Lecture notes Satellite communication systems

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LECTURE NOTES ON SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IV B. Tech II semester (JNTUH-R13) Mr. C Srihari, Asst. Professor Ms. G Bhavana, Asst. Professor ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING (AUTONOMOUS) DUNDIGAL, HYDERABAD - 500 043 EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT I SATELLITE ORBITS Introduction tosatellitecommunication: Satellites are specifically made for telecommunication purpose. They are used for mobile applications such as communication to ships, vehicles, planes, hand -held terminals and for TV and radio broadcasting. They are responsible for providing these services to an assigned region (area) on the earth. The power and bandwidth of these satellites depend upon the preferred size of the footprint, complexity of the traffic control protocol schemes and the cost of ground stations. A satellite works most efficiently when the transmissions are focused with a desired area. When the area is focused, then the emissions don ‟ t go outside that designated area and thus minimizing the interference to the other systems. This leads more efficient spectrum usage. Satellite‟s antenna patterns play an important role and must be designed to best cover the designated geographical area (which is generally irregular in shape). Satellites should be designed by keeping in mind its usability for short and long term effects throughout its life time. The earth station should be in a position to control the satellite if it drifts from its orbit it is subjected to any kind of drag from the external forces. Applications Of Satellites: Weather Forecasting Radio and TV Broadcast Military Satellites Navigation Satellites Global Telephone Connecting Remote Area Global Mobile Communication SCE 1 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Kepler’s laws: Kepler’s law Introduction: Satellites (spacecraft) orbiting the earth follow the same laws that govern the motion of the planets around the sun. Kepler’s laws apply quite generally to any two bodies in space which interact through gravitation. The more massive of the two bodies is referred to as the primary, the other, the secondary or satellite. Kepler’s First Law: Kepler’s first law states that the path followed by a satellite around the primary will be an ellipse. An ellipse hast Two focal points shown as F and F in 1 2 Fig. 2.1. The center of mass of the two-body system, termed the bary center, is always center of the foci. The semi major axis of the ellipse is denoted by a, and the semi minor axis, by b. The eccentricity eis given by Figure 1.1 The foci F and F , the 1 2 semi major axis a, and the semi minor axis b of an ellipse. Kepler’s Second Law : Kepler’s second law states that, for equal time intervals, a satellite will sweep out equal areas in its orbital plane, focused at the barycenter. Referring to Fig. 2.2, assuming the satellite travels distances S and S meters in 1 s, then the 1 2 areas A and A will be equal. The average velocity in each case is S and S m/s, 1 2 1 2 and because of the equal area law, it follows that the velocity at S is less than 2 that at S 1. SCE 2 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Figure 1.2 Kepler’s second law. The areas A and 1 A swept out in unit time are 2 equal. Kepler’sThird Law: Kepler’s third law states that the square of the periodic time of orbit is proportional to the cube of the mean distance between the two bodies. The mean distance is equal to the semi major axis a. For the artificial satellitesrbo n itg i th e earth, Kepler’s third law can be written in the form = / Where n is the mean motion o f the satellite in radians per second and is 14 3 2 the earth’s geocentric gravitational constant µ=3.986005 X 10 m /s Newton’s law: Newton's first law: An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. This law is often called "the law of inertia". Newton's second law: Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). Newton's first law: For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. This means that for every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but opposite in direction. That is to say that whenever an object pushes another object it gets pushed back in the opposite direction equally hard. SCE 3 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION orbital parameters: Apogee: A point for a satellite farthest from the Earth. It is denoted as ha. Perigee: A point for a satellite closest from the Earth. It is denoted as hp. Line of Apsides: Line joining perigee and apogee through centre of the Earth. It is the major axis of the orbit. One-half of this line‟s length is the semi-major axis equivalents to satellite‟s mean distance from the Earth. Ascending Node: The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from north to south. Descending Node: The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from south to north. Inclination: the angle between the orbital plane and the Earth‟s equatorial plane. Its measured at the ascending node from the equator to the orbit, going from East to North. Also, this angle is commonly denoted as i. Line of Nodes: the line joining the ascending and descending nodes through the centre of Earth. Prograde Orbit: an orbit in which satellite moves in the same direction as the Earth‟s rotation. Its inclination is always between 00 to 