How to spoken English Fluently

lecture notes on spoken English and how to spoken English book pdf free download
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ShawnPacinocal,United States,Researcher
Published Date:09-07-2017
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Use Spoken English Learned Quickly to earn money We encourage individuals to copy Spoken English Learned Quickly from the website and use it to earn personal income. This is our free service to you. We do not ask for payment of any kind. 9 You may use Spoken English Learned Quickly to teach English to others and charge them for the lessons. 9 You may sell both the printed and audio recordings of the lessons. 9 We set no limit on how much you may charge. 9 You may use the Instructor's Guide when you teach. 9 You must print and record the lessons exactly as you download them. You cannot edit, shorten or change any portion of the lessons. The printed lessons must be reproduced exactly as you download them in the PDF file format. 9 You must agree to all of the applicable conditions in the Terms of Use statement. Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: iv "HELLO. HOW ARE YOU?" "FINE, THANK YOU." A prospective Spoken English Learned Quickly language teacher will frequently ask: “How do I teach English? I’ve never had any English language teacher training.” Or, “How do I make the class interesting?” Everything you need to teach this course has already been done for you. This is truly a self-taught English language course. You will also find suggestions in this Instructor's Guide for using the course in a classroom setting. There is only one thing that must happen for the course to be successful. If the 1 student will spend time each day correctly using the recorded lessons, the course will be a success. Everything has been done for the student on the recordings, supplemented with the Student Workbook. If you do nothing else in your class time other than to motivate the students to do their daily language drills, you have succeeded. The real language instruction is on the recorded lessons. The student will speak more correct English sentences per hour when using the recorded exercises than they possibly can in any class. This Instructor’s Guide was written to give you helpful suggestions. Your real objective is to let your class become a source of encouragement to the students so that they will persevere in using their exercise drills. Relax. Have fun teaching. Let the recorded lessons do their job of teaching your students how to speak English. 1 You have probably downloaded this material from our website You are permitted to copy the material on compact discs (CDs) according to the terms in Terms of Use posted on this website. Correctly using the audio recordings means that the student is: 1) using the audio recordings one to two hours each day; 2) following the pattern of listening to the audio recording voice and responding aloud, and 3) responding to the audio recording exercise without reading from the Student Workbook after becoming familiar with each exercise Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 1 INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE: INTRODUCTION The English instructor’s job Most English as a Second Language (ESL) courses require a high expenditure of the teacher’s time in proportion to actual student language practice. This is especially true when the group class session is the primary source of structured practice in spoken English and the individual study time is used largely for written exercises. That format places a great demand on the teacher and prolongs the time required to teach spoken English. This series of lessons was developed to overcome these obstacles by providing an effective method whereby a student can work alone on spoken English by using a computer or recorded exercises. (In the remainder of this Instructor's Guide, we will assume that the student is using audio recorded exercises and a printed Student Workbook irrespective of how the lessons have been downloaded. The lessons were developed so that they can be successfully used for self- study. They can also be readily adapted for effective use in a classroom. As a self-study course, the student should attempt to spend as much as two hours a day, five days a week, working alone on the recorded exercises. This allows the student to learn English while working or attending school. Ideally, the student will meet with the instructor and as many as 10 other students once a week. With one 2-hour class session each week, an instructor can give 10 students the equivalent of 120 hours of spoken English instruction per week. (20 hours in the group session and 100 hours in individual study.) Spoken English Learned Quickly as a self-study course In the Student Introduction, we emphasize that these lessons will require intense effort. They are not intended to be "easy" or "fun." They were written to help motivated students learn English quickly and well. They are particularly useful to students wanting to pass TOEFL exams for entrance into U.S. universities. When used as a self-study course, the lessons were developed for students who are highly motivated and who will have the personal discipline to work alone. Beginning students will often say that Lesson 1 is difficult. Yet, even beginning English students will be able to understand and use the exercise sentences at the end of two weeks. After four weeks, they will start to use English Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 