Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction

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REEB European strategic research Roadmap to ICT enabled Energy-Efficiency in Buildings and constructions Grant agreement no.: 224320 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction Author(s): Raimar Scherer TUD Peter Katranuschkov TUD Tatiana Suarez TUD Karsten Menzel UCC Andriy Hryshchenko UCC Issue Date 31 March 2010 (m23) Deliverable Number D5.32 Version V2.0 WP Number WP5: Dissemination, best practice promotion and awareness- raising Status Delivered Dissemination level X PU = Public PP = Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services) RE = Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services) CO = Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services) Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 Contents  1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 8  2. BASELINE OF THE E-LEARNING LECTURES ....................................................... 10  2.1 OBJECTIVES AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE E-LEARNING LECTURES ...................................... 10  2.2 DEFINITION OF THE E-LEARNING COMMUNITY ......................................................................... 10  2.3 CRITERIA TO CHOSE LEARNING LECTURES ................................................................................ 11  2.4 E-LEARNING PLATFORM ................................................................................................................... 11  3. FRAMEWORK OF THE E-LEARNING PROGRAMME ......................................... 12  3.1 COURSE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES (LEARNING OUTCOMES) ...................................................... 12  3.2 COURSE PREREQUISITES .................................................................................................................. 12  3.3 COURSE CREDITS ................................................................................................................................ 13  3.4 ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATE ............................................................................................. 13  4. LEARNING MODULES STRUCTURE ....................................................................... 14  4.1 RECOMMENDATION GUIDELINES .................................................................................................. 14  4.2 MODULE OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................................... 14  4.2.1 First Semester ................................................................................................................................ 14  4.2.2 Second Semester ............................................................................................................................ 15  4.3 PRINCIPAL STRUCTURING OF THE INDIVIDUAL MODULES .................................................... 16  5. LEARNING MODULES CONTENTS .......................................................................... 18  5.1 MODULE 1: ICT APPLICATIONS IN EE BUILDING DESIGN ....................................................... 18  5.1.1 Synopsis ......................................................................................................................................... 18  5.1.2 Outline of Lectures ........................................................................................................................ 18  5.2 MODULE 2: ENERGY BASIC ASPECTS IN BUILDING DESIGN ................................................... 22  5.2.1 Synopsis ......................................................................................................................................... 22  5.2.2 Outline of Lectures ........................................................................................................................ 22  5.3 MODULE 3: ENERGY EFFICIENT PLANNING SYSTEM ................................................................ 28  5.3.1 Synopsis ......................................................................................................................................... 28  5.3.2 Outline of Lectures ........................................................................................................................ 28  5.4 MODULE 4: ENERGY EFFICIENT DESIGN SYSTEM ...................................................................... 34  5.4.1 Synopsis ......................................................................................................................................... 34  5.4.2 Outline of Lectures ........................................................................................................................ 34  5.5 MODULE 5: ENERGY EFFICIENT CONTROL SYSTEM OPERATION .............................................. 40  5.5.1 Synopsis ......................................................................................................................................... 40  5.5.2 Outline of Lectures ........................................................................................................................ 40  5.6 MODULE 6: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METHODS .............................................................. 46  5.6.1 Synopsis ......................................................................................................................................... 46  5.6.2 Outline of Lectures ........................................................................................................................ 46  6. DEVELOPMENT OF SELECTED LECTURES ......................................................... 50  6.1 LECTURE M2L1/L2 .............................................................................................................................. 