900. Many satellites follow this path as Earth‟s velocity makes it easier to lunch these satellites. Retrograde Orbit: an orbit in which satellite moves in the same direction counter to the Earth‟s rotation. Argument of Perigee: An angle from the point of perigee measure in the orbital plane at the Earth‟s centre, in the direction of the satellite motion. Right ascension of ascending node: The definition of an orbit in space, the position of ascending node is specified. But as the Earth spins, the longitude of ascending node changes and cannot be used for reference. Thus for practical determination of an orbit, the longitude and time of crossing the ascending node is used.For absolute measurement, a fixed reference point in space is required. SCE 4 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION It could also be defined as “right ascension of the ascending node; right ascension is the angular position measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox vector to the hour circle of the object”. Mean anamoly: It gives the average value to the angular position of the satellite with reference to the perigee. True anamoly: It is the angle from point of perigee to the satellite‟s position, measure at the Earth‟s centre. h , Figure1.2 Apogee height a perigee height h , and inclination i. p L is the line of apsides. a Figure.1.4 The argument of perigee w Figure 1.3(a) Prograde and retrograde orbits. & right ascension of the ascending node Ω. SCE 5 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Orbital Perturbations: Theoretically, an orbit described by Kepler is ideal as Earth is considered to be a perfect sphere and the force acting around the Earth is the centrifugal force. This force is supposed to balance the gravitational pull of the earth. In reality, other forces also play an important role and affect the motion of the satellite. These forces are the gravitational forces of Sun and Moon along with the atmospheric drag. Effect of Sun and Moon is more pronounced on geostationary earth satellites where as the atmospheric drag effect is more pronounced for low earth orbit satellites. Effects of non-Spherical Earth : As the shape of Earth is not a perfect sphere, it causes some variations in the path followed by the satellites around the primary. As the Earth is bulging from the equatorial belt, and keeping in mind that an orbit is not a physical entity, and it is the forces resulting from an oblate Earth which act on the satellite produce a change in the orbital parameters. This causes the satellite to drift as a result of regression of the nodes and the latitude of the point of perigee (point closest to the Earth). This leads to rotation of the line of apsides. As the orbit itself is moving with respect to the Earth, the resultant changes are seen in the values of argument of perigee and right ascension of ascending node. Due to the non-spherical shape of Earth, one more effect called as the “Satellite Graveyard” is seen. The non-spherical shape leads to the small value of eccentricity (10-5) at the equatorial plane. This causes a gravity gradient on GEO satellite and makes them drift to one of the two stable points which coincide with minor axis of the equatorial ellipse. Atmospheric Drag: For Low Earth orbiting satellites, the effect of atmospheric drag is more pronounces. The impact of this drag is maximumat the point of perigee. Drag (pull towards the Earth) has an effect on velocity of Satellite (velocity reduces). SCE 6 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION This causes the satellite to not reach the apogee height successive revolutions. This leads to a change in value of semi-major axis and eccentricity. Satellites in service are maneuvered by the earth station back to their original orbital position. Station Keeping: In addition to having its attitude controlled, it is important that a geo- stationary satellite be kept in its correct orbital slot. The equatorial ellipticity of the earth causes geostationary satel- lites to drift slowly along the orbit, to one and 105°W. of two stable points, at 75°E To counter this drift, an oppositely directed velocity com- ponent is imparted to the satellite by means of jets, which are pulsed once every 2 or 3 weeks. These maneuvers are termed east-west station-keeping maneuvers. Satellites in the 6/4-GHz band must be kept within 0.1° of the desig- nated longitude, and in the 14/12-GHz band, within 0.05°. Figure 1.5 Typical satellite motion.(CourtesyofTelesat,Canada,1983.) SCE 7 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Geo stationary and Non Geo-stationary orbits: Geo stationary: A geostationary orbit is one in which a satellite orbits the earth at exactly the same speed as the earth turns and at the same latitude, specifically zero, the latitude of the equator. A satellite orbiting in a geostationary orbit appears to be hovering in the same spot in the sky, and is directly over the same patch of ground at all times. A geosynchronous orbit is one in which the satellite is synchronized with the earth's rotation, but the orbit is tilted with respect to the plane of the equator. A satellite in a geosynchronous orbit will wander up and down in latitude, although it will stay over the same line of longitude. Although the terms 'geostationary' and 'geosynchronous' are sometimes used interchangeably, they are not the same technically; geostationary orbit is a subset of all possible