2 verbs correctly and will be able to construct simple sentences. This will be the case because their first introduction will be to everyday spoken English. The first lesson is not too advanced for someone who speaks no English. However, you will find that most foreign students and newcomers to the United States have already studied some English. Even though they may not be able to speak, they often recall basic vocabulary words. Because the lessons emphasize verbal proficiency, even advanced English students will be fully challenged after the first lesson. We recommend that most students spend two weeks on each lesson. By the end of the first week on a new lesson, the student should be able to respond to all of the exercises with limited reference to the printed Student Workbook material. By the end of the second week, they should be able to respond fluently to the Lesson Text and all exercises without referring to the Student Workbook. (However, for reading and pronunciation practice, they will always read from the Lesson Text.) An advanced student may do an entire lesson in a single week. (For a more intense class schedule, you may start the series with one lesson every two weeks, changing to one lesson each week after Lesson 5.) The teacher can meet weekly with 1-10 students. Smaller groups can be combined. Any time after Lesson 5, students can be moved into a group studying any of the lessons between Lesson 6 and Lesson 16. In general, later lessons do not increase in complexity, but merely build vocabulary and increase verbal proficiency. Spoken English Learned Quickly as a classroom course A classroom course would use the same material alternating between a lab and a classroom. In the ideal setting, a language laboratory would provide each student with an MP3 player and headphones. The student would work on the exercises in an individual cubicle while the teacher monitored and helped each student selectively. For a two-hour language class, the laboratory session would be a full hour while the classroom session would be approximately 50 minutes. The classroom session would be conducted just the same as the weekly class for self-study students. However, well-equipped language labs are often unavailable. Any standard classroom can double as a language lab and classroom combination. As the example below shows, a classroom could be arranged so that individual desks are placed around the periphery of the room for lab work. There is less distraction because students are not facing each other. (Notice that the desks are placed so Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 3 that the student is facing the wall.) This arrangement also allows the teacher to walk behind the students (represented by the dashed line) to monitor pronunciation. Each student has an individual MP3 player with headphones to reduce distraction. (Use headphones with heavy sound-deadening padding.) For the classroom session, the students are seated around the table in the center. When working with younger students, the enforced guidance of a classroom will produce better results. Children as young as 9 or 10 years of age can do very well using this method. For highly motivated university students and adults, self- study with a weekly class is more effective. Spoken English Learned Quickly is unique The typical format. Most language courses progress from simple to difficult in successive lessons. This series does not. With the exception of Lesson 1 which is written as an introductory lesson, and Lessons 2 and 3, which present the English verb more simply, all lessons are essentially similar in complexity. Most ESL courses attempt to teach English grammar. Thus, the first sentences a student learns use simple grammar. The lessons then move progressively to more difficult grammar. However, Spoken English Learned Quickly focuses on spoken English and does not need to move from simple to difficult. (By design, the Lesson Text taken from the GOOD NEWS BIBLE employs a limited vocabulary and basic sentence construction that permits uniformity within this lesson series.) The purpose behind the English drills. The recorded English drills are based on the premise that we learn a foreign language best by repetition. However, the beginning English speaker is incapable of learning by repeating sentences that he or she constructs. Since the use of correctly constructed English sentences is Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 4 mandatory, the heart of this series is its use of grammatically correct and colloquially relevant sentences in recorded exercises. In this way, from the very first lesson, the student can repeat grammatically correct English sentences while practicing. This allows the student to practice correctly spoken English for two hours or more each day. The format of the audio exercises has been very carefully designed. The beginning student knows neither the structure nor the pronunciation of English sentences. The recorded exercises give both. In all cases, the recorded speaker’s voice gives the proper pronunciation, inflection, and structure of the English sentence while the student listens. Then the student attempts to mimic each of those elements while repeating the sentence. In most instances, when the student must alter an English sentence, the recorded exercise speaker gives the correct response. Thus, the student is always given a pattern to follow and an opportunity to check his or her first response against a second repetition