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Practical Guide to English Usage Comparing and Contrasting English and Catalan Language Service, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya© FUOC 13 Introduction Introduction Content The contents of this Practical Guide to English Usage are designed to provide support for members of the university community who need to write in English. The Guide is based on the work carried out by the Language Service over the years since the UOC’s founding to produce similar guides to aid the work of those writing in Catalan and Spanish at the University. Organization The Guide has been divided into four main sections: Spelling and punctuation, Morphology, Syntax and Style. These sections offer guidelines and examples for the proper use of the English language. They are designed to help writers with any level of competence in the language to overcome the common problems encountered with English. The Guide is not intended to be exhaustive, but to cover as many points as possible in a clear and easily understandable way. Each point has a brief introduction and examples of actual usage to guide writers. Further information The Language Service has a webpage on the UOC’s portal where you can find more resources on the Catalan and Spanish languages. The address is as follows: uoc.edu/serveilinguistic Target audience This Guide is designed, above all, for university students, faculty, researchers and staff who have to write in English. Nonetheless, it is also designed to be of use to all those who are interested in improving their level of competence in English, and to Catalan speakers in particular. Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 14 Introduction Contributors This Guide was commissioned by the UOC’s Language Service. Sections 1, 2 and 3 were written by Martin Louis Hevly, of VISCA.com, author of the five-volume Gramàtica anglesa, a reference work for Catalan-speakers interested in learning more about the English language, and section 4 by Kari Friedenson, a freelance writer, editor and translator based in Barcelona. The Language Service’s experts, Alba Corral Serramià, David Cullen, Pilar Gispert- Saüch Viader and Xavier Marzal Doménech, then contributed by editing and adapting the initial text to the university context. Key Words in bold are either key points that need to be highlighted or examples of correct use of the language, eg learning. Words and phrases that have been crossed out show erroneous use of the language, eg ours friends. The points where the English is being compared and contrasted to the Catalan are highlighted by the word CATALAN in small capitals. Catalan translations used to illustrate examples are in italics, eg punt. The following abbreviations are used in this Guide. BrE British English → AmE American English → Internal references to other sections of the Guide. Sp Spelling and punctuation → Mo Morphology → Sy Syntax → Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 15 Spelling and punctuation Spelling and punctuation This section looks at the common difficulties that writers may encounter with the spelling of words in English. These include English’s irregular separation of syllables or use of the apostrophe to indicate omissions. There are also sub-sections to highlight the differences between punctuation in English and CATALAN. 1. Syllabification (separation of syllables) The division of syllables in English is extremely complex because English is not written as it is spoken. For example, we pronounce learning /ˈləː.nɪŋ/ but we separate it learn-ing. The separation method depends on the etymology and spelling of the word. Even most native English speakers occasionally need to consult a dictionary to know definitely how a word should be separated. As is the case in CATALAN, all doubled consonants are generally separated: rub·ber, broc·coli, ped·dle, scuf·fle, smug·gle, yel·low, gram·mar, ten·nis, cop·per, cor·rect, fos·sil, glut·ton, guz·zle. The suffixes -ing and -er are almost always separated, except when following a doubled consonant. So, tub·ing, spac·ing, hold·ing, brief·ing or grudg·ing, but, run·ning, pas·sing, bet·ting, run·ner, pas·ser, bet·ter, etc. There are a few words ending in -ling and -ler for which this rule also does not apply. The most important are an·gling, crack·ling, cy·cling, dan·gling, kin·dling, sti·fling, twin·kling and wres·tling, an·gler, han·dler, knuck·ler, ram·bler, sam·pler, spar·kler, sprin·kler, tum·bler, whis·tler and wran·gler. We might also mention words ending in the suffix -ling for which, obviously, the -ing ending is not a suffix: dar·ling, duck·ling, dump·ling, earth·ling, ink·ling, sap·ling, seed·ling, sib·ling, star·ling, ster·ling. Compound words are of course separated between the words: bag·man. If you are in doubt, consult a good dictionary. Here, for example, is the entry in Webster’s Dictionary for learning showing both its syllabification and pronunciation: learn·ing (/ˈləːnɪŋ/). 2. Punctuation marks The use of punctuation marks in English and CATALAN is quite similar, though there are differences. In the following thirteen sections we will give a brief description of the use of punctuation marks in English, paying special attention to those cases in which it differs from that of CATALAN. Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 16 Spelling and punctuation 2.1. Apostrophe The most important use of the apostrophe in English is in contractions, constructions in which a letter or group of letters is elided. Contractions are nearly always used in oral English and in written English they are generally considered to give a more relaxed and informal tone to the writing; they should therefore be avoided if this is not the intention of the writer. Some common examples of contractions are: Between a pronoun and the following verb forms: am, are, is, have, has, had, will and would: I’m, she’s (she is or she has), you’ve, they’d (they had or they would) Between all auxiliary verbs except am and not: aren’t, isn’t, wasn’t, weren’t, haven’t, hasn’t, don’t, doesn’t, didn’t, can’t, couldn’t, shan’t, shouldn’t, won’t, wouldn’t, mustn’t Because the verbs is and are can be contracted with both the personal pronouns and the adverb not, negative constructions using these elements can be expressed in two ways: for example, You aren’t thinking = You’re not thinking; She’s not here = She isn’t here. In informal style, apostrophes are used to form contractions between the words how, when, where, why, who, what and that and the auxiliaries is, has, have, did, will and would. However, not all combinations are possible. The words how, when, where, why, who, what and that can all contract with is: How’s he doing? When’s the meeting? Where’s your brother? Why’s that? Who’s she? What’s going on? That’s funny. The auxiliaries have and has are generally limited to contractions with how, where, who and what; has can also be contracted with that: How’ve you been? Where’ve they gone? Who’ve they seen? What’ve we got here? Where’s he gone? Who’s fallen? What’s he done? That’s been used. The auxiliary did can be contracted with how, where, why and who: How’d (How did) you get there? Where’d they take my clothes? Why’d you lie to me? Who’d you see? The auxiliary will can be contracted with who, what and that: Who’ll know? What’ll happen? That’ll be nice. The auxiliary would can only be contracted with who: Who’d like more cake? Other common contractions include: bo’s’n (boatswain), fo’c’s’le (forecastle), ha’penny (half-penny), jack-o’-lantern (jack of the lantern), ma’am (madam), o’clock (of the clock), rock ‘n’ roll (rock and roll), will-o’-the-wisp (will of the wisp) and young’un (young one) Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 17 Spelling and punctuation Besides their use in contractions, apostrophes are also used to mark the Saxon genitive (see section Sy 1.1.) and in the plural of letters: Tom’s, Neus’s, the Virtual Library’s website. How many s’s are there in Mississippi? 2.2. Comma As is the case in CATALAN, in English the comma is used in the following contexts: To separate enumerations Examples: The assignment requires us to think, write and speak. The University’s governing team meets with students in China, Mexico, Brussels, Santo Domingo and Puerto Rico. As shown in the examples above and in line with the UOC Language Service’s recommended style, a comma is normally not used before the last element in a series, that is, before the conjunction and. An exception is made, however, if the sentence would otherwise be ambiguous: The months with the most connections are October and November, and March, April and May, coinciding with the start of the semesters. Before a coordinating conjunction Examples: Our physics teacher is receiving an award next week, and we’re having a party to celebrate it. English has very few verb forms, but their various functions often cause problems. The comma is normally omitted if the coordinated sentences are short: My name is Esteve and I work at the University. Before or after subordinate and prepositional clauses The comma is generally used when the subordinate or prepositional clause precedes the main clause, or, if following the main clause, when the main clause is long or complex: Since you’re here, you might as well help me. While I agree with your goals, I abhor your methods. If we come to the extreme, our society will come to resemble the type of society that Hobbes described. Under the new concept of education, schools are no longer places to teach, but rather places to learn. The teachers’ group has agreed to go on strike next Wednesday, even if the official union position is against it. The comma is not generally used if the subordinate or prepositional clause is short and follows the main clause, or, in the case of prepositional clauses, if the clause is very short: Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 18 Spelling and punctuation The evaluation is complex because there are different kinds of impacts. I’ll do it even if they tell me not to. In Seattle people live well. After dinner we went for a walk. In parenthetical expressions Examples: My mother, who lives in Scotland, is coming to stay with us next week. Roger, noticeably excited, began to speak. He came up and, looking