geosynchronous orbits. The person most widely credited with developing the concept of geostationary orbits is noted science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke (Islands in the Sky, Childhood's End, Rendezvous with Rama, and the movie 2001: a Space Odyssey). Others had earlier pointed out that bodies traveling a certain distance above the earth on the equatorial plane would remain motionless with respect to the earth's surface. But Clarke published an article in 1945's Wireless World that made the leap from the Germans' rocket research to suggest permanent manmade satellites that could serve as communication relays. Geostationary objects in orbit must be at a certain distance above the earth; any closer and the orbit would decay, and farther out they would escape the earth's gravity altogether. This distance is 35,786 kilometers (22,236 miles) from the surface. The first geosynchrous satellite was orbited in 1963, and the first geostationary one the following year. Since the only geostationary orbit is in a plane with the equator at 35,786 kilometers, there is only one circle around the world where these conditions obtain. SCE 8 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION This means that geostationary 'real estate' is finite. While satellites are in no danger of bumping in to one another yet, they must be spaced around the circle so that their frequencies do not interfere with the functioning of their nearest neighbors. Geostationary Satellites: There are 2 kinds of manmade satellites in the heavens above: One kind of satellite ORBITS the earth once or twice a day, and the other kind is called a communications satellite and it is PARKED in a STATIONARY position 22,300 miles (35,900 km) above the equator of the STATIONARY earth. A type of the orbiting satellite includes the space shuttle and the international space station which keep a low earth orbit (LEO) to avoid the deadly Van Allen radiation belts. The most prominent satellites in medium earth orbit (MEO) are the satellites which comprise the GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM or GPS as it is called. The Global Positioning System The global positioning system was developed by the U.S. military and then opened to civilian use. It is used today to track planes, ships, trains, cars or literally anything that moves. Anyone can buy a receiver and track their exact location by using a GPS receiver. GPS satellites orbit at a height of About 24 GPS satellites orbit the earth about 12,000 miles (19,300 km) every 12 hours. and orbit the earth once every 12 hours. SCE 9 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION These satellites are traveling around the earth at speeds of about 7,000 mph (11,200 kph). GPS satellites are powered by solar energy. They have backup batteries onboard to keep them running in the event of a solar eclipse, when there's no solar power. Small rocket boosters on each satellite keep them flying in the correct path. The satellites have a lifetime of about 10 years until all their fuel runs out. At exactly 22,300 miles above the equator, the force of gravity is cancelled by the centrifugal force of the rotating universe. This is the ideal spot to park a stationary satellite. Figure. 1.6 & 1.7 At exactly 22,000 miles (35,900 km) above the equator, the earth's force of gravity is canceled by the centrifugal force of the rotating universe. . Non Geo-Stationary Orbit: For the geo- stationary case, the most important of these are the gravitational fields of the moon and the sun, and the nonspherical shape of the earth. Other significant forces are solar radiation pressure and reaction of the satellite itself to motor movement within the satellite. As a result, station- keeping maneuvers must be carried out to maintain the satel- lite within set limits of its nominal geostationary position. An exact geostationary orbit therefore is not attainable in practice, and the orbital parameters vary with time. The two-line orbital elements are published at regular intervals. SCE 10 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION The period for a geostationary satellite is 23 h, 56 min, 4 s, or 86,164 s. The reciprocal of this is 1.00273896 rev/day, which is about the value tabu- lated for most of the satellites in Fig. Thus these satellites are geo- synchronous, in that they rotate in synchronism with the rotation of the earth. However, they are not geostationary. The term geosynchronous satellite is used in many cases instead of geostationary to describe these near-geostationary satellites. It should be noted, however, that in gen- eral a geosynchronous satellite does not have to be near-geostationary, and there are a number of geosynchronous satellites that are in highly elliptical orbits with comparatively large inclinations (e.g., the Tundra satellites). The small inclination makes it difficult to locate the position of the ascending node, and the small eccentricity makes it difficult to locate the position of the perigee. However, because of the small inclination, the angles w and Ω can be assumed to be in the same plane.The longitude of the subsatellite point (thesatellitelongitude) is the east early rotation from the Greenwich meridian. The Greenwich sidereal time (GST) gives the eastward position of the Greenwich meridian relative to the line of Aries, and hence the subsatellite point is at longitudeand the mean longitude of the satellite