of the correct answer. It is important that the students learn to listen intently to the recorded speaker rather than anticipating the sentence with a premature response. The Student Workbook lessons complement the recorded exercises. The student can use the printed text to see the vocabulary and structure of each sentence. Then, by reading the (parenthetical small print response) aloud, the student can be certain that the answer is correct. (Note: A beginning student’s vocabulary is insufficient to permit understanding an explanation of the lesson exercises. The simplest way to explain each exercise is to allow the student to listen to the recording while following the exercise in the Student Workbook.) Throughout the series, the student will actually gain more English instruction by using the recorded lessons than by talking with an instructor for the same amount of time. The recordings expose the student to a high frequency of correctly spoken English sentences. That will build a more substantial foundation for fluent English speech than unstructured conversation with its inevitable incorrect English grammar. However, spontaneous speaking with an instructor is invaluable in both encouraging and correcting the student. Your first exposure. If this is your first exposure to our language teaching format, you will need to understand its logic before you are comfortable with it. After the first lesson, it would be no more difficult for a student to repeat the words and structure of a sentence in Lesson 15 than a sentence in Lesson 3. Both sentences may have new vocabulary, and either may introduce new expressions or sentence constructions. However, irrespective of which of the two sentences the student encounters first, there will be little difference in the complexity of the sentence. Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 5 But this does not mean that Spoken English Learned Quickly is a series of simple lessons. In fact, it is very much an accelerated course. It is this constant repetition of normal English sentences that teaches the verbal skills necessary for fluent speech. That is what Spoken English Learned Quickly excels in, and it is the reason these lessons teach spoken English so quickly and effectively. An analogy of sorts. How would you teach a talented student to become a trumpet virtuoso? Would you buy her an expensive grand piano and arrange for lessons with a renowned classical pianist? If that had been your approach, it would not be surprising if two years later she became discouraged because she still could not play the trumpet. ESL students have spent much time learning to write words, practice penmanship, role-play for job interviews and more. Yet, when going to the store or applying for work, they will evaluate their own progress solely on their verbal communication skills. They are often discouraged because they see so little result after so much effort. Their conclusion is that they will never learn English. They have been practicing the piano when they needed a trumpet This series of lessons focuses on the students’ primary need. They must learn spoken English. Spoken English Learned Quickly will give them a large vocabulary in the context of properly structured English sentences. They will repeat these correct English constructions thousands of times until they can readily use them. Then, as they go to the store or make a job application, they will be “tested” in the area in which they have been practicing. It is gratifying to see adults who have been in the United States for two or three years and have been discouraged by their weak English skills suddenly discover that in three months they can communicate with strangers. Look for results. If you have not used this course format before, we encourage you to try it. Persuade your students to diligently work on the drills and you will be amazed at how quickly they begin using English. You will also realize that they require much less of your time while they are making even greater progress. The three rules of English learning We have emphasized the three rules for this course in the Student Information section. Encourage the students to follow these guidelines. As quickly as possible, encourage them to respond without reading and to speak clearly with adequate voice volume. Finally, encourage them to spend sufficient time each day in study. The three rules are: Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 6 1. To learn to speak English correctly, you must speak it aloud. It is important that you speak loudly and clearly when you are practicing with the recorded exercises. 2. To learn to speak English fluently, you must think in English. You will not be "thinking" in English if you are reading your answers. It is very important that, once you understand each exercise, you say it without looking at the printed lesson. Making your mind work to think of the answer is an important part of learning a language. 