Lecture notes on Mass Communication

what is mass communication theory and what is mass communication and public relations. what is mass communication research methodology pdf free download
Dr.HaroldNolon Profile Pic
Dr.HaroldNolon,United States,Professional
Published Date:15-07-2017
Your Website URL(Optional)
Comment
INTR INTR INTRODUCTI ODUCTI ODUCTION TO ON TO ON TO M M MASS COM ASS COM ASS COMM M MUNICA UNICA UNICATION TION TION M M MASS ASS ASS C C CO O OM M MM M MUNI UNI UNIC C CAT AT ATI I IO O ON N N C C CO O OM M MPL PL PLE E EM M ME E EN N NT T TAR AR ARY Y Y C C COU OU OUR R RS S SE E E FOR FOR FOR B B BA A A E E EN N NGL GL GLI I ISH SH SH ( ( (2 2 2 0 0 01 1 11 1 1 Ad Ad Adm m mn. n. n. O O On n nw w wa a ards rds rds) ) ) S S SE E EM M ME E ES S ST T TE E ER R R II II II U U UN N NIVER IVER IVERSITY SITY SITY O O OF F F C C CAL AL ALIC IC ICU U UT T T S S SC C CH H HO O OO O OL L L O O OF F F D D DI I IS S STA TA TAN N NC C CE E E E E ED D DU U UC C CA A ATI TI TIO O ON N N C C CA A AL L LI I IC C CU U UT T T U U UN N NI I IV V VE E ER R RS S SI I IT T TY Y Y...P P P...O O O...,,, M M MA A AL L LA A AP P PP P PU U UR R RA A AM M M,,, K K KE E ER R RA A AL L LA A A,,,I I IN N ND D DI I IA A A   6 6 67 7 73 3 3 6 6 63 3 35 5 5 391 391 391School of Distance Education MODULE I FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION Objectives After completing this unit, you should be familiar with  The meaning and importance of the concept of communication  Various definitions of communication  The elements of communication  The nature and purpose of communication  The functions of communication  Various types of communication  Various models of communication Introduction It is impossible not to communicate. Everybody communicates, everything communicates. Communication is not a process limited to human beings only. All creatures on the earth, from worms to humans, are communicating each other for their better existence. It is a universal phenomenon. Communication is a process which includes transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills, knowledge by using symbols, words, gestures, and visuals and so on. Thus, the act of communication is referred to as transmission. As communication being a universal phenomenon that defines all human behavior, it is important to have a clear understanding of the concepts of communication. What is communication? Why is it important to human beings? How does it work? What are the elements involved in the process of communication? How do they relate each other? What are the different types of communication? We should answer these questions to have a better understanding of the subject. Let us look into each of them. Meaning of Communication The word communication was originated from the Latin word  communis which means  common. Communion, community, communism, commonality, communalism etc. are some related words having the same linguistic roots. Similarly, newer and newer terms are being coined as the concept of communication assumes importance day by day. Communication technology, communication media, communication age, communication management are just a few. As the very term indicates, the ultimate aim of the communication process is to create commonness between communicator and receiver of the message. Through communication, both communicator and receiver enter into a mental agreement. Thus, they achieve their goal, which may be expression of an emotion or transmission of an idea. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 5School of Distance Education Transaction, interchange, interaction, dialogue, discussion, sharing, contact are some of the concepts that come up in our minds when we refer to communication. According to Oxford English Dictionary, communication is the transfer or conveying of meaning (Oxford Dictionary) . Definitions 1. Communication is the exchange of meanings between individuals through a common system of symbols. (I.A.Richards) . 2. The transmission of information, ideas attitudes, or emotion from one person or group to another or others primarily through symbols. ( Theodorson and Theordorson) 3. Communication is the transmission and interchange of facts, ideas, feeling or course of action. (Leland Brown) 4. Communication is a social interaction through messages ( Grabner, 1967) 5. The interchange of thoughts or information to bring about mutual understanding and confidence or good human relation. (A merican society of Training Directors). 