What is the memory of Microcomputer

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Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System Chapter – 6 Memory System 6.1 Microcomputer Memory  Memory is an essential component of the microcomputer system.  It stores binary instructions and datum for the microcomputer.  The memory is the place where the computer holds current programs and data that are in use.  None technology is optimal in satisfying the memory requirements for a computer system.  Computer memory exhibits perhaps the widest range of type, technology, organization, performance and cost of any feature of a computer system.  The memory unit that communicates directly with the CPU is called main memory.  Devices that provide backup storage are called auxiliary memory or secondary memory. 6.2 Characteristics of memory systems The memory system can be characterised with their Location, Capacity, Unit of transfer, Access method, Performance, Physical type, Physical characteristics, Organisation. Location • Processor memory: The memory like registers is included within the processor and termed as processor memory. • Internal memory: It is often termed as main memory and resides within the CPU. • External memory: It consists of peripheral storage devices such as disk and magnetic tape that are accessible to processor via i/o controllers. Capacity • Word size: Capacity is expressed in terms of words or bytes. — The natural unit of organisation • Number of words: Common word lengths are 8, 16, 32 bits etc. — or Bytes Unit of Transfer • Internal: For internal memory, the unit of transfer is equal to the number of data lines into and out of the memory module. • External: For external memory, they are transferred in block which is larger than a word. • Addressable unit — Smallest location which can be uniquely addressed — Word internally — Cluster on Magnetic disks Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 1 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System Access Method • Sequential access: In this access, it must start with beginning and read through a specific linear sequence. This means access time of data unit depends on position of records (unit of data) and previous location. — e.g. tape • Direct Access: Individual blocks of records have unique address based on location. Access is accomplished by jumping (direct access) to general vicinity plus a sequential search to reach the final location. — e.g. disk • Random access: The time to access a given location is independent of the sequence of prior accesses and is constant. Thus any location can be selected out randomly and directly addressed and accessed. — e.g. RAM • Associative access: This is random access type of memory that enables one to make a comparison of desired bit locations within a word for a specified match, and to do this for all words simultaneously. — e.g. cache Performance • Access time: For random access memory, access time is the time it takes to perform a read or write operation i.e. time taken to address a memory plus to read / write from addressed memory location. Whereas for non-random access, it is the time needed to position read / write mechanism at desired location. — Time between presenting the address and getting the valid data • Memory Cycle time: It is the total time that is required to store next memory access operation from the previous memory access operation. Memory cycle time = access time plus transient time (any additional time required before a second access can commence). — Time may be required for the memory to “recover” before next access — Cycle time is access + recovery • Transfer Rate: This is the rate at which data can be transferred in and out of a memory unit. — Rate at which data can be moved — For random access, R = 1 / cycle time — For non-random access, Tn = Ta + N / R; where Tn – average time to read or write N bits, Ta – average access time, N – number of bits, R – Transfer rate in bits per second (bps). Physical Types • Semiconductor — RAM • Magnetic — Disk & Tape • Optical — CD & DVD • Others Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 2 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System — Bubble — Hologram Physical Characteristics • Decay: Information decays mean data loss. • Volatility: Information decays when electrical power is switched off. • Erasable: Erasable means permission to erase. • Power consumption: how much power consumes? Organization • Physical arrangement of bits into words • Not always obvious - e.g. interleaved 6.3 The Memory Hierarchy  Capacity, cost and speed of different types of memory play a vital role while designing a memory system for computers.  If the memory has larger capacity, more application will get space to run smoothly.  It's better to have fastest memory as far as possible to achieve a greater performance. Moreover for the practical system, the cost should be reasonable.  There is a tradeoff between these three characteristics cost, capacity and access time. One cannot achieve all these quantities in same memory module because  If capacity increases, access time increases (slower) and due to which cost per bit decreases.  If access time decreases (faster), capacity decreases and due to which cost per bit increases.  The designer tries to increase capacity because cost per bit decreases and the more application program can be accommodated. But at the same time, access time increases and hence decreases the performance. So the best idea will be to use memory hierarchy.  Memory Hierarchy is to obtain the highest possible access speed while minimizing the total cost of the memory system.  Not all accumulated information is needed by the CPU at the same time.  