50  6.2 LECTURE M3L13 .................................................................................................................................. 77  6.3 LECTURE M3L15 .................................................................................................................................. 98  6.4 LECTURE M3L29/30 ........................................................................................................................... 118  6.5 LECTURE M3L31 ................................................................................................................................ 136  6.6 LECTURE M4L1 .................................................................................................................................. 156  6.7 LECTURE M5L10 ................................................................................................................................ 175  February, 2010 Page 5 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 1. INTRODUCTION This report contains the organization of the e-learning material from base educational lessons in ICT applications for Energy Efficient Building Design, incorporating multimedia techniques to produce an authentic, online course education as a final result. The development of this course through online lessons is based on modules containing these lectures notes, targeting a wide audience of educators, students, industry and investors. These Lecture Notes are based on a shared vision investigation targeting the planning, design of buildings and the related controlling and monitoring systems concerning the ICT applications for the improvement of the Energy Efficiency of Buildings. The design of the lecture notes are based on the results of the others WP´s and are based on the experience of the authors, the institute “Construction and Informatics”, which is strong in BIM data structure, product and process modelling and the related institute of “Building Climate” which is strong in building energetic analysis and building energetic design. February, 2010 Page 8 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 February, 2010 Page 9 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 2. BASELINE OF THE E-LEARNING LECTURES These lectures are based on the planning, organization, management and experience of previous e-learning activities combined with new subjects on the field of ICT for Energy Efficiency in Building Design. 2.1 OBJECTIVES AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE E-LEARNING LECTURES The related information and technologies about energy efficiency are growing very fast and getting more and more complex, to handle and disseminate the information effectively, an efficient way of information management is needed. It is important to provide the necessary information, both to the decision-maker and to the public at large, creating an e-learning environment to support education and professional training and promoting learning self-study of the subject. For all these reasons the objectives and perspectives are the following: • The lectures aims at broadening the understanding and hence the application of the use of ICT in EE of BC in AEC, FM and related communities through e-learning illustrated case studies and applications. • To extend the application of the ICT in EE of BC communities to the e-learning field through illustrated case studies and applications. • It is expected the learning public to receive the information knowledge effectively, promoting engaging investigation of the theory and research of new technologies aspects. • To make the information more accessible to building designer, policy makers, researchers and others involved in the building life-cycle. • To keep the learning public motivated and encourage them to become more aware of the potential and benefits of energy efficiency. • To increase technical, economic and environmental interest in energy efficiency and ICT related applications. 2.2 DEFINITION OF THE E-LEARNING COMMUNITY The participants of this e-learning programme will be confirmed by a wide audience interested in the energy efficiency and Building construction related field: experts and professionals, programmers and non programmers, students, industrials, investors, training specialists, products developers, service developers, architects, building engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers and facility asset managers. They can be structures in 3 groups: 1) Basic participants 2) Intermediate participants 3) Advanced participants It is expected that the e-learning community will be open and wide as possible. February, 2010 Page 10 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 2.3 CRITERIA TO CHOSE LEARNING LECTURES The structure and design of these lectures integrate the main concepts which are included in the learning material. The subjects included in the learning material are the following: • ICT based solutions as an enabler for energy efficiency • ICT tools for the management of energy systems • ICT tools for the design (CAD) of Energy-efficient buildings • EE factors and challenges, planning design & control system • EE program & performance analysis. The learning modules are articulated based on the content management and on learning experience. 