6. One mind affecting another ( Claude Shannon) 7. The mechanism through which human relations exist and develop ( Wilbur Schramm) 8. Transmission of stimuli (Colin Cherry) 9. Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. (Louis Allen) 10. Communication refers to the act by one or more persons, of sending and receiving messages distorted by noise, within a context, with some effect and with some opportunity for feedback (Joseph A.Devito) The definitions given here indicate the following facts:  A world without communication is unthinkable  Communication is a complex process  Communication is essential for human relationships and progress  Human mind, body and physical conditions are vital components of communication  A common symbol system is essential for communication Importance of Communication Communication is important for all beings that lead community life and form relationship. For human beings communication is as essential as food, shelter and dignity. While animal kingdom uses low level symbols for communication, human beings have unique capacity to use language. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 6School of Distance Education The basic foundation of human society is communication and it takes place at different levels within oneself, between individuals, between individual and a group, between groups, between countries and so on. Similarly, we use verbal and non-verbal forms of messages for communication. Communication is essential for development of the society. We attain cultural, social and economic prosperity by sharing out experiences. How can we share experience without better communication? Personal enjoyment is communication based. Just think of a person kept in isolation without any chance for communication with his friends and relatives. It is really a punishment, a prison life. Communication helps us interact with our surroundings, thus create positive relationships, share love, build up friendship and depend each other to enjoy life. Can you imagine a world without media? Not at all. The basic mission of mass media is to create ties in human society sharing news. In modern world, media have some more roles to play. Media defines our political system, form public opinion, support public demands and set agenda of our social life. In short, no social activity, be it marketing, business, education, politics, media profession&, is possible without communication. Functions of Communication Considering the essentiality of communication, scholars enumerated the following functions of it. a) Education: To transfer knowledge for the progress of the society (Example: class room communication) b) Information: To find and explain some thing new (Example: News media) c) Cultural promotion : To help foster social values and pass them from generation to generation (Example: Festivals, parties, celebrations) d) Social contact: To help make enjoyable companionship ( Example: Friendship, clubs, organizations etc.) e) Integration: To create harmonious relationships among various social groups ( Example: Political parties, conferences, meetings etc.) f) Stimulation: To create interest and develop positive thinking /behavior(Example: Advertisements) g) Counseling: To alleviate anxiety and lead to better ways ( Example: guidance, consolation etc.) h) Expression of emotions (E xample: crying, smiling etc) i) Entertainment: To help pass time and enjoy life (Example: drama, song etc.) j) Control function: To get someone to behave in an appropriate way (Example: management, censorship etc) Introduction to Mass Communication Page 7School of Distance Education Elements of Communication Let us analyse Joseph A Devitos definition that communication refers to the act by one or more persons, of sending and receiving messages distorted by noise, within a context, with some effect and with some opportunity for feedback to find out the essential elements of communication. According to his definition, communication has the following elements: a) Sender b) Message c) Channel d) Receiver e) Noise f) Feedback g) Context h) Effect Discussion on each of these elements with examples will give us more insight into the entire process of communication. Sender Sender is the idea generating component in communication process. In human communication, sender may be a person or persons who create or