him up and down, gave him a dressing down. In elisions Examples: Sweden is a grand country; and its capital, a beautiful city. Italy is famous for her composers and musicians, France, for her chefs and philosophers, and Poland, for her mathematicians and logicians. When addressing another person Examples: Hey, Joe, where are you going? Listen, honey, they’re playing our song. In interjections and asides Examples: Good grief, what a mess Your comments, if you don’t mind my saying so, reveal an astonishing ignorance of the situation. In the separation of digits It is important to keep in mind that, unlike CATALAN, English uses commas to separate figures larger than 9999: 10,000; 25,950, etc. (in CATALAN, 10.000; 25.950, etc.). Moreover, English uses the full stop to separate decimals, whereas CATALAN uses the comma. Compare: 525,429.50 (525.429,50 ). 2.3. Semicolon The semicolon is used in English exactly as it is used in CATALAN; specifically, it is used in the following three cases: To separate two closely related sentences: It was the best of times; it was the worst of times. Women’s conversation is cooperative; men’s is competitive. A semicolon is often used before adverbial conjuncts such as however, on the other hand, otherwise, etc.: Schools have considerable autonomy; however, they must meet certain objectives. We’ll fight the eviction; otherwise we’ll be homeless. Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 19 Spelling and punctuation To separate elements in a series when the elements are long or complex, or when they include other punctuation marks (especially commas): A study was done; next, an interactive consultation; and lastly, a digital terrain model was introduced. Of these three special prizes, one is for projects; one is for products and one is for services. 2.4. Full stop (AmE: period) The punctuation mark called punt in CATALAN has various names in English. When used to indicate the end of a sentence or in abbreviations, it is called full stop in BrE and period in AmE. When used as a decimal separator it is generally pronounced point (eg 6.2 is pronounced six point two). Finally, when used to separate internet protocol addresses and named web addresses, it is called dot: 69.94.110.70 is pronounced sixty-nine dot ninety-four dot one ten dot seventy; google.com is pronounced google dot com. Its use is exactly the same as in CATALAN, with the exception that CATALAN uses a comma rather than a full stop to separate decimals (eg 650.50, 650,50 ). However, there are questions of style: In BrE the full stop is normally omitted after titles and in initialisms – abbreviations pronounced as letters – (Mr, Ms, Dr, USSR, etc.), whereas it is normally included in AmE (Mr., Ms., Dr., U.S.S.R., etc.). However, the full stop is never used in acronyms (abbreviations pronounced as words, such as NATO: /ˈneɪtəʊ/). In AmE, full stops are used inside quotation marks even when they are not part of the quoted sentence; in BrE, the punctuation indicates whether the full stop forms part of the quotation. Compare: “Carefree” means “free from care or anxiety”. (BrE) “Carefree” means “free from care or anxiety.” (AmE) 2.5. Colon As is the case in CATALAN, a colon is used to indicate that what follows is a demonstration, an example or a consequence of what is referred to before; sometimes it is simply an enumeration of elements. Examples: I know one thing: I’m never going to live in a big city. Please send photocopies of the following documents: your passport, your driving licence and your birth certificate. In BrE, the first word following a colon is always in lower case, unless there is some other reason for capitalizing it. In AmE, it can also be capitalized if what follows is a complete sentence. Compare: BrE: I’ve just had some good news: my brother-in-law has been offered a job. AmE: I’ve just had some good news: My brother-in-law has been offered a job. Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 20 Spelling and punctuation Colons are also used for speech in scripts: Groucho: How many children do you have? Contestant: Sixteen. Groucho: Sixteen That’s amazing Contestant: I love my wife very much. Groucho: I love my cigar, but I take it out every once in a while. Unlike CATALAN, English usually uses a comma before quotations: I believe it was Pope who said, “To err is human, to forgive divine”. Em penso que va ser Pope que va dir: “Errar és humà, perdonar és diví”. An exception is made when the quote is in apposition, when it explains what comes before: He reminded me of Alexander Pope’s words: “To err is human, to forgive divine”. (The quote explains what Alexander Pope said.) Also unlike CATALAN, which uses the full stop, in English the colon is used to separate hours, minutes and seconds: The file was last modified at 12:35:10. Es va modificar l’arxiu per última vegada a les 12.35.10. Finally, the colon is used to separate chapters and verses in the Bible and other sacred texts: Matthew 7:12, Sura 5:18. 