2.4 E-LEARNING PLATFORM The Web-based system of the e-learning platform aims to establish a rich information network with comprehensive information made to reach a real broad audience. This platform should be held in an open system Website and it would be recommended to make a development work on the national level and language- of each member- to draw a better public attention. However in the first step English will be chosen. It is intended that the test platform will be provided and tested, at the beginning of this program with university students in the universities of the academics REEB members and in the near future will be open to the public (see 2.4) It is intended to hold the e-learning programme as a test site in collaboration with the ICT Euromaster e-learning course. http://euromaster.itcedu.net/. This platform will be adjusted to easy access and distribution for self directed lessons, and it is expected to count with a multimedia strategy to expand the public interaction. February, 2010 Page 11 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 3. FRAMEWORK OF THE E-LEARNING PROGRAMME 3.1 COURSE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES (LEARNING OUTCOMES) After successful completion of this course, participants will acquire awareness and competence about: • Advanced knowledge about and training in ICT for energy-efficient building design. • Development of integrative energy efficiency systems. • Energy life-cycle analysis of buildings. • Detailing energy zones and rooms to obtain optimal climatic conditions. • Detailing building elements to avoid cool bridges and moisture problems. • Designing the sensor systems for optimal climatic control. • Design (customize) the controlling system. • Analysing gaps in the energetic behaviour of existing building and developing plans for improvement. • Energy-efficient operation of buildings. The e-learning lectures will facilitate knowledge diffusion and a new learning/ teaching experience approaches that assures • Shared responsibility toward improved energy performance in buildings and through communities; • Transforming behaviour by educating and motivating the building transactions professionals into alters their course toward improved energy efficiency in buildings; • Raising awareness of energy efficiency value by those involved in the development, operation and use of buildings. 3.2 COURSE PREREQUISITES Due to the variable targeted public it is expected that the structured modules will include preliminary introduction to each area of study, although the participants should have basic knowledge in: • Energy resources and consumption • Building elements • Software applications February, 2010 Page 12 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 The curriculum is focused on: • Professionals with an academic knowledge in the building field, structural engineering, surveying, construction or architecture. • Students but with basic knowledge in structural engineering, building construction or architecture. • Professionals in ICT which will use their knowledge in the application to the energy efficiency field. • Professionals involved in energy technology field. • Designers, developers, providers related and interested in the study field. Due to this heterogeneity of the potential audience it was felt that preparatory modules may be helpful which will offer the basic prerequisite knowledge about energy source, energy methods, climate, system capturing, system control, life-cycle analysis. However it was decided, that the development of these modules are not in the focus of this WP. 3.3 COURSE CREDITS The credit distribution is based on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) to ensure that the courses are compatible with the academic system and can be seamlessly merged in academic curricula. Therefore it is based on the principle that 60 credits measure the workload of a full-time student during one academic year with around 1500 hours per year and one credit stands for around 25 working hours. The working hours are divided into direct lecture hours and indirect ones, namely pre- and post-preparation hours, i.e. to self-study the lecture material, to solve lecture-accompanying tasks and to prepare individual semester project work. As a whole, the “ICT Application in Energy Efficiency Building Design” program is a sequence of six learning modules, included in a standard learning structure for regular students. The entire programme is planned to cover one full year, divided in two semesters of 30 credits each with 25 hours/credit per semester and 15 weeks per semester ( in the mean). 3.4 ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATE At present the member’s participants - TUD and UCC - can implement these learning lectures as a part of their current university activities. The students will receive the accumulative credits for taking part in the courses. Free students who perform the required activities and assignments and passed written examination will receive a personal teacher certificate. Any professional taking part in the courses is counted as a free student. February, 2010 Page 13 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 4. LEARNING MODULES STRUCTURE 4.1 RECOMMENDATION GUIDELINES The extension of the course will depend on the learning options of every participant; the users will be able to choose the lessons that best suit their learning activities. The modules are accordingly sub-structured in order of knowledge level, i.e. basic knowledge (modules M1 & M2), main working knowledge (modules M3, M4 & M5) and advanced analyses and evaluation (M6). The modules M1 and M2 provide an introduction to the basic aspect of energy efficiency application in building design and are recommended to non experienced people in the field. The intermediate modules (M3, M4 & M5) are considered to be the beginning of the learning modules for experienced public and will thereby include various application technologies of interest. The final module (M6) is a practice based application. Each lecture within the modules will include literature recommendations. Reading material will include a website link to implement the learning process and free or trial software downloads (sites) for practice application. 