formulate the message to be sent to the receiver. Being the primary source of the message, sender is also termed as source. In mass media, for example, news reporter is the sender or source as he/she constructs the message ( n ews story) . In a musical performance, the singer is the sender as his message is enjoyed by the audience. Sender is a critical component in communication as his/her social background, personality status, education etc influence the quality of the message he/she creates. The message is created from the idea generated in the mind of the sender. The idea generation process is called encoding. The source/sender has three functions: a) To decide what is to be communicated b) Encoding (P ut the idea in such a way that the receiver understands it) c) Transmitting the message to the receiver Message The message is any verbal or non-verbal method that produces meaning in the mind of the receiver. Simply, it is the meaning transferred from senders mind to receivers mind. This happens mainly in two ways: verbal and non-verbal methods. Verbal message means written or oral messages. They are composed of words. Example: A newspaper report or a lecture by a teacher. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 8School of Distance Education Non-verbal messages are those communicated through our behaviour, movements, actions, clothes, style of conversation, pitch of the sound etc. What is fundamental in message construction is the agreement between sender and receiver in the code used for it. If the receiver cannot identify the language or meaning of the message, the communication will be defective. Channel The channel means medium by which sender transmits the message to the receiver. Our five senses such hearing, touching, smelling , tasting , seeing are basic natural channels of human communication. Communication can be classified on the basis of five basic natural channels. They are: Tactile communication: Communication by touch or taste Olfactory communication: communication by smell Audio communication: Communication through sound waves Visual communication: Communication through visual elements or properties. We use any technically developed medium ( l ike television, newspaper, books etc) with the help of one or more of these five senses. Similarly, sender uses one or more channels to maximize the communication effect. For example multi-media class room where teacher uses projector, blackboard, lecture, gestures etc. simultaneously. Receiver Idea receiving end in communication process is called receiver. A person or thing may be at the receiving end. The receivers role is as important as a senders role. As in the case of a sender, receiver has also three roles to play: a) To receive the message b) To decode the message Decoding is the process of extracting a message from a code and interprets it. For this, sender and receiver should have knowledge about the code (f or example: language) used in communication. c) To respond to the message through feedback Receivers may be audience watching movies, persons listening to music, students hearing a lecture or a computer getting e-mail from a remote server. Communication fails or remains faulty when message is rejected or misinterpreted by the receiver. Feedback Information or message that is fed back to the source is called feedback. If you get clapping for your singing, clapping is the feedback. Questions raised by students in a class room for more information is another example for feedback. Feedback originated either from the sources own message is calledself feedback. Example: When you talk to somebody, you hear yourself and evaluate your tone, pitch etc. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 9School of Distance Education Sometimes you may think that you could have sharpened or softened your tone or pitch or text, because of your own feedback. Another type of feedback is that originated from the receiver. It may be in the form of questions, applauses, puzzled look etc. Feedback may be negative or positive, immediate or delayed. Receivers indication to the sender that the message was not received well is called negative feedback. Eg. Looks of indifference, rejection or boredom may be considered as negative feedback. Receivers favourable responses like acceptance, applauses etca .re positive feedback. Feedback at the time of the communication itself or just after it is immediate