3. The more you speak correct English aloud, the more quickly you will learn to speak fluently. Every lesson will be difficult when you first begin. However, as you practice, you will learn to speak correctly. You must practice until you can repeat the exercises fluently without looking at the printed lesson. IMPORTANT REMINDER: We assume that you have read the two articles entitled, A Technical Comparison of Spoken English Learned Quickly and ESL Courses and Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English and understand why Spoken English Learned Quickly (SELQ) is uniquely different from ESL courses. (See the Index for these two articles.) If you try to teach SELQ in the same way in which ESL courses are taught, it will lose much of its effectiveness and your students will not learn to speak English nearly as quickly. You as the teacher must also follow the three rules given above. We also need to make these suggestions to the teacher: 1. Never translate any part of the SELQ exercise lessons into another language. If they are translated, the students will be thinking in that language and the speed at which they will learn to speak English will slow down immediately. 2. Do translate the vocabulary if you are teaching a group of students with a common language. (We suggest translating the Vocab 1-16 document on the home page.) Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 7 3. Never explain English grammar. Read the article Grammar and Writing in Spoken Language Study. (See the Index for this article.) 4. Never give written assignments or written tests. The reason most of your students are using SELQ is because they could not learn spoken English with ESL's written assignments. The student We all learn differently. That will also be true of your English students. Some will respond very quickly to the method used in this series, while others will not. However, lack of motivation rather than the method itself will account for the largest number of students who do poorly. (If you use the daily time sheet on the Assignment Calendar, you will discover that those who are having the most difficulty are usually the ones who are not adequately practicing with the recorded exercises.) As English teachers, we want every one of our students to speak adequate English in six months. But it simply will not happen. Some students will not be motivated. Some will feel more comfortable trying to write rather than speak. Some will simply stop coming after several weeks of class. It is appropriate that we try to help each student. We will be most helpful, however, if we set a standard high enough to allow those who are willing to work diligently to reach their highest potential. Be helpful whenever possible, but do not penalize those who are working hard by unreasonably slowing the pace for the sake of a few who are struggling. If need be, give slower learners individual attention if they truly want to continue. After doing the best you can, expect to lose some students who will not make the necessary effort to practice spoken English. However, highly successful students may be your greatest asset in motivating others in the class. Their success in a short period of time will demonstrate to their fellow students that effort will produce the results they desire. English grammar and such By design, Spoken English Learned Quickly does not teach English grammar by using written exercises. The students’ progress would be hampered if written assignments were introduced. On the other hand, this course teaches an immense amount of English grammar using spoken English as the teaching method. Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 8 The intent of this course is to teach spoken English through the verbal repetition of correctly structured sentences. We learn spoken language best through repetition. However, this course makes a concerted effort to teach the English verb. Aside from inadequate vocabulary, improper use of verbs is the single greatest fault of new English speakers. Beginning with Lesson 2, verbs are learned as spoken English in a format that gives both person and time of action. By Lesson 5, person and time of action are taught using simple sentences. Thus, the verb is effectively taught through spoken language rather than through grammar studies. We believe that this emphasis on spoken English is the most effective way to produce language fluency. As an added benefit, successful use of this series does not require instructors who have a strong background in English grammar as long as they speak English correctly. _________________________________ Are we correct? You have probably read this introductory material and said to yourself, “It can’t be done You can’t teach English without written assignments and grammar, and you can’t use the same lessons for both beginners and advanced students.” Our answer is a simple challenge. This method works very well for us and produces rapid spoken English for our students. (We also have a much lighter teaching load per student because they are learning excellent spoken English on their own.) Within the first four years on the website, Spoken English Learned Quickly has been used in over 200 countries by an estimated 300,000 students. Independent instructors have started their own English language schools in a number of countries. Try it for yourself and find out how well Spoken English Learned Quickly really works. Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 9 INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE: LESSON DEVELOPMENT This Instructor's Guide will help you begin the Spoken English Learned Quickly series with Lesson 1 and show you how to effectively use the remaining lessons. Individual lesson guides are not given for the whole series since all lessons are similarly structured. The lessons are written so that the student working alone will become familiar with an established routine. Therefore, we will give you suggestions for only the first section (Lessons 1-5). We will not repeat instructions that apply to successive lessons. (Most of what applies to Lesson 1 also applies to Lesson 2, etc.) Beginning with Lesson 6, you will have no difficulty adapting these same techniques to the remaining lessons. We will use Student Workbook to refer to the printed lessons, irrespective of the form they are actually in. They will most likely be individual lesson sheets you have copied from or from a CD. Similarly, the recorded exercise may be an iPod-type of MP3 player with speakers, a CD player (usually in MP3 format) or even a cassette tape-recorded exercise you duplicated from the website or a CD. (The mechanical functions of forward, reverse, and a counter which can be reset for each exercise on a cassette tape recorder make it a simple language instruction tool to use. They generally also have the advantage of greater volume when they are plugged into a wall outlet.) Class structure We have already explained the difference in conducting a two-hour class once a week with self-study students and conducting a class which meets multiple times each week. The following sections may be adapted to either. There are two other variables which will also influence the dynamic of your teaching. Teaching English in an English-speaking country. If you are teaching English to immigrants in an English-speaking country, more than likely you will not be able to communicate between yourselves; they cannot effectively communicate with you, nor you with them. If you have a group of ethnically mixed students, they will tend to group with those who speak their language, but will be unable to communicate with other groups in the class. This is not a particularly difficult class setting. It can be handled quite simply with few difficulties. If you allow the Spoken English Learned Quickly lessons to carry the teaching load for you as outlined below, you will not be required to carry the class with your verbal presentations. (Note: Avoid extended monologues with the one or two students Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 10 who can speak limited English. You will raise the apprehension level of those who cannot.) Teaching English in a non-English-speaking country. If you are in another country teaching English, you undoubtedly speak a common language. Use that common language to put the students at ease, maintain cordial relationships, and give vocabulary meanings or brief explanations when necessary. However, never use your common language for lengthy descriptions; especially in the early stages of language study, it robs the students of time they could be speaking English. LESSON 1: ENGLISH PHRASES The following lesson sections describe both a self-study course and a classroom course. The primary emphasis is on the self-study course which is meeting once a week for approximately two hours. In the self-study course, the students’ primary study would come from their two-hour daily self-study away from class. On the other hand, if this were a classroom course meeting for one or two hours multiple times each week, then each lesson would be broken into segments. After each segment, the students would separate and practice spoken English using personal audio players. In situations where personal audio players were not available, a single player would be used with the students responding in unison. The explanation also models how the teacher would use the course in an English-speaking country in which there was not a common language between the teacher and the students. These techniques would be unnecessary if the teacher and all the students shared a common language. 1. Use the first session to encourage the students. Most adults, especially immigrant students who have been in the country for several years, will be discouraged with their attempts to learn English. Some may have studied English in their homeland for several years with little result. These students anticipate that their progress will be slow, if not impossible. Your first task is to encourage them that they will actually be able to speak English. 2. If you do not speak a common language with the students, the more you attempt to explain, the more you will confuse them. On the other hand, nothing will encourage them more than their own experience in speaking English. Therefore, the best way to start a class (assuming their complete inability to speak English) is as follows. a. With no formality of any kind, say "Hello, my name is ." That's the end of your preliminary introduction Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 11 b. Then, go directly into the lesson. Have the students turn to Lesson 1 in the Student Workbook. (Show them the first page in Lesson 1 rather than attempting to verbally explain.) c. Turn on the recorded exercise and start the lesson. The students can follow the text for the "Listen to the example." exercise. (While the "Listen to the example." is playing, you should model their response by silently following the text as the example is playing. Look at the text, not the students.) d. When the recorded exercise begins exercise 1.1, you should model the part of the student. Listen as the recorded exercise speaker reads the large print text. Then speak while reading (the parenthetical echo) text. (A demonstration is worth a thousand words. Because of language limitations, it is often simpler to model the role of the student than to explain it.) Encourage the students to begin repeating the exercise with you. Within two or three sentences, almost the entire class will be responding correctly. e. Avoid speaking. Repeat exercise 1.1 two times. (There is no need to repeat the example.) f. Show the students that it is important that they listen to the full statement of the recorded exercise speaker before giving their answer. Their purpose is not merely to give the answer but to carefully listen to pronunciation and a model of English fluency. 