable. This is the most commonly used cable for existing telephone systems. 19 Workbook for the Course TC-101 Department of Electronic Engineering Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Figure 2.5: UTP Cable There are five standard categories of UTP:  Category 1 – this refers to traditional UTP telephone cable, which can carry voice but not data. Most telephone cable prior to 1983 was Category 1 cable.  Category 2 – this category certifies UTP cable for data transmission up to 4 Mbps (megabits per second). It consists of 4 twisted pairs.  Category 3 – this category certifies UTP cable for data transmission up to 10 Mbps.. It consists of 4 twisted pairs with three twists per foot.  Category 4 – this category certifies UTP cable for data transmission up to 16 Mbps.. It consists of 4 twisted pairs.  Category 5 – this category certifies UTP cable for data transmission up to 100 Mbps. It consists of 4 twisted pairs of copper wire The problem with UTP cable is of cross talk. Cross talk is defined as signals from one line getting mixed with signals from another line. Shielding is used to reduce cross talk. Shielded Twisted Pair STP uses a woven copper braid jacket, which is a high quality, more protective jacket than UTP has. STP also uses a foil wrap between and around the wire pair and internal twisting of the pairs. This gives STP excellent insulation to protect the transmitted data from outside interference. That is STP is less susceptible to electrical interference and supports higher transmission rates over longer distances than UTP. 20

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