Therefore, it is more economical to use low-cost storage devices to serve as a backup for storing the information that is not currently used by CPU  The memory unit that directly communicate with CPU is called the main memory  Devices that provide backup storage are called auxiliary memory  The memory hierarchy system consists of all storage devices employed in a computer system from the slow by high-capacity auxiliary memory to a relatively faster main memory, to an even smaller and faster cache memory  The main memory occupies a central position by being able to communicate directly with the CPU and with auxiliary memory devices through an I/O processor  A special very-high-speed memory called cache is used to increase the speed of processing by making current programs and data available to the CPU at a rapid rate Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 3 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System  CPU logic is usually faster than main memory access time, with the result that processing speed is limited primarily by the speed of main memory  The cache is used for storing segments of programs currently being executed in the CPU and temporary data frequently needed in the present calculations  The memory hierarchy system consists of all storage devices employed in a computer system from slow but high capacity auxiliary memory to a relatively faster cache memory accessible to high speed processing logic. The figure below illustrates memory hierarchy. Fig: Memory Hierarchy Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 4 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System  As we go down in the hierarchy  Cost per bit decreases  Capacity of memory increases  Access time increases  Frequency of access of memory by processor also decreases. Hierarchy List  Registers  L1 Cache  L2 Cache  Main memory  Disk cache  Disk  Optical  Tape 6.4 Internal and External memory Internal or Main Memory  The main memory is the central unit of the computer system. It is relatively large and fast memory to store programs and data during the computer operation. These memories employ semiconductor integrated circuits. The basic element of the semiconductor memory is the memory cell.  The memory cell has three functional terminals which carries the electrical signal. o The select terminal: It selects the cell. o The data in terminal: It is used to input data as 0 or 1 and data out or sense terminal is used for the output of the cell's state. o The control terminal: It controls the function i.e. it indicates read and write.  Most of the main memory in a general purpose computer is made up of RAM integrated circuits chips, but a portion of the memory may be constructed with ROM chips Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 5 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System RAM– Random Access memory  Memory cells can be accessed for information transfer from any desired random location.  The process of locating a word in memory is the same and requires of locating a word in memory is the same and requires an equal amount of time no matter where the cells are located physically in memory thus named 'Random access'.  Integrated RAM are available in two possible operating modes, Static and Dynamic Static RAM (SRAM)  The static RAM consists of flip flop that stores binary information and this stored information remains valid as long as power is applied to the unit. Fig: SRAM structure  Four transistors T1, T2, T3 and t4 are cross connected in an arrangement that produces a stable logical state.  In logic state 1, point C1 is high and point C2 is low. In this state, T1 & T4 are off and T2 & T3 are on.  In logic state 0, point C1 is low and C2 is high. In this state, T1 & T4 are on and T2 & T3 are off.  The address line controls the two transistors T5 & T6. When a signal is applied to this line, the two transistors are switched on allowing for read and write operation.  For a write operation, the desired bit value is applied to line B while it's complement is applied to line B complement. This forces the four transistors T1, T2, T3 & T4 into a proper state.  For the read operation, the bit value is read from line B. Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 6 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System Dynamic RAM (DRAM)  The dynamic RAM stores the binary information in the form of electrical charges and capacitor is used for this purpose.  Since charge stored in capacitor discharges with time, capacitor must be periodically recharged and which is also called refreshing memory. Fig: DRAM structure  The address line is activated when the bit value from this cell is to be read or written.  The transistor acts as switch that is closed i.e. allowed current to flow, if voltage is applied to the address line; and opened i.e. no current to flow, if no voltage is present in the address line. For DRAM writing  The address line is activated which causes the transistor to conduct.  The sense amplifier senses the content of the data bus line for this cell.  If the bus line is low, then amplifier will ground the bit line of cell and any charge in capacitor is addressed out.  If data bus is high, then a +5V is applied on bit line and voltage will flow through transistor and charge the capacitor. For DRAM reading  Address line is activated which causes the transistor to conduct.  If there is charge stored in capacitor, then current will flow through transistor and raise the voltage in bit line. The amplifier will store the voltage and place a 1 on data out line.  If there is no charge stored in capacitor, then no current will flow through transistor and voltage bit line will not be raised. The amplifier senses that there is no charge and places a 0 on data out line. Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 7 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System SRAM versus DRAM  Both volatile o Power needed to preserve data  Static RAM o Uses flip flop to store information o Needs more space o Faster, digital device o Expensive, big in size o Don't require refreshing circuit o Used in cache memory  Dynamic RAM o Uses capacitor to store information o More dense i.e. more cells can be accommodated per unit area o Slower, analog device o Less expensive, small in size o Needs refreshing circuit o Used in main memory, larger memory units ROM– Read Only memory  Read only memory (ROM) contains a permanent pattern of data that cannot be changed.  A ROM is non-volatile that is no power source is required to maintain the bit values in memory.  While it is possible to read a ROM, it is not possible to write new data into it.  The data or program is permanently presented in main memory and never be loaded from a secondary storage device with the advantage of ROM.  A ROM is created like any other integrated circuit chip, with the data actually wired into the chip as part of the fabrication process.  It presents two problems o The data insertion step includes a relatively large fixed cost, whether one or thousands of copies of a particular ROM are fabricated. o There is no room for error. If one bit is wrong, the whole batch of ROM must be thrown out. Types of ROM  Programmable ROM (PROM) o It is non-volatile and may be written into only once. The writing process is performed electrically and may be performed by a supplier or customer at a time later than the original chip fabrication.  Erasable Programmable ROM (EPROM) o It is read and written electrically. However, before a write operation, all the storage cells must be erased to the same initial state by exposure of the packaged chip to ultraviolet radiation (UV ray). Erasure is performed by shining an intense ultraviolet light through a window that is designed into the memory chip. EPROM is optically managed and more expensive than PROM, but it has the advantage of the multiple update capability. Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 8 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System  Electrically Erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM) o This is a read mostly memory that can be written into at any time without erasing prior contents, only the byte or byte addresses are updated. The write operation takes considerably longer than the read operation, on the order of several hundred microseconds per byte. The EEPROM combines the advantage of non-volatility with the flexibility of being updatable in place, using ordinary bus control, addresses and data lines. EEPROM is more expensive than EPROM and also is less dense, supporting fewer bits per chip.  Flash Memory o Flash memory is also the semiconductor memory and because of the speed with which it can be reprogrammed, it is termed as flash. It is interpreted between EPROM and EEPROM in both cost and functionality. Like EEPROM, flash memory uses an electrical erasing technology. An entire flash memory can be erased in one or a few seconds, which is much faster than EPROM. In addition, it is possible to erase just blocks of memory rather than an entire chip. However, flash memory doesn't provide byte level erasure, a section of memory cells are erased in an action or 'flash'. External Memory  The devices that provide backup storage are called external memory or auxiliary memory. It includes serial access type such as magnetic tapes and random access type such as magnetic disks. Magnetic Tape  A magnetic tape is the strip of plastic coated with a magnetic recording medium. Data can be recorded and read as a sequence of character through read / write head. It can be stopped, started to move forward or in reverse or can be rewound. Data on tapes are structured as number of parallel tracks running length wise. Earlier tape system typically used nine tracks. This made it possible to store data one byte at a time with additional parity bit as 9th track. The recording of data in this form is referred to as parallel recording. Magnetic Disk  A magnetic disk is a circular plate constructed with metal or plastic coated with magnetic material often both side of disk are used and several disk stacked on one spindle which Read/write head available on each surface. All disks rotate together at high speed. Bits are stored in magnetize surface in spots along concentric circles called tracks. The tracks are commonly divided into sections called sectors. After the read/write head are positioned in specified track the system has to wait until the rotating disk reaches the specified sector under read/write head. Information transfer is very fast once the beginning of sector has been reached. Disk that are permanently attached to the unit assembly and cannot be used by occasional user are called hard disk drive with removal disk is called floppy disk. Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 9 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System Optical Disk  The huge commercial success of CD enabled the development of low cost optical disk storage technology that has revolutionized computer data storage. The disk is form from resin such as polycarbonate. Digitally recorded information is imprinted as series of microscopic pits on the surface of poly carbonate. This is done with the finely focused high intensity leaser. The pitted surface is then coated with reflecting surface usually aluminum or gold. The shiny surface is protected against dust and scratches by the top coat of acrylic.  