feedback. Eg. Applauses a singer gets during the performance. Receivers response relatively much after the communication is delayed feedback. Eg. Letters to the Editor. Noise Noise or communication barrier is any thing that distorts message. Noise may originate in any of the components of communication like source, message, channel, context, receiver etc. Noise is present when there is difference between the message sent and received. Communication is not possible without noise, but its effects may be reduced through various methods such as using good grammar, clear voice, simple language, quality signal etc. Noise is of different types depending on the nature and reasons of the distortion. They are: Psychological noise: Any communication error due to the psychological reasons. Eg. A fearful audience cant enjoy the musical programme. Semantic noise : Language related problems in communication. Eg. Poor grammar, complex sentence structure, rare vocabulary etc. Contextual noise: If communication takes place in inappropriate time or place, message is not conveyed well. Eg. Wishing compliments during a funeral function. Or An outdoor meeting at noon in a hot summer. Channel noise : Medium related communication barrier. Eg. Poor signal affecting picture clarity of television. Context Communication takes place in a context. At times it is noticeable and at other times not. In other words, time, place, culture, physical and social condition and psychology of the participants are important in determining communication effect. If we try to interpret a message out of its context, we may get an entirely different meaning which may result in communication error. Rules and roles are two important factors related to communication context. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 10School of Distance Education Rules are the norms we have to follow while communicating in different situations. For example, our communication behaviour is different when we are in class room, market or prayer hall, depending on the rules the situation demands. Roles are the character or part each participant in communication has to play. For example, in family communication situation, father plays a leaders role. In class room, students play the receivers role. Effect Why do we communicate? It is a fundamental question. To make some effect on the receiver is the answer. Effect is consequence or result of communication. Every communication act makes some effect on the person/s. Effect may be positive or negative. Communication is said to be success when we achieve the indented effect. Communication effects are of three types: Cognitive effects: The consequences take place in the receivers intelligence due to communication. Example : Knowledge acquisition Affective effects: The consequences occurred in the emotions of the person/s due to communication. Eg. Compassion, love etc. Behavioral effects: The change in the receivers bahaviour or actions due to communication. Eg. Political campaign and change in peoples votingbehaviour or purchasing new products inspired by the advertisements. Using these elements, let us have a graphical representation of communication process. graphical representation of communication process is also called communication models. A basic model of human communication While analysing this model, we should keep in mind that Introduction to Mass Communication Page 11School of Distance Education  Communication is a dynamic process involving different elements. No element is static.  Some or all of these elements make communication possible. It is not must for a communication act to have all these elements.  Elements of communication are interrelated. Scope and Purpose of Communication Models A model is a miniature, a highly selective visual representation of any reality. In that sense, communication model means graphical/visual representation of communication process using various elements involved. The best example is the above described graphic that visulanalizes various elements and processes in the communication as envisaged by Joseph A Devito. Purpose of Communication Models A graphic representation of any reality helps us visualize the relationships among various elements of a structure, system or process; an object, event or act. Mc Quil and Windhal say that a model is a consciously simplified description in graphic form of a piece of reality. No single model can be expected