4.2 MODULE OVERVIEW 4.2.1 First Semester ¾ Number of modules: 3 ¾ Target learning public: No preliminary prerequisites; open to students and professionals in building construction; ICT or energy efficiency. However, preparatory lectures should be taken into account. ¾ Learning Objectives: To integrate the pre-design schematics ideas and most suitable concepts for the pre-design of a new building structure or significant retrofitting facilities. The principal aim is to prepare the target public to recognize the key issues that should be addressed in the early pre-design stage for a more energy efficiency integrated building design. The learning public will acquire the necessary basic introduction to the design overview application and will have a better level of maturity and perception of sustainable and “green” buildings. Module M1: ICT Applications in EE Building Design Number of credits: 6 Lecture hours per week: 5 Lecture hours in total: 75 h Working load in total: 150 h Level: Basic knowledge Module M2: Energy Basic Aspects in Building Design Number of credits: 12 Hours per week: 9 Lecture hours in total: 135 h Working load in total: 300 h Level: Basic knowledge February, 2010 Page 14 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 Module M3: Energy Efficient Planning System Number of credits: 12 Hours per week: 9 Lecture hours in total: 135 h Working load in total: 300 h Level: Intermediate knowledge 4.2.2 Second Semester ¾ Number of modules: 3 ¾ Target learning public: The modules M1, M2 and M3 are a mandatory prerequisite for non expert students; the module is open to experts with intermediate knowledge in energy efficiency building construction design. ¾ Learning Objectives: These modules aim to provide the performance analysis and development tools to their application on the design process, after the culmination of the three final modules the learning public will be able to develop a strategy for an optimal energy efficiency building design from a modelling point of view and their environmental evaluation and control system. Module M4: Energy Efficient Design System Number of credits: 12 Hours per week: 9 Lecture hours in total: 135 h Working load in total: 300 h Level: Intermediate knowledge Module M5: Energy Efficient Control System Operation Number of credits: 11 Hours per week: 9 Lecture hours in total: 135 h Working load in total: 300 h Level: Intermediate knowledge Module M6: Performance Evaluation Methods and Best Practice Examples Number of credits: 6 Lecture hours per week: 5 Lecture hours in total: 75 h Working load in total: 150 h Level: Evaluation and certification. February, 2010 Page 15 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2   First Semester Basic Intermediate Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 ICT applications in EE Building  Energy Basic Aspects in  Energy Efficient Planning  design Building Design System Credits: 6 Credits: 12 Credits: 12 NumberofLectures: 22 NumberofLectures: 33 NumberofLectures: 33 Lecturehoursper week: 5 Lecturehoursper week: 9 Lecturehoursper week: 9 LectureHoursin total :75 LectureHoursin total : 135 LectureHoursin total : 135 Working loadin total: 150 h Working load in total: 300 h Working load in total: 300 h Second Semester Evaluation & Certification Basic Module 6 Module 5 Module 4 Performance Evaluation  Energy Efficient Control  Energy Efficient Design System Methods and Best practice  System Operation examples Credits: 12 Credits: 12 Credits: 6 NumberofLectures: 33 NumberofLectures: 33 NumberofLectures: 22 Lecturehoursper week: 9 Lecturehoursper week: 9 Lecturehoursper week: 5 LectureHoursin total : 135 LectureHoursin total : 135 LectureHoursin total :75 Working loadin total: 300 h Working loadin total: 300 h Working load in total: 150 h Learning modules structure 4.3 PRINCIPAL STRUCTURING OF THE INDIVIDUAL MODULES For the Last present Version of the following document (V 3.0), it was made a little adjustment of the superficial global structure of each modules credit; the main observation concentrates in the large amount of Lectures and the real capacity to cover the number of teaching hours expected. For these reasons, the applied modification was punctual to the summary of number of lectures and the consequent number or teaching hours; however the modules remain the same as the last version structure. As decided, all modules were conceived in the form of alternating lectures and exercises in ratio 1:1, suitable for both in-class and guided on-line presentation. Accordingly, the two modules comprising 68 lecture hours (M1 and M6) will include 17 lectures with corresponding exercises lectures, and the four modules comprising 124 lecture hours (M2– M5) will include 30 lectures with corresponding exercise lectures as well. February, 2010 Page 16 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 The exercises will be additionally subdivided into two types: (a) guided exercises (tutorials), and (b) hands-on exercises (mainly students own work). In each module, there will be one lecture (at approximately 2/3 of the full duration) specifically dedicated to discussion/specification of individual semester project work and one lecture (at the end) summarising the lessons learned, providing evaluation of the semester project work and extending recommendations for further studies. Furthermore, in each module specific attention will be paid to ICT related issues regarding EE in Building Construction, in alignment with the vision and roadmap of REEB. The overall working load of each module takes into account the above mentioned curricula, the individual project work and the anticipated hours for self-studies. The following Chapter 5 presents a synopsis of each module and the outline of all lectures, including the key topics to be addressed. All lectures are numbered in uniform manner as follows: Mmodule .Llecture As an example, M1.L3 means the third lecture (L3) of module one (M1), and M4.L25 means the twenty-fifth