Information is retrieved from CD by low power laser. The intensity of reflected light of laser changes as it encounters a pit. Specifically if the laser beam falls on pit which has somewhat rough surface the light scatters and low intensity is reflected back to the surface. The areas between pits are called lands. A land is a smooth surface which reflects back at higher intensity. The change between pits and land is detected by photo sensor and converted into digital signal. The sensor tests the surface at regular interval. DVD-Technology  Multi-layer  Very high capacity (4.7G per layer)  Full length movie on single disk  Using MPEG compression  Finally standardized (honest)  Movies carry regional coding  Players only play correct region films DVD-Writable  Loads of trouble with standards  First generation DVD drives may not read first generation DVD-W disks  First generation DVD drives may not read CD-RW disks 6.5 Cache memory principles Principles o Intended to give memory speed approaching that of fastest memories available but with large size, at close to price of slower memories o Cache is checked first for all memory references. o If not found, the entire block in which that reference resides in main memory is stored in a cache slot, called a line o Each line includes a tag (usually a portion of the main memory address) which identifies which particular block is being stored o Locality of reference implies that future references will likely come from this block of memory, so that cache line will probably be utilized repeatedly. o The proportion of memory references, which are found already stored in cache, is called the hit ratio. Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 10 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System  Cache memory is intended to give memory speed approaching that of the fastest memories available, and at the same time provide a large memory size at the price of less expensive types of semiconductor memories. There is a relatively large and slow main memory together with a smaller, faster cache memory contains a copy of portions of main memory.  When the processor attempts to read a word of memory, a check is made to determine if the word is in the cache. If so, the word is delivered to the processor. If not, a block of main memory, consisting of fixed number of words is read into the cache and then the word is delivered to the processor.  The locality of reference property states that over a short interval of time, address generated by a typical program refers to a few localized area of memory repeatedly. So if programs and data which are accessed frequently are placed in a fast memory, the average access time can be reduced. This type of small, fast memory is called cache memory which is placed in between the CPU and the main memory.  When the CPU needs to access memory, cache is examined. If the word is found in cache, it is read from the cache and if the word is not found in cache, main memory is accessed to read word. A block of word containing the one just accessed is then transferred from main memory to cache memory. Fig: Typical Cache organization  Cache connects to the processor via data control and address line. The data and address lines also attached to data and address buffer which attached to a system bus from which main memory is reached. Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 11 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System  When a cache hit occurs, the data and address buffers are disabled and the communication is only between processor and cache with no system bus traffic. When a cache miss occurs, the desired word is first read into the cache and then transferred from cache to processor. For later case, the cache is physically interposed between the processor and main memory for all data, address and control lines. Cache Operation Overview Fig: Cache memory / Main memory structure  CPU generates the receive address (RA) of a word to be moved (read).  Check a block containing RA is in cache.  If present, get from cache (fast) and return.  If not present, access and read required block from main memory to cache.  Allocate cache line for this new found block.  Load bock for cache and deliver word to CPU  Cache includes tags to identify which block of main memory is in each cache slot Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 12 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System Fig: Flowchart for cache read operation Locality of Reference  The reference to memory at any given interval of time tends to be confined within a few localized area of memory. This property is called locality of reference. This is possible because the program loops and subroutine calls are encountered frequently. When program loop is executed, the CPU will execute same portion of program repeatedly. Similarly, when a subroutine is called, the CPU fetched starting address of subroutine and executes the subroutine program. Thus loops and subroutine localize reference to memory.  This principle states that memory references tend to cluster over a long period of time, the clusters in use changes but over a short period of time, the processor is primarily working with fixed clusters of memory references. Spatial Locality  It refers to the tendency of execution to involve a number of memory locations that are clustered.  It reflects tendency of a program to access data locations sequentially, such as when processing a table of data. Temporal Locality  It refers to the tendency for a processor to access memory locations that have been used frequently. For e.g. Iteration loops executes same set of instructions repeatedly. Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 13 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System 6.6 Elements of Cache design 6.6.1 Cache size  Size of the cache to be small enough so that the overall average cost per bit is close to that of main memory alone and large enough so that the overall average access time is close to that of the cache alone.  The larger the cache, the larger the number of gates involved in addressing the cache.  Large caches tend to be slightly slower than small ones – even when built with the same integrated circuit technology and put in the same place on chip and circuit board.  The available chip and board also limits cache size. 6.6.2 Mapping function  The transformation of data from main memory to cache memory is referred to as memory mapping process.  