to present a holistic picture of reality. Communication models help us to visualise, analyse and discuss various complex processes and issues that would be otherwise difficult to explain Functions of models Organizing function: Models help us by ordering and relating systems to each other by providing with images of whole that might not otherwise perceived Explaining function : Models help us study communication by providing simplified version which would otherwise be complex Yet another function of communication is heuristic in nature. It means that in the study of communication, models guide researchers to the key points of the process or system Thus communication models help a. to assign probabilities to formulate hypothesis in research b. to predict outcomes c. to describe the structure of a phenomenon Aristotles Concept of Communication The first known scholar who wrote about communication, though not directly, is Aristotle (384-322 BC). In his famous books, Rhetoric, Aristotlc ealled the study of communication as  rhetoric and elaborated three elements within the process. According to him, communication process composed of a speaker, a message and a listener. Person at the end of the communication process holds the key to whether or not communication takes place. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 12School School School of of of D D Di i is s st t ta a an n nce ce ce E E Ed d du u uca ca cat t ti i ion on on In In In A A Ar r ri i isto sto stotl tl tle e e  s p s p s po o oi i in n nt o t o t of f f vi vi vie e ew w w,,, " " " C C Co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n i i is p s p s pu u ur r rp p po o osi si sive; ve; ve; " " " It It It i i is b s b s ba a as s sed ed ed o o on n n t t th h he e e i i in n nte te ten n nti ti tio o on n n o o of f f a a af f ff f fe e ec c cti ti tin n ng g g o o ot t th h her er ers; s; s; " " " I I Its ef ts ef ts eff f fec ec ects ts ts c c can an an b b be eva e eva e eval l lu u uat at ated ed ed an an and d d m m mea ea easu su sur r red ed ed i i in n n ter ter term m ms o s o s of f f ef ef eff f fec ec ect, t, t, an an and d d a a al l lso so so i i in n n ter ter term m ms o s o s of f f t t th h he tr e tr e tru u uth th th;;; " " " R R Rh h heto eto etor r ri i ic c c c c co o on n nsi si sid d der er ers n s n s no o ot o t o t on n nl l ly y y w w wh h ha a at i t i t is o s o s or r r w w was, b as, b as, bu u ut a t a t al l lso so so w w wh h hat m at m at mi i ig g gh h ht b t b t be. e. e. T T To o o h h hi i is c s c s co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cato ato ator r rs s s n n ne e eed ed ed to to to d d devel evel evelo o op p p f f fi i ive sk ve sk ve ski i il l ll l ls s s::: " " " In In Inve ve ven n nti ti tio o on n n - - - ab ab abi i il l li i ity ty ty to to to g g ge e en n ner er erate i ate i ate id d deas; eas; eas; " " " D D Di i isp sp spo o osi si siti ti tio o on n n - - - ab ab abi i il l li i ity ty ty to to to o o or r rg g gan an ani i ize ze ze i i id d deas; eas; eas; " " " S S Sty ty tyl l le e e - - - u u use o se o se of f f ap ap app p pr r ro o op p pr r ri i iate ate ate l l lan an ang g gu u uag ag age; e; e; " " " Mem Mem Memo o or r ry y y - - - ab ab abi i il l li i ity ty ty to to to r r rec ec ecal al all l l f f fac ac act t ts & s & s & i i id d deas; eas; eas; " " " D D Del el eli i iver ver very y y - - - u u use o se o se of f f vo vo voi i ic c ce a e a e an n nd d d g g gestu estu estur r res. es. es. F F Fr r ro o om m m h h hi i is o s o s ob b bser ser servati vati vatio o on n ns, l s, l s, la a ater ter ter sc sc sch h ho o ol l lar ar ars d s d s deve eve evel l lo o op p ped ed ed a m a m a mo o od d del el el o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n u u usi si sin n ng g g th th the el e el e ele e em m men en ents ts ts h h he e e m m men en enti ti tio o on n ned ed ed... Ar Ar Ariiist st sto o ollle e es s s M M Mo o od d del el el o o offf C C Co o om m mm m muni uni unic c ca a atttiiio o on n n T T Th h he e e m m mo o od d del el el c c co o on n ns s si i ists sts sts o o of f f f f fo o ou u ur r r vi vi visi si sib b bl l le e e el el elem em eme e en n nts: ts: ts: S S Sp p peak eak eaker er er o o or r r r r rec ec ecei ei eiver ver ver, , , sp sp speec eec eech h h o o or r r m m messag essag essage, e, e, au au aud d di i ien en enc c ce e e o o or r r r r rec ec ecei ei