2.6. Ellipses (suspension dots) As in CATALAN, ellipses are used in English to indicate a pause, an incompletion, a reticence or an interruption in the sentence. They are also used to indicate that a part of a quotation has been omitted. Examples: I’m sure he’s a charming young fellow, but... Don’t count your chickens... If she’d only get better... or die. “I’m broke; can you lend me...” “Don’t even think about it” In the Times it says, “Prisoners from allied countries... were due to be released Thursday.” Unlike in CATALAN, in English ellipses should not be used as a synonym for etc. S’hi inclouen alguns tipus de noms (composició, finalitat, pertinença...). Certain nouns (composition, finality, belonging, etc.) are included. Finally, an ellipsis at the end of a sentence with no sentence following should be followed by a period (for a total of four dots). They talk a lot, but when it’s time to get down to work.... 2.7. Question mark As in CATALAN, the question mark is used in English to signal that the sentence should be pronounced in an interrogative tone of voice. It is never used initially. Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 21 Spelling and punctuation Examples: Who goes there? Why do women not choose to study ICTs? Where do you want to search? 2.8. Exclamation mark (AmE: exclamation point) As in CATALAN, the exclamation mark is used to indicate wonder, surprise and other significant emotions. Examples: Hooray Help Good grief What a pity Do whatever you are inspired to do, and share your ideas This has been an excellent two months Don’t touch that wire Now you’ve done it 2.9. Dashes Dashes are used, both in English and in CATALAN, to signal a parenthetical thought. In English, some style guides suggest that an unspaced em dash (—) be used (eg We thought — or wanted to think— that the train was late), while others recommend that the shorter en dash (–) be used with spaces on either side (eg We thought – or wanted to think – that the train was late). The UOC Language Service recommends the latter style. Unlike in CATALAN, in English double quotes are used in dialogues, rather than en dashes: “We are concerned with how to employ the technology properly,” said the director of the programme. –Ens preocupa com s’han de fer servir les tecnologies adequadament –va dir el director del programa. 2.10. Hyphen Hyphens are generally used in four contexts in English: between elements in certain numbers; after prefixes and before suffixes; between compound words; to indicate that a word has been divided at the end of a line. Concerning the fourth use, see section Sp 1. Numbers As in CATALAN, the hyphen is used to separate compound numbers between twenty-one and ninety-nine; it is also used for the ordinal numbers in this range: Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 22 Spelling and punctuation twenty-one, twenty-two... ninety-nine; twenty-first, twenty-second... ninety-ninth Note that, unlike in CATALAN, in English the hyphen is not used to separate a single digit and hundreds: we write four hundred, not four-hundred. The hyphen also comes between elements in fractions, except in the case that either the numerator or denominator already contains a hyphen: a one-third share, a three-quarter turn, a five-eighths inch screw (hyphen in the numerator) twenty-one hundredths lead (hyphen in the denominator) three one-thousandths calcium The hyphen is not used when a fraction is followed by a preposition: three eighths of an inch, four fifths of the sample, one millionth of a gram Prefixes and suffixes In English, hyphens are used with prefixes and suffixes to support ease of reading, a concept that is somewhat subjective. Definitive rules for their use do not exist and examples such as mini-skirt and miniskirt are both perfectly correct. Moreover, British and American usage varies somewhat, so when in doubt, the writer should consult a dictionary. Nonetheless, there are certain cases in which a hyphen is always used: After the prefixes all-, ex-, half-, quasi- and self-: all-knowing, ex-minister, half-fare, quasi-scientific, self-adhesive When a prefix comes before a capital letter or number: pro-German, non-EC countries, anti-American demonstrations, post-Napoleonic Europe, pre-1500 English literature When the prefix is added to a word that already has a hyphen: a pseudo-open-minded attitude, non-Spanish-speaking Catalans A hyphen is also added after a prefix that precedes a two-word combination; the space between these two words then becomes hyphenated: Blue Period Picasso becomes pre-Blue-Period Picasso. The hyphen is also mandatory in the following cases: When the combination prefix + word could be confused with another word with the same spelling: re-count (count again), recount (tell). When the prefix is a single letter or number: U-boat, T-square, 10-speed bicycle, 8-cylinder engine Preceding the suffix -elect: president-elect In short, hyphens are nearly always used when their lack would cause confusion. This is especially the case when the last letter of the prefix is the same as the first of the following word: Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 23 Spelling and punctuation anti-imperialism, aprés-ski, bird-dog, get-together, knock-kneed, non-negotiable, part-time, pre-election, sloe-eyed, test-tube and water-repellent