3. Familiarize the students with the vocabulary for the first exercise (1.1). a. Demonstrate to the students that they are to open to the vocabulary page at the end of the lesson. Do only the vocabulary for exercise 1:1. Have them write the meaning of each word in their own language. (If some already have a limited English vocabulary, they may help the other students. If there are common languages within the group, the fastest way to move through this section is for you, the teacher, to give the English word, permitting a student to give a concise meaning in a common language. Encourage brief definitions. Prevent discussions between students to avoid wasting time and distracting from the English study. Students may also use electronic or pocket dictionaries. Use this same technique for each new vocabulary list for each of the Spoken English Learned Quickly lessons.) b. Go back and do exercise 1.1 two more times while permitting the students to follow the exercise from the Student Workbook. c. Next, have the students close their copy of the Student Workbook and repeat the exercise twice more with the students repeating each phrase aloud from memory. Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 12 4. If this lesson is being taught as a classroom course, the students would now use their own MP3 players and independently listen to, and repeat out loud, exercise 1.1. (Refer to the section Spoken English Learned Quickly as a classroom course for more information.) 5. Play the recorded exercise for exercises 1.2 and 1.3. a. Play the exercise once, encouraging all to participate while reading from their copy of the Student Workbook. b. Turn to the vocabulary for exercises 1.2 and 1.3 and have the students write the vocabulary in their own language. c. Again, play exercises 1.2 and 1.3 twice with the students answering aloud while following the exercise in the Student Workbook. d. Play exercises 1.2 and 1.3 twice with the students answering aloud from memory after closing the Student Workbook. 6. If this lesson is being taught as a classroom course, the students would now use their own MP3 players and independently listen to, and repeat out loud, exercises 1.1., 1.2, and 1.3. Allow the students to do the three exercises three or four times. During this time, the teacher should circulate among the students, listening to each. Help if necessary, but your primary purpose at this point is merely to accustom them to your presence when they are studying spoken English exercises. 7. As time permits, do as many exercises in Lesson 1 in this way as possible. 8. Give an overview of all exercises in the lesson. (Remember, you are demonstrating how the lessons are used, but avoid the temptation to verbally explain how the lessons are used.) Before the group session is completed, briefly review each exercise, demonstrating to the students how they are to respond when they are studying alone. The best demonstration is to play a portion of each exercise while the students follow the printed text. Have the students respond in unison, reading (the parenthetical echo) text. 9. If this lesson is being taught as a classroom course, you will not need to give an overview of exercises for self-study. 10. If you spend two weeks doing the first lesson in a self-study program, review the students' progress on Lesson 1 during the second session. The simplest way to review is to play the exercises, having the students repeat the responses individually or in unison. You can play an exercise and point to individual students, indicating that they are to respond to the next sentence. If this is a classroom setting, you may use the same technique throughout the lessons. Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 13 11. Review the Table material at the end of the lesson. Tables can be effectively used for word substitution drills. For example, the "To Be" table can be used by substituting personal names or some other quality within the vocabulary of the lesson. Do drills with the "An English Question" table and the "Using 'A' or 'An'" table. Word Substitution is a useful language drill technique. For example, you could do a word substitution drill with the verb to be. You could have the students turn to the Lesson 1 vocabulary and then you could say, "He is….." They could respond, "He is little." "He is okay." "He is here." "He is a child." Then you could say, "They are…." and have them complete the sentence. You could then reverse the drill and say, "….little." They would need to respond with something like "She is little." (In Lesson 2 and following, you can use the word substitution drill for time. You could say, "He is okay." "Yesterday." The student would need to answer, "He was okay yesterday.") Word substitution drills are particularly effective with beginning students because it gives students a sentence structure they can use with a limited vocabulary. 12. In the last session for Lesson 1, preview the vocabulary and exercises for Lesson 2. (See suggestion 2 under Lesson 2.) 