eiver ver ver( ( (s s s) ) ) an an and d d ef ef eff f fec ec ect t t o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n. . . A A An n nd d d, , , c c co o on n ntex tex text t t o o or r r o o oc c cc c casi asi asio o on n n o o of f f th th the e e c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n c c co o over ver vers a s a s al l ll l l th th the e e e e el l lem em eme e en n nts i ts i ts in n nd d di i ic c cati ati atin n ng g g th th that i at i at it h t h t ha a as i s i s in n nf f fl l lu u ue e en n nc c ce o e o e on n n o o oth th ther er er f f fo o ou u ur r r el el elem em eme e en n nts. ts. ts. Las Las Lass s sw w wel el ell l l Mo Mo Model del del o o of C f C f Co o ommuni mmuni mmunic c cat at ati i io o on n n H H Har ar aro o ol l ld d d D D Dw w wi i ig g gh h ht t t L L Lassw assw asswel el ell l l ( ( ( 1902 1902 1902- - -1978 1978 1978) ) ) i i is s s t t th h he e e p p pr r ro o op p po o on n nen en ent t t o o of f f f f fam am amo o ou u us s s q q qu u uesti esti estio o on n n f f fo o or r rm m mu u ul l la, a, a, w w wh h hi i ic c ch h h i i is s s o o oth th ther er erw w wi i ise se se c c cal al all l led ed ed L L La a assw ssw sswe e el l ll l l f f fo o or r rm m mu u ul l la a a o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n. . . We We We c c can an an  t t t c c cal al all l l h h hi i is s s d d def ef efi i in n ni i iti ti tio o on n n o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n w w wh h hi i ic c ch h h i i is s s p p pr r resen esen esented ted ted i i in n n an an an ar ar arr r ray ay ay o o of f f q q qu u uesti esti estio o on n n as as as a a a c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n m m mo o od d de e el l l i i in n n i i its ts ts str str stri i ic c ct t t sen sen sense. se. se. T T Th h hi i is s s A A Am m mer er eri i ic c can an an p p po o ol l li i it t ti i ic c ca a al l l s s sc c ci i ien en ent t ti i ist st st stated stated stated th th that at at t t th h he e e m m mo o ost st st c c co o on n nven ven veni i ie e en n nt t t a a an n nd d d c c co o om m mp p pr r reh eh ehen en ens s si i ive ve ve w w way ay ay to to to d d desc esc escr r ri i ib b be e e a a an n n a a ac c ct t t o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n w w wa a as s s to to to an an answ sw swer er er t t th h he e e f f fo o ol l ll l lo o ow w wi i in n ng g g q q qu u ues es esti ti tio o on n ns: s: s: W W Wh h ho o o ( ( (say say says s s) ) ) W W Wh h ha a at t t ( ( (to to to) ) ) W W Wh h ho o om m m ( ( ( i i in n n) ) ) W W Wh h hat C at C at Ch h han an ann n nel el el ( ( (w w w i i it t th h h) ) ) W W W h h hat E at E at Ef f ff f fec ec ect t t? ? ? I I In n nt t tr r rod od odu u uct ct cti i io o on n n t t to o o M M Ma a as s ss s s C C Com om omm m mu u un n ni i ica ca cat t ti i ion on on Pa Pa Pag g ge e e 1 1 13 3 3School School School of of of D D Di i is s st t ta a an n nce ce ce E E Ed d du u uca ca cat t ti i ion on on L L La a assw ssw sswel el ellll M M Mo o od d del el el o o offf C C Co o om m mm m muni uni unic c ca a atttiiio o on n n T T Th h hi i is s s m m mo o odel del del i i is s s s s sel el elf f f s s sp p pea ea eak k ki i in n ng g g o o of f f t t th h he e e p p pr r ro o oc c ces es ess s s o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n w w wh h hi i ic c ch h h c c co o on n ns s si i is s st t ts s s o o of f f f f fi i iv v ve e e el el elem em emen en ent t ts s s n n nam am amel el ely y y c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ato o or r r ( ( ( w w w h h ho o o) ) ) , , , m m mes es ess s sag ag age e e ( ( ( s s say ay ays s s w w wh h hat at at) ) ) , , , m m medi edi ediu u um m m ( ( (i i i n n n w w wh h hi i ic c ch h h c c ch h han an ann n nel el el) ) ), r , r , r ec ec ecei ei eiv v ver er er ( ( (t t t o o o w w wh h ho o om m m) ) ) ef ef ef f f fe e ec c ct t t ( ( (w w w i i it t th h h w w wh h hat at at ef ef eff f fec ec ect t t) ) ) ... Las Las Lass s sw w wel el ell l l c c co o on n nc c cei ei eiv v ved ed ed c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n as as as a a a l l li i in n near ear ear p p pr r ro o oc c ces es ess s s w w wh h hi i ic c ch h h s s st t tar ar art t ts s s f f fr r ro o om m m c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ato o or r r an an and d d en en ends ds ds at at at r r rec ec ecei ei eiv v ver er er w w