Lecture notes on non Conventional Energy sources

conventional and non conventional energy resources difference and non conventional energy resources lecture notes pdf free download
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Published Date:15-07-2017
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Non-Conventional Energy Systems Syllabus Non-Conventional Energy Systems Module 1: Introduction (2) Fossil fuel based systems. Impact of fossil fuel based systems. Non-conventional energy – Seasonal variations and availability. Renewable energy – sources and features. Hybrid energy systems Distributed energy systems and dispersed generation (DG) Module 2: Traditional Energy Systems (3) Sources. Features and characteristics. Applications: Transport – bullock cart, horse carriage, camels; Agriculture – ox plough, water lifting devices; Human power – bicycle, cycle rickshaw etc.; House hold – cooking (bio mass), lighting etc. Module 3: Solar Thermal Systems (6) Solar radiation spectrum. Radiation measurement. Technologies. Applications: Heating, Cooling, Drying, Distillation, Power generation Module 4: Solar Photovoltaic Systems (7) Operating principles. Photovoltaic cell concepts. Cell, module, array. Series and parallel connections. Maximum power point tracking. Applications: Battery charging, Pumping, Lighting, and Peltier cooling Module 5: Microhydel (4) Operating principles. Components of a microhydel power plant. Types and characteristics of turbines. Selection and modification. Load balancing. Module 6: Wind (3) Wind patterns and wind data. Site selection. Types of windmills. Characteristics of wind generators. Load matching Module 7: Biomass (3) Operating principles. Combustion and fermentation. Anaerobic digester. Wood gassifier. Pyrolysis. Applications: Biogas, Wood stoves, Bio diesel, Combustion engine. Module 8: Wave Energy Systems (3) Shoreline systems. Near shore systems. Off shore systems Module 9: Costing (3) Life cycle costing (LCC). Solar thermal system LCC. Solar PV system LCC. Microhydel LCC. Wind system LCC. Biomass system LCC Module 10: Hybrid Systems (4) Need for Hybrid Systems. Range and type of Hybrid systems. Case studies of Diesel-PV, Wind-PV, Microhydel-PV, Biomass-Diesel systems, electric and hybrid electric vehicles L.Umanand/IISc, Bangalore //V1/Apr 04/3 Non-Conventional Energy Systems Syllabus Lecture Plan Module Learning Units Hours Total per topic Hours 1. Introduction 1. Fossil fuel based systems, Impact of fossil fuel based systems, Non conventional energy – seasonal 1 variations and availability 2 2. Renewable energy – sources and features, Hybrid 1 energy systems, Distributed energy systems and dispersed generation 3. Sources 1 2. Traditional 4. Features and characteristics 1 3 energy systems 5. Applications 1 6. Solar radiation spectrum 0.5 3. Solar 7. Radiation measurement 0.5 thermal 6 8. Technologies 2 systems 9. Applications 3 4. Solar 10. Operating principle 0.5 Photovoltaic 11. Photovoltaic cell concepts 0.5 systems 12. Cell, module, array 0.5 7 13. Series and parallel connections 1.5 14. Maximum power point tracking 2 15. Applications 2 5. Microhydel 16. Operating principle 1 17. Components of a microhydel power plant 1 18. Types and characteristics of turbines 1 19. Selection and modification 0.5 20. Load balancing 0.5 6. Wind 21. Wind patterns and wind data 0.5 3 22. Site selection 0.5 23. Types of wind mills 1 24. Characteristics of wind generators, and load 1 matching 7. Biomass 25. Operating principle 0.5 26. Wood gassifier 0.5 3 27. Pyrolysis 0.5 28. Applications 1.5 8. Wave 29. Shoreline systems 1 Energy 30. Near shore systems 1 3 Systems 31. Off shore systems 1 9. Costing 32. Life cycle costing (LCC) of solar thermal, solar PV, 2 3 and microhydel systems L.Umanand/IISc, Bangalore //V1/Apr 04/3 Non-Conventional Energy Systems Syllabus 33. LCC of Wind systems, and biomass systems 1 10. Hybrid 34. Need for Hybrid Systems 1 Systems 35. Range and type of Hybrid systems 1 4 36. Case studies of Diesel-PV, Wind-PV, Microhydel- PV, Biomass-Diesel systems, electric and hybrid 2 electric vehicles L.Umanand/IISc, Bangalore //V1/Apr 04/3 Non-Conventional Energy Systems Syllabus SYLLABUS FOR THIS CHAPTER 1. Introduction (2 hours) a. Fossil fuel based systems i. Petrol, diesel, kerosene etc. ii. Energy content iii. How long will they last? b. Impact of fossil fuel based systems i. Global warming ii. Green house effects iii. Health iv. Societal problems c. Non conventional energy – seasonal variations and availability i. What are they? ii. How much is available? iii. When are they available? d. Renewable energy – sources and features i. What are they ii. The different types of renewable energies iii. Sources and features table (Power and energy densities) iv. What are the paybacks – financial and environmental v. What is preferable under what conditions e. Hybrid energy systems i. Need for hybrid energy ii. What are the combinations for some typical applications L. Umanand/IISc, Bangalore //V1/Jun 04/1 Non-Conventional Energy Systems Syllabus iii. How can it be done? iv. What are the paybacks involved? f. Distributed energy systems and dispersed generation (DG) i. Need ii. Applications scenarios L. Umanand/IISc, Bangalore //V1/Jun 04/2 Non-Conventional Energy System Learning Objectives Learning Objectives of the Module 1. Recall 1.1 List the energy densities of petrol, diesel and kerosene. 1.2 What is the effect of CO on environment? 2 1.3 List the green house gases and their relative impact on the environment. 1.4 What is global warming 2. Comprehension 2.1 Compare the various fossil fuel sources with respect to their impact on the environment 2.2 Describe the difference between the non-conventional energy and the renewable energy 3. Analysis 3.1 Analyse the impact of fossil fuels on peoples' health. 3.2 What other social problems arise out of the deteriorating environment conditions due to the over use of fossil fuels. 4. Synthesis 5. Evaluation 5.1 Evaluate the performance of the various non-conventional and renewable energy sources. 