lecture (L25) of module four (M4). There are also some cases where the learning material extends over two lectures while providing one integral learning goal. Such “double” lectures are marked with two numbers, e.g. M1.L7/8 means that the included learning material will be presented in lectures L7 and L8 of M1. It is expected that this document describe a modular Learning structure to give an overview of the learning methods and important points in the area of main importance of REEB but the possibility to integrate and develop the whole two semester’s lectures is a matter of future arrangements in the Learning plan of UCC and TUD. February, 2010 Page 17 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 5. LEARNING MODULES CONTENTS 5.1 MODULE 1: ICT APPLICATIONS IN EE BUILDING DESIGN (PREPARATORY MODULE FOR EE BUILDING) 5.1.1 Synopsis In this module the energy efficiency factors variation in buildings according to geography, climate, building type and location are analysed, mapping the energy resources with regard of energy system development, as important part of the decision basis for potential measures. It includes the critical factors and challenges, awareness, training and availability of material, equipments and technologies. Basic principles of ICT support of EE of buildings are introduced and explained. The objective of the module is to establish the basic standards and basic assessment that need to be known in order to provide adequate ICT-supported energy efficient design. Overall, the module structure is as follows: − Lectures L1-L6 provide an overview of the various aspects related to EE building and construction that need to be considered (energy resources, thermal performance, lighting performance, building diagnostics, ICT use in various EE related building sub-systems) − Lectures L7-L13 present fundamental principles of systems modelling needed for proper understanding of major issues in all subsequent modules − Lecture L14 is specifically dedicated to the discussion and specification of the individual semester project work − Lectures L15-L21 provide an overview of various basic and advanced ICT concepts and architectures for use in EE building and construction, including also EE related standards, regulations and guidelines as well as critical factors and challenges to be taken into account − The final lecture L22 provides a summary evaluation of the learned material and the achieved results in the individual semester project work, and gives recommendations for further reading and future practice. 5.1.2 Outline of Lectures M1.L1 Introduction to ICT APPLICATIONS IN EE BUILDING DESIGN • Motivation and objectives of the module, learning goals • Introduction to research principles, designs and methods with regard to building performance modelling and energy efficient building and construction • Introduction to thermal, acoustic and lighting modelling and building simulation using CAD • State-of-the-art review and current best practice examples M1.L2 Energy resources survey • Overview of resources with regard to EE building and construction, in the context of production and consumption • Types of resources and their relevance to design/construction/FM decisions • Discussion of potentials for improving energy efficiency February, 2010 Page 18 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 M1.L3 Thermal building performance • Basic concepts • Overview of design and computational methods • Outline of computational tools for prediction and analysis of a building’s performance (specifically: thermal performance) with regard to building physics M1.L4 Lighting building performance • Basic concepts • Overview of design and computational methods • Outline of computational tools for prediction and analysis of a building’s performance (specifically: lighting performance) with regard to building physics • Review of further building performance aspects M1.L5 Building Diagnostics • Basic concepts, objectives and benefits • The concept of “intelligent building” • Development of building diagnostic systems (historical review) • Review of modern building diagnostic systems and building control M1.L6 Scenarios of ICT applications for energy efficient building and construction • ICT devices components and systems application for the improvement of EE in building design and construction and their relevance in the reduction of energy consumption and costs • Facilitating EE factors via ICT • Principal use scenarios in new construction and in retrofitting existing buildings • Principal use scenarios in FM M1.L7/8 Introduction to system modelling • Basics of system theory • Types of systems in building design and their relevance for EE building • Fundamentals of system modelling • System components and inter-relationships, super- and sub-systems • System interoperability • Meta-models and multi-models • Principal concepts of system design M1.L9 Process modelling • Basic concepts, objectives and benefits for EE building and construction • State-of-the-art and brief historical review • Process modelling paradigms, levels of process modelling • Process modelling languages - introduction to IDEF0, EPC and BPMN • Process modelling and ICT February, 2010 Page 19 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 M1.L10/11 Product modelling • Basic concepts, objectives and benefits for EE building and construction • State-of-the-art and brief historical review • Product modelling paradigms and product modelling levels • Formal and graphical product modelling languages – introduction to STEP/EXPRESS XML Schema and RDFS • Product models in Building Construction – ISO STEP AP225, STEP CDS, CIS/2, IFC • Domain-specific modelling • Modelling hints and caveats • Product modelling and ICT: The BuildingSMART initiative M1.L12 Lifecycle and cost modelling • Basic concepts, objectives and benefits