Compound words The formation of compound words is quite complex and is discussed in detail in sections Mo 1.2. (Noun + noun) and Mo 2.3. (Compound adjectives). In general, the use of the hyphen depends on the formation of the word: firecracker is written as one word because the two elements, fire and cracker, combine well and are easy to read, but fire-eater is hyphenated to avoid the conjunction of the two e’s. Moreover, the more a word establishes itself within the lexis, the more likely it is that the two elements that form the compound word will combine. Some common compound nouns that are generally hyphenated are: passer-by, dry-cleaning, x-ray, do-it-yourself, turn-over, pen-friend, t-shirt Another class of hyphenated nouns are those that have been derived from prepositional or adverbial verbs. Some common examples are: go-between, run-around and write-up. Similarly to CATALAN, certain repetitive expressions are always hyphenated, such as the following: south-southeast, north-northwest (etc.), fender-bender, goody-goody, no-no, tom-tom and yo-yo. Compounds using the Saxon genitive are also frequently hyphenated: bull’s-eye, cat’s-paw, crow’s-nest, death’s-head and hand’s-breadth The term in-law and all its derivatives are always hyphenated: brother-in-law, daughter-in-law, father-in-law, mother-in-law, sister-in-law, son-in-law In the case of compound adjectives, if two words combine to modify a noun, they are usually hyphenated when they appear before the term. For example: a well-behaved child, cold-blooded murder, a low-cut dress and a free-and-easy relationship The formation of compound adjectives is covered in section Mo 2.3. Some common examples are: quick-tempered, heart-felt, nerve-racking, ready-made, out-going, class-conscious, blood-red and watered-down Finally, English uses the hyphen in expressions that combine a quantity with a measure, such as five-mile walk, ten-foot pole, ten-dollar bill, etc. 2.11. Parentheses As is the case in CATALAN, in English parentheses are used to set off comments, explanations and other supplementary information. Examples: The number of living languages (currently about 6000, by most estimates) is decreasing rapidly. Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 24 Spelling and punctuation A total of 751 students (9% more than the previous semester) registered for one of the 33 courses on offer. 2.12. Box brackets (square brackets) , curly brackets and angle brackets Box brackets, also called square brackets, are used in quoted text to insert additional explanatory information. Examples: We took them the new plants back to the nursery. I doubt whether non-GUI interfaces see definition will ever become popular. The expression sic indicates an error that is in the original: Between you and I sic, I don’t think it’s going to work. Box brackets are also used in nested parenthetical expressions: Our three colleagues (Bill, Rosa who you met last summer and Hugh) will take care of the details. Curly brackets and angle brackets are normally only used in technical writing (mathematics, science, computer programming, etc.). 2.13. Quotation marks (single and double) In English, quotation marks are used to set off direct speech, quotations, titles, and both special and improper words. Examples: “What makes this model different is that we are one-hundred percent online,” says the Vice President. “The only thing we have to fear,” declared President Roosevelt, “is fear itself.” That reminds me of Edison’s famous words: “Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine per cent perspiration.” The Prime Minister condemned what he called “simple-minded solutions”. Most programming languages have methods for creating “arrays”. In English, nobody “does footing”; we jog. Quotation marks are also used to indicate irony: Only one party participates in the “elections”. The UOC Language Service recommends use of single quotes for nested quotations. This is because, in many cases (especially when using ASCII characters), the single quote and the apostrophe use the same glyph. For example: The editor declared, “Describing the figures as ‘disappointing’ is an insult to the British people.” “At some point you say ‘I want to work for a top company,’” says Mr Horn. Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 25 Spelling and punctuation 3. Diacritical marks (accents and the diaeresis/umlaut) Here is a list of some of the most important English words that are generally written using diacritical marks, though in many cases they may appear without accents as well. In some cases the marks are useful in that they distinguish the accented word from a similarly spelled word with no accent: for example, resume = reprendre and résumé = currículum. The examples given below are all words borrowed from French. Words normally written with diacritical marks à la carte coup d’état naïve à la mode croûton négligée après-ski crème de menthe purée bric-à-brac crêpe pâté bête noire déjà vu raison d’être café détente rosé canapé exposé résumé cause célèbre façade sauté château fiancé soufflé cliché fiancée séance consommé hors d’œuvre touché Language Service, January 2013Practical Guide to English Usage© FUOC 27 Morphology Morphology Morphology deals with the way in which words are formed. The following sections detail the way in which nouns, adjectives, determiners, pronouns and verbs are formed in English. The examples used highlight certain irregularities in their formation and their differences when compared to CATALAN. 