is given by Equation(2.31)can be used to calculate the trueanomaly, and because of the small eccentricity, this can be approximated as v= M + 2esinM. Look Angle Determination: The look angles for the ground station antenna are Azimuth and Elevation angles. They are required at the antenna so that it points directly at the satellite. Look angles are calculated by considering the elliptical orbit. These angles change in order to track the satellite. SCE 11 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION For geostationary orbit, these angels values does not change as the satellites are stationary with respect to earth. Thus large earth stations are used for commercial communications. SCE 12 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION For home antennas, antenna beamwidth is quite broad and hence no tracking is essential. This leads to a fixed position for these antennas. Figure 1.8: The geometry used in determining the look angles for Geostationary Satellites. Figure 1.9: The spherical geometry related to figure 1.8 With respect to the figure 1.8 and 1.9, the following information is needed to determine the look angles of geostationary orbit. SCE 13 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 1. Earth Station Latitude: λE 2. Earth Station Longitude: ΦE SCE 14 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 3. Sub-Satellite Point‟s Longitude: ΦSS 4. ES: Position of Earth Station 5. SS: Sub-Satellite Point 6. S: Satellite 7. d: Range from ES to S 8. ζ: angle to be determined Figure 1.10: A plane triangle obtained from figure 1.8 Considering figure 3.3, it‟s a spherical triangle. All sides are the arcs of a great circle. Three sides of this triangle are defined by the angles subtended by the centre of the earth. o Side a: angle between North Pole and radius of the sub-satellite point. o Side b: angle between radius of Earth and radius of the sub-satellite point. o Side c: angle between radius of Earth and the North Pole. 0 a =90 and such a spherical triangle is called quadrantal triangle. c = 0 90 – λ Angle B is the angle between the plane containing c and the plane containing a. Thus, B = ΦE-ΦSS SCE 15 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Angle A is the angle between the plane containing b and the plane containing c. Angle C is the angle between the plane containing a and the plane containing b. 0 Thus, a = 90 c 0 = 90 - λE B = ΦE-ΦSS Thus, b = arcos (cos B cos λE) And A = arcsin (sin B / sin b) Applying the cosine rule for plane triangle to the triangle of figure Applying the sine rule for plane triangles to the triangle of figure 3.3 allows the angle of elevation to be found: Limits of visibility: The east and west limits of geostationary are visible from any given Earth station. These limits are set by the geographic coordinates of the Earth station and antenna elevation. The lowest elevation is zero (in theory) but in practice, to avoid reception of excess noise from Earth. Some finite minimum value of elevation is issued. The earth station can see a satellite over a geostationary arc bounded by +- (81.30) about the earth station‟s longitude. SCE 16 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Eclipse: It occurs when Earth‟s equatorial plane coincides with the plane f he Earth‟s orbit around the sun. Near the time of spring and autumnal equinoxes, when the sun is crossing the equator, the satellite passes into sun‟s shadow. This happens for some duration of time every day. These eclipses begin 23 days before the equinox and end 23 days after the equinox. They last for almost 10 minutes at the beginning and end of equinox and increase for a maximum period of 72 minutes at a full eclipse. The solar cells of the satellite become non-functional during the eclipse period and the satellite is made to operate with the help of power supplied from the batteries. A satellite will have the eclipse duration symmetric around the time t=Satellite Longitude/15 + 12 hours. A satellite at Greenwich longitude 0 will have the eclipse duration symmetric around 0/15 UTC +12hours = 00:00 UTC. The eclipse will happen at night but for satellites in the east it will happen late evening local time. For satellites in the west eclipse will happen in the early morning hour’s local time. An earth caused eclipse will normally not happen during peak viewing hours if the satellite is located near the longitude of the coverage area. Modern satellites are well equipped with batteries for operation during eclipse. SCE 17 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Figure 1.11(i): A satellite east of the earth station enters eclipse during daylight busy) hours at the earth station. A Satellite west of earth station enters eclipse during night and early morning hours (non busy time). Sub satellite Point:  Point at which a line between the satellite and the center of the Earth intersects the Earth’s surface Location of the point expressed in terms of latitude and longitude If one is in the US it is common to use o Latitude – degrees north from equator o Longitude – degrees west of the Greenwich meridian Location of the sub satellite point may be calculated from coordinates of the rotating system as:   z 1 r   L   cos   s 2 2 2   2 x y z  r r r   SCE 18 Dept of ECE EC 2045 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Figure 1.11(ii) Sub satellite Point SCE 19 Dept of ECE

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