for EE building and construction • Use of process and product models in life cycle modelling and management • The concept of “Cost Elements” • Integration issues • Review of LPM systems and their potential benefits for EE building and construction M1.L13 Simulation modelling • Basic concepts of energy simulation – what is simulation, why is it important and how does it help to save energy • Principles of simulation modelling • Types of simulation models • The overall simulation modelling and performance process • Modelling hints and caveats M1.L14 Semester project seminar The students explore and articulate ideas for a semester project work of choice; each student presents a proposal that outlines the project, its motivation and background, as well as the methodology to be used; the proposals are reviewed and approved by the lecturer and/or the student advisor(s) M1.L15 ICT architectures for EE building design • Introduction to software architectures • Architecture components • Architecture types • Design principles and tools • UML - brief overview; use of UML on detailed process and product modelling levels (activity diagrams, sequence diagrams, component diagrams, class diagrams) M1.L16 Distributed ICT systems • Fundamentals of distributed systems • System topologies and their consequences with regard to software configuration, development and use • Client-server systems, Peer-to-peer systems, Grid systems and Cloud computing – principles, advantages, disadvantages, examples and potential use February, 2010 Page 20 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 M1.L17 Ontologies • Basic concepts, objectives and benefits for EE building and construction • Types of ontologies • Representational issues, difference between ontologies and product models • Ontology languages – KL-ONE, DAML/OIL, OWL, F-Logic • Ontology tools – overview, examples, current and potential use M1.L18 EE related basic tools and media • Software tools and media that are commonly used to support knowledge-based design decision making, to conduct research, and to disseminate results o Spreadsheets o Databases o Mathematical and statistics packages o Presentation media and script languages o Simulation applications • Comparative analysis and synthesis of features M1.L19 Standards, regulations and policy guidelines for EE building design Part I: ● Scope of building energy codes and regulations • Basic structure overview of selected regulations – calculations guidelines, required minimum performance levels, building design and control requirements and recommendations Part II: ● Use of codes and regulations in everyday practice work • Use of codes and regulations in EE related ICT M1.L20 Critical factors and challenges for EE building design • Levels of energy performance and cost effectiveness • Low-power technologies and design solutions • Optimisation issues with regard to energy utilisation • Adaptive energy management • ICT as facilitator for EE building design • Coordination and integration issues M1.L21 Advanced topics in EE related building science • Presentation by academic and/or industry experts of current and recently accomplished research activities and projects • In-depth discussion of selected international trends in the target areas M1.L22 Project work evaluation and module wrap-up • In-class presentations of selected semester project work by students • Summary evaluation of semester project work • Summary of the overall module contents • Synthesis of the lessons learned • Advice for further reading and future practice February, 2010 Page 21 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 5.2 MODULE 2: ENERGY BASIC ASPECTS IN BUILDING DESIGN 5.2.1 Synopsis This module includes the introduction to building design and its important aspect influencing the overall design: − Climatic environment and climatic design with site elements and architectural planning; − Building envelope: exterior walls, windows, roof, underground slab and foundations − The factors determining the heat flow across the building envelope: temperature diffe- rential, area of the building exposed and heat transmission value of the exposed area − The Building Energy Systems: Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with the proper evaluation of thermal comfort criteria, load calculation methods, system characteristics, equipment and plant operation (part-load); general design strategies for lighting design and other building services systems consuming energy – electrical installations, lifts and escalators, utilities supply conditions (gas and electricity) etc. The objective of the module is to give an overview of the basic building design elements and the factors determining the heat flow across the building envelope. Overall, the module structure is as follows: − Lecture L1 begins the module with a presentation of the main EE aspects that need to be taken into account in EE building design − Lectures L2-L18 are dedicated to the subject of building climatology − As in the previous module, at 2/3 of the total duration of the module one lecture (L19) is dedicated to the discussion and specification of individual semester project work − The following lectures L20-L32 are dedicated to the principal architectural and building services concepts related to energy optimised building design; as practical reference the Autodesk Green Building Studio is presented in a lecture and a hands-on seminar (L23-L24) − Finally, the last lecture L33 provides a summary evaluation of the learned material and the achieved results in the individual semester project work, and gives recommendations for further reading and future practice. 