wi i it t th h h s s so o om m me e e ef ef eff f fe e ec c ct t t. . . T T Th h he e e m m maj aj ajo o or r r m m mi i is s ss s si i in n ng g g el el elem em emen en ent t ts s s o o of f f t t th h hi i is s s b b bas as asi i ic c c m m mo o odel del del ar ar are e e f f feedb eedb eedbac ac ack k k an an and d d c c co o on n nt t tex ex ext t t o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n. . . H H Ho o ow w wev ev ever er er, , , t t th h hi i is s s m m mo o odel del del i i is s s s s sai ai aid d d t t to o o b b be e e h h hi i ig g gh h hl l ly y y h h hel el elp p pf f fu u ul l l f f fo o or r r o o or r rg g gan an ani i izi zi zin n ng g g c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n r r res es esear ear earc c ch h h as as as au au audi di dien en enc c ce e e an an anal al aly y ys s si i is s s, , , c c co o on n nt t ten en ent t t an an anal al aly y ys s si i is s s, , , c c co o on n nt t tr r ro o ol l l an an anal al aly y ys s si i is s s, , , r r rec ec ecep ep ept t ti i io o on n n an an anal al aly y ys s si i is s s an an and d d ef ef eff f fec ec ect t t s s st t tu u udi di die e es s s w w wh h hi i ic c ch h h ar ar are e e r r res es esp p pec ec ect t ti i iv v vel el ely y y r r rep ep epr r res es esen en ent t ted b ed b ed by y y c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ato o or r r, m , m , mes es ess s sag ag age, m e, m e, medi edi ediu u um m m, r , r , rec ec ecei ei eiv v ver er er an an and ef d ef d eff f fec ec ect t t... O O Os s sg g goo oo ood d d an an and d d S S Sh h hr r ram am amm m m M M Mod od ode e el l l O O Osg sg sgo o oo o od d d a a and nd nd S S Sc c ch h hr r ra a am m mm m m M M Mo o od d del el el O O Osg sg sgo o oo o od d d an an and d d S S Sc c ch h hr r ram am amm m m en en envi vi visi si sio o on n ned ed ed c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n a a as s s a a a c c ci i ir r rc c cu u ul l lar ar ar p p pr r ro o oc c cess ess ess w w wh h hi i ic c ch h h h h ha a as s s b b beg eg egi i in n nn n ni i in n ng g g a a an n nd d d o o or r r e e en n nd d d. . . H H Hen en enc c ce e e t t th h hei ei eir r r m m mo o od d de e el l l i i is s s c c ca a al l ll l led ed ed C C Ci i ir r rc c cu u ul l lar ar ar Mo Mo Mod d del el el. . . In In In th th thei ei eir r r v v vi i iew ew ew,,, sen sen send d der er er an an and d d r r rec ec ecei ei eiver ver ver ar ar are e e i i in n nter ter terc c ch h ha a an n ng g ge e eab ab abl l le e e p p po o osi si sit t ti i io o on n ns s s an an and d d th th tho o ou u ug g gh h h n n no o ot t t sp sp spec ec eci i if f fi i ic c cal al all l ly y y m m me e en n nti ti tio o on n ned ed ed, , , f f feed eed eedb b ba a ac c ck k k i i is s s an an an essen essen essent t ti i ial al al c c co o om m mp p po o on n ne e en n nt t t o o of f f t t th h hi i is s s m m mo o od d de e el l l... T T Th h her er ere e e ar ar are e e t t th h hr r ree ee ee f f fu u un n nc c ct t ti i io o on n ns s s o o on n n e e eac ac ach h h p p par ar art t t o o of f f th th the e e c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n c c ci i ir r rc c cl l le. e. e. T T Th h hey ey ey ar ar are e e : : : en en enc c co o od d di i in n ng g g, , , d d dec ec eco o od d di i in n ng g g an an and d d i i in n nter ter terp p pr r reti eti etin n ng g g. . . B B Bo o ot t th h h se se sen n nd d der er er a a an n nd d d r r rec ec ecei ei eiver ver ver ar ar are e e e e en n nc c co o od d der er ers s s,,, d d dec ec eco o od d der er ers an s an s and d d i i in n nt t ter er erp p pr r reter eter eters at th s at th s at the e e sam sam same ti e ti e tim m me. e. e. I I In n nt t tr r rod od odu u uct ct cti i io o on n n t t to o o M M Ma a as s ss s s C C Com om omm m mu u un n ni i ica ca cat t ti i ion on on Pa Pa Pag g ge e e 1 1 14 4 4School of Distance Education Encoder  Who does encoding or sends the message Decoder  Who receives the message Interpreter  Person trying to understand ( analyses, perceive) or interpret. Merits of this model are: 1. Dynamic model- Shows how a situation can change 2. It shows why redundancy is an essential part 3. There is no separate sender and receiver, sender and receiver is the same person 4. Assume communication to be circular in nature 5. Feedback  central feature. David Berlos Model of Communication David Berlos model of communication has four maj