1. Nouns Nouns give names to people, things and ideas. They can be divided into common nouns, which identify generic examples (for example, tree), and proper nouns, which identify specific examples and take an initial capital letter (for example, James). The following section details some of the points that need to be taken into account when using nouns in English. 1.1. Noun formation As in CATALAN, in English nouns can be formed from adjectives, verbs and other nouns: for example, happy → happiness (feliç → felicitat), write → writer (escriure → escriptor) and friend → friendship (amic → amistat). A thorough treatment of suffixation is beyond the scope of this study, but in the following three divisions we will give examples of the most important suffixes used to derive nouns from adjectives, verbs and other nouns. 1.1.1. Nouns derived from adjectives Nouns derived from adjectives are generally abstract nouns expressing the quality of the adjective: for example, importance expresses the quality of being important. The two most productive suffixes for forming nouns from adjectives are -ance and -ence, which derive from adjectives ending in -ant and -ent, respectively, and which correspond to the CATALAN suffixes -ància and -ència. (These two suffixes are also used to derive nouns from verbs; see Mo 1.1.2.) Nouns derived from adjectives: -ance abundant abundance extravagant extravagance radiant radiance → → → arrogant arrogance fragrant fragrance relevant relevance → → → brilliant brilliance important importance reluctant reluctance → → → distant distance instant instance vigilant vigilance → → → elegant elegance irrelevant irrelevance → → Nouns derived from adjectives: -ence absent absence evident evidence permanent permanence → → → affluent affluence frequent frequence present presence → → → belligerent belligerence innocent innocence prudent prudence → → → decadent decadence intelligent intelligence sentient sentience → → → eloquent eloquence lenient lenience silent silence → → → eminent eminence negligent negligence violent violence → → → equivalent equivalence patient patience → → Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 28 Morphology Other important suffixes used to derive nouns from Latin adjectives are -ity – corresponding to the CATALAN suffix -itat – and -acy, which is used especially when deriving nouns from adjectives ending in -ate. Nouns derived from adjectives: -ity able ability false falsity pure purity → → → civil civility legal legality real reality → → → dense density major majority sane sanity → → → equal equality novel novelty virile virility → → → final finality obese obesity → → Nouns derived from adjectives: -acy accurate accuracy illegitimate illegitimacy supreme supremacy → → → celibate celibacy private privacy vacant vacancy → → → delicate delicacy → Finally, in the case of nouns derived from adjectives of Anglo-Saxon origin, the most productive suffix is -ness. Nouns derived from adjectives: -ness bright brightness ill illness sick sickness → → → fit fitness kind kindness thick thickness → → → good goodness mad madness weak weakness → → → hard hardness mean meanness well wellness → → → high highness same sameness wet wetness → → → 1.1.2. Nouns derived from verbs Two of the most common suffixes used to derive nouns from verbs are -er and -or, which correspond to the CATALAN -dor (and variants), and are used to describe the person or thing that performs the action described by the verb. The suffix -er is by far the more common of the two – there are literally thousands of -er nouns derived from verbs – and it is used with both Latin- and Anglo-Saxon-based words; the use of -or is generally limited to words of Latin origin. Because it is used less often, it is a good idea to study carefully the list of -or words. Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 29 Morphology Nouns derived from verbs: -er bake baker kill killer smoke smoker → → → buy buyer open opener surf surfer → → → dive diver pay payer talk talker → → → drive driver play player use user → → → heat heater race racer wait waiter → → → help helper read reader walk walker → → → hold holder ride rider wash washer → → → joke joker sell seller write writer → → → kick kicker serve server → → Because many nouns and verbs share the same form (eg work means both treball and treballar), some words here also appear in the Nouns derived from other nouns list in Mo 1.1.3. Nouns derived from verbs: -or abduct abductor convey conveyor govern governor → → → act actor create creator mediate mediator → → → agitate agitator credit creditor operate operator → → → animate animator debt debtor sail sailor → → → assess assessor dictate dictator sculpt sculptor → → → audit auditor direct director translate translator → → → capture captor edit editor