Because there are fewer cache lines than main memory blocks, an algorithm is needed for mapping main memory blocks into cache lines.  There are three different types of mapping functions in common use and are direct, associative and set associative. All the three include following elements in each example. o The cache can hold 64 Kbytes o Data is transferred between main memory and the cache in blocks of 4 14 bytes each. This means that the cache is organized as 16Kbytes = 2 lines of 4 bytes each. o The main memory consists of 16 Mbytes with each byte directly 24 addressable by a 24 bit address (2 = 16Mbytes). Thus, for mapping purposes, we can consider main memory to consist of 4Mbytes blocks of 4 bytes each. Direct Mapping  It is the simplex technique, maps each block of main memory into only one possible cache line i.e. a given main memory block can be placed in one and only one place on cache. i = j modulo m Where I = cache line number; j = main memory block number; m = number of lines in the cache  The mapping function is easily implemented using the address. For purposes of cache access, each main memory address can be viewed as consisting of three fields.  The least significant w bits identify a unique word or byte within a block of main s memory. The remaining s bits specify one of the 2 blocks of main memory.  The cache logic interprets these s bits as a tag of (s-r) bits most significant position and a r line field of r bits. The latter field identifies one of the m = 2 lines of the cache. Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 14 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System  Address length = (s + w) bits s+w  Number of addressable units = 2 words or bytes w  Block size = line size = 2 words or bytes s+ w w s  Number of blocks in main memory = 2 /2 = 2 r  Number of lines in cache = m = 2  Size of tag = (s – r) bits  24 bit address  2 bit word identifier (4 byte block)  22 bit block identifier  8 bit tag (=22-14), 14 bit slot or line  No two blocks in the same line have the same Tag field  Check contents of cache by finding line and checking Tag Cache line Main Memory blocks held 0 0, m, 2m, 3m…2s-m 1 1,m+1, 2m+1…2s-m+1 m-1 m-1, 2m-1,3m-1…2s-1 Cache Line 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Main 5 6 7 8 9 Memory 10 11 12 13 14 Block 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Note that o all locations in a single block of memory have the same higher order bits (call them the block number), so the lower order bits can be used to find a particular word in the block. o within those higher-order bits, their lower-order bits obey the modulo mapping given above (assuming that the number of cache lines is a power of 2), so they can be used to get the cache line for that block o the remaining bits of the block number become a tag, stored with each cache line, and used to distinguish one block from another that could fit into that same cache Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 15 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System line. Fig: Direct mapping structure Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 16 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System Fig: Direct mapping example Pros and Cons  Simple  Inexpensive  Fixed location for given block Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 17 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System o If a program accesses 2 blocks that map to the same line repeatedly, cache misses are very high Associated Mapping  It overcomes the disadvantage of direct mapping by permitting each main memory block to be loaded into any line of cache.  Cache control logic interprets a memory address simply as a tag and a word field  Tag uniquely identifies block of memory  Cache control logic must simultaneously examine every line’s tag for a match which requires fully associative memory  very complex circuitry, complexity increases exponentially with size  Cache searching gets expensive Fig: Associative structure  Address length = (s + w) bits s+w  Number of addressable units = 2 words or bytes w  Block size = line size = 2 words or bytes s+ w w s  Number of blocks in main memory = 2 /2 = 2  Number of lines in cache = undetermined, Size of tag = s bits Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 18 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System Fig: Associative mapping example  22 bit tag stored with each 32 bit block of data  Compare tag field with tag entry in cache to check for hit  Least significant 2 bits of address identify which 16 bit word is required from 32 bit data block  e.g. Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 19 Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 6 : Memory System Address Tag Data Cache line FFFFFC FFFFFC 24682468 3FFF Set Associated Mapping  It is a compromise between direct and associative mappings that exhibits the strength and reduces the disadvantages  Cache is divided into v sets, each of which has k lines; number of cache lines = vk M = v X k I = j modulo v Where, i = cache set number; j = main memory block number; m = number of lines in the cache  So a given block will map directly to a particular set, but can occupy any line in that set (associative mapping is used within the set)  Cache control logic interprets a memory address simply as three fields tag, set and word. d The d set bits specify one of v = 2 sets. Thus s bits of tag and set fields specify one of the s 2 block of main memory.  The most common set associative mapping is 2 lines per set, and is called two-way set associative. It significantly improves hit ratio over direct mapping, and the associative hardware is not too expensive. Fig: Set associative mapping structure  Address length = (s + w) bits s+w  Number of addressable units = 2 words or bytes Compiled By: Er. Hari Aryal haryal4gmail.com Reference: W. Stallings & M. Mano 20

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