13. Student Information pages in multiple languages are provided on the website ( and CD editions of this course. If you have a means of reproducing them, you could make them available to the students. However, you would do better to show these pages to the students at the end of the first class session rather than at the beginning. If translations into languages of some of the students are not available, you will only raise their apprehension level by excluding them. But more importantly, you will give all of the students a sense of achievement if they realize that they were successful in learning English without an explanation in a language they understand. 14. Important. As quickly as possible, the students must close the Student Workbook and give their responses without reading from a text. Much of the lesson time in the first week will be spent with the Student Workbook open. Most of the lesson time for the second week on that same lesson will require that the audio exercises be completed with the Student Workbook closed. Several observations should be made in closing this first lesson description. • The more experience the student gains during the first lesson in both understanding and speaking English, the more encouraged he or she will be. The simplest way for a non-English speaker to gain this experience is Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 14 through mimicking the recorded exercise while reading the exercises. In two hours' time, most could experience the excitement of learning a basic vocabulary and speaking a limited number of English sentences if you closely follow the printed and recorded material. • In reverse, the more you talk, the less they will understand, and the greater their apprehension will be. • During future lessons, you will want to expose them to more spoken English. Language enrichment will be an important part of their learning experience. However, during the first lesson(s), they must gain a confidence that they can actually understand and speak limited English. As much as you are able to do so, restrict yourself to that level of conversation. By the end of the first lesson, you can ask some of the simple questions in that lesson such as their name, etc. But avoid intimidating them by going beyond their ability to understand and respond. • Just as you can discourage a new student, so you can also allow another student in the class with some English fluency to intimidate them. Avoid carrying on conversations with the few students who can marginally understand and respond. On the other hand, after the first few lessons, individual conversation will become not only appropriate, but necessary. At that time, however, you will need to include all students equally, irrespective of their language ability. • Finally, you must be able to convey to the students that you are eager to help them learn, but that you fully expect them to make mistakes. You must learn to avoid any indication of impatience or displeasure with their attempts to speak proper English. Develop a sense of humor, the ability to praise a job well done, and a smile and enthusiasm when correction is necessary. LESSON 2: EXERCISE LESSON 1. In a voluntary self-study course, there will always be students who want to believe that it is the group meeting rather than their individual study which will teach them to speak English. To create accountability, pass a small slip of paper to each student. Ask each student to write the number of hours of audio study they did during the previous week. Don’t require them to write their name on the paper. Give them just a minute to write the number and then collect the papers. At the end of the class, tell them the average number of hours (the total number of hours divided by the number of papers collected) Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 15 and the high number of hours studied that week. Do this every week for the entire series of lessons. The accountability will greatly improve their study time, which in turn, will be the key to their success in learning spoken English. If credit is given for a self-study course, you will probably want to use the Assignment Calendar which is provided at the back of this Instructor’s Guide. 2. Review the vocabulary for Lesson 2, giving the students opportunity to write the meanings of the words in their own language. Review the Expressions section so that the students are familiar with their meaning and use. a. Read each Vocabulary entry. Make certain that the students know the meaning of each word. Allow time for them to write the meaning in their own language. Have a student use the word in a sentence. b. Read each Expression entry. Have a student read the expression from the Lesson Text. Have the students help you explain the expression’s meaning. Create new sentences using the expression with other vocabulary words. 3. Show the students how they can shorten sentences. (You can use this as a drill throughout the lesson series by frequently asking a student to make a response successively shorter.) The drill will help the student understand the structure of the English sentence and the use of contractions, pronouns, and implied sentence fragments. (Listen carefully to an inexperienced second language L2 English speaker and you will realize that he or she will often struggle with long sentences because pronouns and implied words are not used.) a. The first sentence is the most complete response to the question, “Did he say he was talking with Peter? The answer is “No, he did not say he was talking with Peter.” b. Now ask the student to make it shorter. The response to the same question is “No, he didn’t say he was talking with Peter.” c. Ask the student to shorten it again. The response to “Did he say he was talking with Peter?” is, “No, he didn’t say he was talking with him.” d. Shortened again it becomes, “No, he didn’t.” e. Finally, the shortest response to “Did he say he was talking with Peter?” is “No.” 4. You may want to go back to the table at the end of Lesson 1 for a brief demonstration of the use of a and an. Show the students that an is used with words such as ambulance, arm, emergency and office. Demonstrate that an rather than a is required with words beginning with the letters a, e, i, o and u. Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 16 It is simple to show them the reason by saying the words both correctly and incorrectly. Say an ambulance and a ambulance, an arm and a arm, an emergency and a emergency, an office and a office. (Technically, it requires a breath stop to say a office, etc.) However, do not explain this as a rule of grammar. Simply show them that it is easier to speak when they do not need to momentarily stop the flow of air. 5. Lesson 2 introduces a section giving common English expressions. This Expression section will appear in most lessons that introduce new vocabulary from a Lesson Text. The expressions lend themselves to an almost limitless source of word substitution drills. Most expressions can also be used in past, present, or future tenses. Create a variety of expressions in one tense and have the students rephrase them using another tense. 6. Review the Table at the end of the lesson. Using the vocabulary of the first two lessons, have students construct complete sentences using each entry on the table. 7. Preview the Vocabulary and exercises for Lesson 3 in the last session for Lesson 2. (See suggestion 2 under Lesson 3.) LESSON 3: EXERCISE LESSON 1. Distribute slips of paper for an accounting of the number of hours spent studying the audio lessons during the previous week. Give a report at the end of the class. 2. Review the Vocabulary for Lesson 3, giving the students opportunity to write the meanings of all words in their own language. Review the Expressions section so that the students are familiar with their meaning and use. Identify each expression in its context within the Lesson Text. 3. The students are beginning to use and understand the structure of English sentences by the third lesson. Avoid teaching English grammar. Nonetheless, there are interesting insights you can give regarding the time of the English sentence’s action. a. Read a sentence from the Lesson Text. Have the students identify the time of action of each verb. Introduce the words past, present, and future. For example, verse 6 says, “They were all together. They asked him, ‘are you at this time going / to give it back?’” Were is past, asked is past, are you going is future, and to give has no time of action. Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 17 b. I need to give a word of caution regarding time. You are attempting to teach simple time—not grammar. All you need to do is point over your shoulder to indicate past time; point straight down in front of your face to indicate present time; point forward to indicate future time. c. Read a number of sentences in the Lesson Text and have the students identify the time of action in each sentence. Many sentences will combine past, present, future, and verbs having no defined time of action in the same sentence. 4. Show the students how verbs ending in …ing and the to… form of the verb take on the time of action of another verb. For example, 3.2n says, “As he was talking, they were working.” Time of action is determined by was and were. Neither talking nor working express time. 5. In a similar way, show the students how they can make a series of verbs using …ing constructions. Verse 1:11 says, “Why are you standing there looking into the sky?” Help the students extemporaneously develop sentences using two or more verbs ending with …ing. 6. The two verbs from the first three lessons that will require the most attention are to be and to do. (Review the Table at the end of Lesson 2.) From the vocabulary found in the first three lessons, build sentences using these two verbs. For example, from exercise 3.4 you can give the word glad with the students responding, “I am glad,” “He is glad,” and so on. Do the same with the past and future times of action. 7. The above to be and to do drills can also serve the purpose of developing fluency. If you use simple sentences such as “I am glad,” you can give the key word quickly, expecting a rapid response at a normal speaking rate. The key word can be either the person (I, he, . . .), the tense (is, was, were, . . .), or the word which completes the sentence (glad, hurt, sick, . . .). Do the drill until the students can quickly respond with good pronunciation. 8. Limit your questions and drills to the vocabulary of the first three lessons. Nonetheless, a surprising number of sentences can be constructed from this vocabulary. 9. Preview the Vocabulary and Expressions for Lesson 4 in the last session for Lesson 3. (See suggestion 2 under Lesson 4.) Make certain that the students understand that they are to include a review of exercises from the first three lessons in their personal study time. Suggest that they use the recorded exercise for Lesson 4 each day, and, in addition, that they review one recorded exercise from Lessons 1-3 each day. Spoken English Learned Quickly Instructor’s Guide: 18

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