C++ Input/Output: Streams

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C++ Input/Output: Streams 4. Input/Output 1 The basic data type for I/O in C++ is the stream. C++ incorporates a complex hierarchy of stream types. The most basic stream types are the standard input/output streams: istream cin built-in input stream variable; by default hooked to keyboard ostream cout built-in output stream variable; by default hooked to console header file: iostream C++ also supports all the input/output mechanisms that the C language included. However, C++ streams provide all the input/output capabilities of C, with substantial improvements. We will exclusively use streams for input and output of data. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++C++ Streams are Objects 4. Input/Output 2 The input and output streams, cin and cout are actually C++ objects. Briefly: class: a C++ construct that allows a collection of variables, constants, and functions to be grouped together logically under a single name object: a variable of a type that is a class (also often called an instance of the class) For example, istream is actually a type name for a class. cin is the name of a variable of type istream. So, we would say that cin is an instance or an object of the class istream. An instance of a class will usually have a number of associated functions (called member functions) that you can use to perform operations on that object or to obtain information about it. The following slides will present a few of the basic stream member functions, and show how to go about using member functions. Classes are one of the fundamental ideas that separate C++ from C. In this course, we will explore the standard stream classes and the standard string class. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Conceptual Model of a Stream 4. Input/Output 3 A stream provides a connection between the process that initializes it and an object, such as a file, which may be viewed as a sequence of data. In the simplest view, a stream object is simply a serialized view of that other object. For example, for an input stream: input file To be, or not to be? That is the question. ... . . stream object . T r o o ... be executing process We think of data as flowing in the stream to the process, which can remove data from the stream as desired. The data in the stream cannot be lost by “flowing past” before the program has a chance to remove it. The stream object provides the process with an “interface” to the data. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Output: the Insertion Operator 4. Input/Output 4 To get information out of a file or a program, we need to explicitly instruct the computer to output the desired information. One way of accomplishing this in C++ is with the use of an output stream. In order to use the standard I/O streams, we must have in our program the pre-compiler directive: include iostream In order to do output to the screen, we merely use a statement like: Hint: the insertion operator () points in cout " X = " X; the direction the data is flowing. where X is the name of some variable or constant that we want to write to the screen. Insertions to an output stream can be "chained" together as shown here. The left-most side must be the name of an output stream variable, such as cout. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Output Examples 4. Input/Output 5 Inserting the name of a variable or constant to a stream causes the value of that object to be written to the stream: endl is a manipulator. const string Label = "Pings echoed: "; A manipulator is a C++ construct that int totalPings = 127; is used to control the formatting of output and/or input values. cout Label totalPings endl; Manipulators can only be present in Pings echoed: 127 Input/Output statements. The endl manipulator causes a newline character to be output. No special formatting is supplied by default. endl is defined in the iostream header file and can be used as long as Alignment, line breaks, etc., must all be the header file has been included. controlled by the programmer: cout "CANDLE" endl; cout "CANDLE"; cout "STICK" endl; cout "STICK" endl; Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Input: the Extraction Operator 4. Input/Output 6 To get information into a file or a program, we need to explicitly instruct the computer to acquire the desired information. One way of accomplishing this in C++ is with the use of an input stream. As with the standard input stream, cout, the program must use the pre-compiler directive: include iostream In order to do output, we merely use a statement like: Hint: the extraction operator () points in cin X; the direction the data is flowing. where X is the name of some variable that we want to store the value that will be read from the keyboard. As with the insertion operator, extractions from an input stream can also be "chained". The left-most side must be the name of an input stream variable. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Input Examples 4. Input/Output 7 12 17.3 -19 Assume the input stream cin contains the data: Then: int A, B; double X; cin A; // A - 12 cin X; // X - 17.3 cin B; // B - -19 If we start each time with the same initial values in the stream: int A, B; int A; char C; char B, C, D; cin A; // A - 12 cin A; // A - 12 cin B; // B - 17 cin B; // B - '1' cin C; // C - '.' cin C; // C - '7' cin A; // A - 3 The extraction operator is "smart enough" to consider the type of the target variable when it determines how much to read from the input stream. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++string Input with Extraction 4. Input/Output 8 The extraction operator may be used to read characters into a string variable. The extraction statement reads a whitespace-terminated string into the target string, ignoring any leading whitespace and not including the terminating whitespace character in the target string. Flintstone, Fred 718.23 Assume the input stream cin contains the data: Then: string L, F; double X; cin L; // L - "Flintstone," cin F; // F - "Fred" cin X; // X - 718.23 The amount of storage allocated for the string variables will be adjusted as necessary to hold the number of characters read. (There is a limit on the number of characters a string variable can hold, but that limit is so large it is of no practical concern.) Of course, it is often desirable to have more control over where the extraction stops. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Extraction Operator and Whitespace 4. Input/Output 9 In programming, common characters that do not produce a visible image on a page or in a file are referred to as whitespace. Name Code The most common whitespace characters are: \n newline \t tab blank (space) \r carriage return \v vertical tab By default, the extraction operator in C++ will ignore leading whitespace characters. That is, the extraction operator will remove leading whitespace characters from the input stream and discard them. What if we need to read and store whitespace characters? See the get() function later in the notes. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Details of an Extraction 4. Input/Output 10 12 17.3 -19 Assume the input stream cin contains: The numbers are separated by some sort of whitespace, say by tabs. Suppose that X is declared as an int, and the following statement is executed: cin X; The type of the targeted variable, X in this case, determines how the extraction is performed. First, any leading whitespace characters are discarded. Since an integer value is being read, the extraction will stop if a character that couldn't be part of an integer is found. So, the digits '1' and '2' are extracted, and the next character is a tab, so the extraction stops and X gets the value 12. The tab after the '2' is left in the input stream. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++ignore() Member Function 4. Input/Output 11 There is also a way to remove and discard characters from an input stream: cin.ignore(N, ch); means to skip (read and discard) up to N characters in the input stream, or until the character ch has been read and discarded, whichever comes first. So: cin.ignore(80, '\n'); says to skip the next 80 input characters or to skip characters until a newline character is read, whichever comes first. The ignore function can be used to skip a specific number of characters or halt whenever a given character occurs: cin.ignore(100, '\t'); means to skip the next 100 input characters, or until a tab character is read, or whichever comes first. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Interactive I/O 4. Input/Output 12 Prompts: users must be given a cue when and what they need to input: const string AgePrompt = "Enter your Age: "; cout AgePrompt; cin UserAge; The statements above allow the user to enter her/his age in response to the prompt. Because of buffering of the I/O by the computer, it is possible that the prompt may not appear on a monitor before the program expects input to be entered. To ensure output is sent to its destination immediately: cout AgePrompt flush; cin UserAge; The manipulator flush ensures that the prompt will appear on the display before the input is required. The manipulator endl includes a implicit flush. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Streams for File I/O 4. Input/Output 13 C++ also provides stream types for reading from and writing to files stored on disk. For the most part, these operate in exactly the same way as the standard I/O streams, cin and cout. For basic file I/O: include fstream There are no pre-defined file stream variables, so a programmer who needs to use file streams must declare file stream variables: ifstream inFile; // input file stream object ofstream outFile; // output file stream object The types ifstream and ofstream are C++ stream classes designed to be connected to input or output files. File stream objects have all the member functions and manipulators possessed by the standard streams, cin and cout. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Connecting Streams to Files 4. Input/Output 14 By default, a file stream is not connected to anything. In order to use a file stream the programmer must establish a connection between it and some file. This can be done in two ways. You may use the open() member function associated with each stream object: inFile.open("readme.data"); outFile.open("writeme.data"); This sets up the file streams to read data from a file called "readme.data" and write output to a file called "writeme.data". For an input stream, if the specified file does not exist, it will not be created by the operating system, and the input stream variable will contain an error flag. This can be checked using the member function fail() discussed on a later slide. For an output stream, if the specified file does not exist, it will be created by the operating system. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Connecting Streams to Files 4. Input/Output 15 You may also connect a file stream variable to a file when the stream variable is declared: ifstream inFile("readme.data"); ofstream outFile("writeme.data"); This also sets up the file streams to read data from a file called "readme.data" and write output to a file called "writeme.data". The only difference between this approach and using the open() function is compactness. Warning: if you use a string constant (or variable) to store the file name, you must add a special conversion when connecting the stream: string inputFileName = "readme.data"; ifstream inFile(inputFileName.c_str()); Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++close() Member Function 4. Input/Output 16 When a program is finished with a file, it must close the file using the close( ) member function associated with each file stream variable: inStream.close( ); outStream.close( ); (Including the file name is an error.) Calling close( ) notifies the operating system that your program is done with the file and that the system should flush any related buffers, update file security information, etc. It is always best to close files explicitly, (even though by the C++ standard, files are closed automatically whenever the associated file stream variable goes out of scope see the chapter on functions for a presentation of scope). Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Formatting Numeric Output 4. Input/Output 17 First of all you need to include the manipulator header file: iomanip setw( ): sets the field width (number of spaces in which the value is displayed). setw( ) takes one parameter, which must be an integer. The setw( ) setting applies to the next single value output only. setprecision( ): sets the precision, the number of digits shown after the decimal point. setprecision( ) also takes one parameter, which must be an integer. The setprecision( ) setting applies to all subsequent floating point values, until another setprecision( ) is applied. Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Floating Point Formatting 4. Input/Output 18 In addition, to activate the manipulator setprecision( )for your output stream, insert the following two manipulators once: outStream fixed showpoint; (Just use the name of your output stream variable.) Omitting these manipulators will cause setprecision( ) to fail, and will cause real values whose decimal part is zero to be printed without trailing zeroes regardless of setprecision( ). Other useful manipulators: bin hex octal dec scientific Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Setting Justification 4. Input/Output 19 Justification - Justification refers to the alignment of data within a horizontal field. - The default justification in output fields is to the right, with padding occurring first (on the left). - To reverse the default justification to the left: cout fixed showpoint; string empName = "Flintstone, Fred"; double Wage = 8.43; double Hours = 37.5; cout left; //turn on left justification cout setw(20) empName; cout right; //turn on right justification cout setw(10) setprecision(2) Wage Hours endl; This will produce the output: 012345678901234567890123456789 Flintstone, Fred 316.13 Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++Setting Padding 4. Input/Output 20 Padding Output - Padding refers to the character used to fill in the unused space in an output field. - By default the pad character for justified output is the space (blank) character. - This can be changed by using the setfill() manipulator: int ID = 413225; cout "0123456789" endl; cout setw(10) ID endl; cout setfill('0'); //pad with zeroes cout setw(10) ID endl; cout setfill(' '); //reset padding to spaces This will produce the output: 0123456789 413225 0000413225 Computer Science Dept Va Tech August, 2001 ©1995-2001 Barnette ND & McQuain WD Intro Programming in C++

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