vibrate vibrator → → → conjure conjuror educate educator visit visitor → → → Though less productive, the suffix -ant is also used with some verbs to describe the doer of an action. Nouns derived from verbs: -ant apply applicant cool coolant inform informant → → → assail assailant defend defendant lubricate lubricant → → → assist assistant depend dependant occupy occupant → → → attend attendant dispute disputant pollute pollutant → → → celebrate celebrant dominate dominant react reactant → → → claim claimant emigrate emigrant relax relaxant → → → colour colourant enter entrant seal sealant → → → combat combatant examine examinant serve servant → → → confide confidant immigrate immigrant stimulate stimulant → → → Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 30 Morphology The suffix -ee is used to describe the one receiving the action of the verb. Examples: Nouns derived from verbs: -ee arrest arrestee devote devotee parole parolee → → → assign assignee draft draftee pay payee → → → attend attendee employ employee refer referee → → → award awardee induct inductee retire retiree → → → deport deportee intern internee train trainee → → → detain detainee nominate nominee trust trustee → → → Two other very productive suffixes are -tion, used especially for verbs ending in -ate, and -sion, used especially after verbs ending in -d or -de, -s or -t. -tion corresponds to the CATALAN -ció and -sion/-ssion to the CATALAN -sió/-ssió. These generally designate an abstract noun describing the result of the action of the verb. Nouns derived from verbs: -tion absolve → absolution duplicate → duplication negate → negation agitate → agitation educate → education negotiate → negotiation animate → animation elevate → elevation note → notion approve → approbation estimate → estimation obligate → obligation associate → association execute → execution operate → operation attribute → attribution fascinate → fascination opposite → opposition automate → automation fornicate → fornication penetrate → penetration calculate → calculation generate → generation persecute → persecution circulate → circulation graduate → graduation pollute → pollution complete → completion hesitate → hesitation populate → population conjugate → conjugation humiliate → humiliation promote → promotion cooperate → cooperation ignite → ignition prosecute → prosecution create → creation imitate → imitation radiate → radiation cultivate → cultivation indicate → indication relate → relation decorate → decoration integrate → integration rotate → rotation dedicate → dedication legislate → legislation separate → separation delegate → delegation locate → location terminate → termination delete → deletion medicate → medication tolerate → toleration designate → designation meditate → meditation translate → translation devote → devotion migrate → migration vaccinate → vaccination dictate → dictation motivate → motivation vegetate → vegetation dominate → domination narrate → narration vibrate → vibration donate → donation navigate → navigation Language Service, January 2013© FUOC 31 Morphology Nouns derived from verbs: -ssion admit → admission discuss → discussion permit → permission cohere → cohesion divert → diversion persuade → persuasion collide → collision divide → division possess → possession concede → concession erode → erosion profess → profession conclude → conclusion evade → evasion recede → recession confess → confession exclude → exclusion revert → reversion confuse → confusion explode → explosion revise → revision converse → conversion express → expression submit → submission corrode → corrosion impress → impression succeed → succession decide → decision intend → intension suspend → suspension depress → depression invade → invasion deride → derision omit → omission Other important suffixes that designate the action described by the verb are -ance and -ence (in CATALAN, -ància/-ança and -ència/-ença; see also Mo 1.1.1.), -ment (in CATALAN, -ment, but there is often a lack of correspondence) and -al. Nouns derived from verbs: -ance accept → acceptance continue → continuance maintain → maintenance acquaint → acquaintance deliver → deliverance observe → observance allow → allowance disturb → disturbance perform → performance annoy → annoyance expect → expectance pursue → pursuance appear → appearance govern → governance remember → remembrance assist → assistance ignore → ignorance repent → repentance attend → attendance illumine → illuminance resist → resistance avoid → avoidance import → importance suffer → sufferance clear → clearance inherit → inheritance vary → variance Nouns derived from verbs: -ence abstain → abstinence differ → difference occur → occurrence coincide → coincidence diverge → divergence persist → persistence compete → competence emerge → emergence precede → precedence condole → condolence excel → excellence prefer → preference confer → conference exist → existence refer → reference confide → confidence indulge → indulgence reside → residence consist → consistence infer → inference subsist → subsistence defend → defence obey → obedience verge → vergence depend → dependence depend → dependence Language Service, January 2013