5.2.2 Outline of Lectures M2.L1 Introduction to energy basic aspects in building design • Motivation and objectives of the module, learning goals • Basic EE aspects in building design • Energy sources and conversions (Renewable sources, local generation and energy storage - ground heat, heat recovery, geothermal and solar energy use, rainwater collection etc., energy generation and transmission) • Climatic environment and climatic design • State-of-the-art review February, 2010 Page 22 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 M2.L2 Building Climatology • Objective and purpose of study • Domain topics addressed • Macro, mesa and micro climate • Building climate control and its relation to overall EE building design M2.L3 The indoor climatic environment • Room climate – overall design concepts • Parameters and measurable values of the indoor climatic environment • Room temperature (environment temperature, operative temperature etc.) • Humidity and air circulation • Energy management of the human body and its consideration in building design M2.L4/5 Architectural influences on the indoor climatic environment • Room climate and habitants o Influences o Tolerable, comfortable and energy optimal room climate conditions o Minimal room climate requirements o Basic protective measures • Planning measures regarding temperature • Planning measures regarding humidity • Planning measures regarding air circulation and velocities • Overall climatic adjustment measures o Design considerations o Overview of design methods and tables o Overview of prescribed regulatory measures M2.L6/7 Climate-friendly construction • Autogenous heating, ventilation and air conditioning • Energogeneous heating, ventilation and air conditioning • Heat transfer • Convection and heat radiation • Influences of the building envelope – walls, windows, roof, foundations o Factors determining heat transfer o Determining temperature differentials o Determining the heat transmission values of exposed building areas M2.L8 Calculation of the thermal resistance • Basic definitions • Minimal thermal protection – basic concepts and calculation methods • Condensation water protection – basic concepts and calculation methods • Mould protection calculation February, 2010 Page 23 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 M2.L9 Thermal bridges in different construction elements and their influences • Basic features of thermal bridges • Thermal bridges in walls • Thermal bridges in floors and roofs • Principal prevention methods • Example details M2.L10 Water Vapour Diffusion • Sources and reasons of water vapour diffusion • Influence of water vapour diffusion on different construction materials – consequences and prevention measures • Computational methods according to regulations • Advanced scientific methods M2.L11 Examples of Thermal Bridges and Water Vapour Diffusion • Various examples of complex construction parts such as flat roofs, facades etc. • Selected detailed analyses • General construction hints M2.L12 Outdoor climatic environment • Basic influences and parameters • Climatic regions and their characteristics • Measurable values of weather conditions M2.L13 Outdoor air temperature • Definitions and measurable values • Daily temperature and its calculation • Monthly and yearly temperature, calculation of average values, derivation of characteristic values related to EE building design M2.L14 Sun radiation • Definitions and measurable values • Characteristic radiation angles • Calculation of the sun radiation taking into account the influence of clouds and haze, shading, etc. • Influence of sun radiation on the building exterior • Derivation of characteristic values related to EE building design M2.L15 Outdoor air humidity, wind and atmospheric pressure • Definitions and measurable values • Daily values and its calculation • Monthly and yearly values, calculation of average values and derivation of characteristic values related to EE building design February, 2010 Page 24 Lecture Notes on Energy Efficiency in Building Construction REEB: GA no.: 224320 D5.32, Version 2 M2.L16 City climate • Basic concepts and definitions • Antropogenous climatic factors and their influences on the EE of buildings • Wind influences in city regions (pressure differences, turbulences, good and bad influence on the building exterior and the EE of buildings as a whole) • Basic architectural protection measures M2.L17/18 Natural ventilation • Natural air movement and its calculation • Types of natural ventilation – joint / window / shaft / roof ventilation • Ventilation shafts and their importance in EE building design • Pollution concentration • Water vapour concentration • Heat transport • Examples: ventilation of an office room, ventilation of a humidor M2.L19 Semester project seminar The students explore and articulate ideas for a semester project work of choice; each student presents a proposal that outlines the project, its motivation and background, as well as the methodology to be used; the proposals are reviewed and approved by the lecturer and/or the student advisor(s) M2.L20 Architectural concepts of energy optimised building design and construction • Objectives and relevant socio-economic aspect • Historical review • State-of-the-art examples • Current and upcoming energy efficiency policies and regulations M2.L21/22 Energy optimised buildings (conceived as invited lectures by experts from industry) • Types of energy optimised buildings – principal concepts, design and life-cycle considerations • The zero energy house • The passive house • Solar architecture • The low energy and the energy plus house • The self-sustained house • Best practice examples M2.L23 The Autodesk Green Building Studio (AGBS) (conceived as invited lecture by an expert from industry) • Overview of the Autodesk Green Building Studio web-based energy analysis service • Use of AGBS in early design • Interaction with Autodesk’s Revit • Carbon Neutral Design with AGBS February, 2010 Page 25

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