5.2 Evaluate the volumetric efficiencies of the various energy sources L. Umanand/IISc, Bangalore //V1/M1/Jun 04/1 Student slide-0-01 What is the current world energy scenario? Current energy scenario indicates that the 75% of energy requirement is met by fossil fuels. Nuclear energy contributes to about 3% and 9% is met by hydel energy, 12% of energy consumption is met by biogas and remaining sources like wind, tidal, wave, solar, contribute to about 1%. Why should we look for alternate energy sources? Fossil fuels, which are main source of energy, are getting depleted. As a consequence the cost of fossil fuels are increasing. Further, the fossil fuel based systems produce detrimental effects on the environments. This in turn will affect our health. This means that indirectly, the medical bills will be rising the world over. include here the example of earth filled with oil What should be the paradigm shift? We should move from concentrator energy usage pattern to a more diffuse energy usage pattern. What are the alternative energy possibilities? Some of the choices that can be taken in to consideration are: • Muscle power • Solar photovoltaic • Solar thermal • Wave • Tidal • Wind • Geothermal • Bio Owing to the geographical position of India, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal ,wave,wind , bio are good choice as alternatives. Student slide – 0-03 For any activity involving other than muscle power a base energy and capital energy are required. This can be illustrated considering following two examples: Consider a person walking between 2 points A B. the energy required will be Fd(=mad) joules. Now if the person uses a car the total energy will be Etranslational+Ecapital Where Ecapital is the energy invested in making car. A d B Considering the example of energy required ploughing a field: When a tractor is used there energy spent on Ecapital. The various values can be tabulated as follows: Eplough Ecapital Energy efficiency Traditional farming 6000 60 90% Modern farming 6000 60000 10% From above it is clear that though the energy efficiency for traditional farming is high the time required for modern farming is less. Different formulae to calculate power: Power=Voltage×current Force×velocity Torque×angular velocity Pressure×rate of discharge Temperature×rate of change of entropy Magneto motive force×rate of change of flux The block diagram for utilizing energy consists of source, energy converter, storage, load as shown in figure. The source of energy can be: Solar photovoltaic Solar thermal Wave Tidal Wind Geothermal Bio Hydro For storage of energy following options are available: Battery (energy is stored in electro chemical form.) Water (energy is stored as potential energy) Fly wheel (energy is stored in kinetic energy) Compressed air Heat storage Fuel cell The energy also can be fed to the grid. The form of energy obtained from source may not be compatible with load. hence an energy interface (energy converter)unit is required . ENERGY LOAD SOURCE CONVERTER STORAGE Introduction to Non- Conventional Energy Systems Dr.L.Umanand L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 1Why Fossil Fuel Base? Applications need concentrated energy i.e. high energy densities. Extraction, storage, distribution and service infrastructure is well established and stable Large scale production results in affordable running cost. L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 2Why fossil fuel base? 3 density Wh/lt. Wh/m Wh/kg Fuel 3 Kg/m 1 Gasoline 12300 700 9348000 9348 2 Natural Gas 9350 800 7480000 7480 3 Methanol 6200 791 4904200 4904 5 Kerosene 12300 870 10701000 10701 6 Coal 8200 1250-1550 10250000 10250 - - 7 Battery (lead- acid) 35 80 - - - 8 Flywheel 15 - - 9 Solar thermal 900/day 0.9/day - - 10 Solar PV 500/day 0.5/day Efficiency is assumed as 10% and 1m height is required for installation with appropriate inclination. Efficiency is assumed as 18% and 1m height is required for installation with appropriate inclination. L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 3„„„ Why fossil fuel base? COSTS Cost of petrol Rs.40/lt Rs.4.27/KWh Cost of kerosene Rs.15/lt Rs.1.4/KWh Cost of PV Rs.200/W Rs.40000/KWh of capital investment L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 4Why fossil fuel base? Petrol/diesel fuel stations infrastructure is available LPG gas is distributed at your doorstep LPG and CNG service infrastructure is also well established Customer need not bother about storage and service infrastructure costs. Payment is only for running cost of fuel. L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 5Then why move away from fossil fuel base? Depletion of fossil fuels Environmental hazards Health hazards Life Cycle costs versus running costs L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 6How long will fossil fuel last? Let the earth be made of a thin shell that is filled entirely with fossil fuels. Consider the earth as a sphere of radius R=6378.137 kms. 21 3 This amounts to about 1.1x10 m of fossil fuel. take the average energy density of fossil fuel 3 to be about 10000Wh/lt or 10000 KWh/m (refer table on energy densities – slide 03) L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 7How long will fossil fuel last? the amount of stored energy within the 25 earth is 1.1x10 KWh The current annual world energy 12 consumption is about 55x10 KWh Considering a 7% growth in energy consumption annually L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 8How long will fossil fuel last? in 372 years with an annual energy consumption growth rate of 7%, all the fossil fuel is emptied within the earth even though we started with earth being full of fossil fuel. However, earth is not composed fully of fossil fuel. Only a fraction of its volume is stored as fossil fuel. L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 9How long will fossil fuel last? The pinnacle of fossil fuel usage is passed. Its usage will now decay exponential and in the next 100 years will gradually die. L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 10

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