or parts : source (S), message (M) , channel ( C) and receiver (R) . It is conceived as a linear model. This model is otherwise called SMCR model denoting each element Berlos Communication Model Unlike other models SMCR model elaborates the sub sects of major components indicating the influence of external factors like culture, language, text and social system and sensory organs on communication process. Berlos model has the following demerits: a. No feedback / dont know about the effect b. Does not mention barriers to communication c. No room for noise d. Complex model e. It is a linear model of communication f. Needs people to be on same level for communication to occur but not true in real life g. Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as a channel which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding, analyzing etc). Introduction to Mass Communication Page 15School School School of of of D D Di i is s st t ta a an n nce ce ce E E Ed d du u uca ca cat t ti i ion on on Shanno Shanno Shannon and Weav n and Weav n and Weaver Mo er Mo er Model del del o o of C f C f Co o ommuni mmuni mmunic c cat at ati i io o on n n C C Cl l lau au aud d de e e S S Sh h ha a an n nn n no o on n n,,, an an an e e en n ng g gi i in n neer eer eer at at at th th the e e B B Bel el ell l l T T Tel el elep ep eph h ho o on n ne e e C C Co o om m mp p pan an any y y,,, al al alo o on n ng g g w w wi i it t th h h Weaver Weaver Weaver d d devel evel evelo o op p ped ed ed t t th h he e e m m mo o ost st st i i in n nf f fl l lu u uen en enti ti tial al al o o of f f a a al l ll l l ear ear earl l ly y y c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n m m mo o od d de e el l ls. s. s. T T Th h hei ei eir r r g g go o oal al al w w was as as to to to f f fo o or r rm m mu u ul l lat at ate e e a a a th th theo eo eor r ry y y to to to g g gu u ui i id d de e e th th the e e e e ef f ff f fo o or r rts ts ts o o of f f en en eng g gi i in n neer eer eers s s to to to f f fi i in n nd d d o o ou u ut t t th th the e e m m mo o ost st st ef ef eff f fi i ic c ci i ien en ent t t w w way ay ay o o of f f tr tr tra a an n nsm sm smi i it t tti ti tin n ng g g el el elec ec ectr tr tri i ic c ca a al l l si si sig g gn n na a al l ls f s f s fr r ro o om m m o o on n ne l e l e lo o oc c cati ati atio o on n n to to to a a an n no o ot t th h her er er... S S Sh h ha a anno nno nnon n n a a an n nd d d W W Wea ea eav v ver er er M M Mo o od d del el el o o offf C C Co o om m mm m muni uni unic c ca a atttiiio o on n n A A As s s t t th h he e e p p pr r ri i im m me e e c c co o on n nc c ce e er r rn n n o o of f f t t th h he e e d d de e ev v ve e el l lo o op p pe e er r rs s s o o of f f t t th h hi i is s s m m mo o od d de e el l l w w wa a as s s t t to o o q q qu u ua a an n nt t ti i it t ta a at t ti i iv v ve e el l ly y y m m ma a ax x xi i im m mi i iz z ze e e t t th h he e e s s si i ig g gn n na a al l ls s s t t tr r ra a an n ns s sm m mi i it t tt t te e ed d d,,, t t th h hi i is s s m m mo o od d de e el l l i i is s s a a al l ls s so o o c c ca a al l ll l le e ed d d M M Ma a at t th h he e em m ma a at t ti i ic c ca a al l l M M Mo o od d de e el l l o o of f f C C Co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c ca a at t ti i io o on n n... T T Th h he e e m m mo o od d de e el l l i i is s s b b ba a as s se e ed d d o o on n n t t te e ec c ch h hn n ni i ic c ca a al l l c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c ca a at t ti i io o on n n s s se e et t tt t ti i in n ng g gs s s w w wh h he e er r re e e i i in n nf f fo o or r rm m ma a at t ti i io o on n n s s so o ou u ur r rc c ce e e t t tr r ra a an n ns s sm m mi i it t ts s s t t th h he e e m m me e es s ss s sa a ag g ge e es s s a a af f ft t te e er r r c c co o on n nv v ve e er r rt t ti i in n ng g g i i it t t t t to o o s s si i ig g gn n na a al l ls s s... T T Th h he e es s se e e s s si i ig g gn n na a al l ls s s a a ar r re e e c c ca a ap p pt t tu u ur r re e ed d d u u us s si i in n ng g g r r re e ec c ce e ei i iv v ve e er r rs s s a a an n nd d d d d de e ec c co o od d de e ed d d... C C Co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c ca a at t ti i io o on n n t t th h hr r ro o ou u ug g gh h h m m me e ec c ch h ha a an n ni i ic c ca a al l l d d de e ev v vi i ic c ce e es s s l l li i ik k ke e e t t te e el l le e ep p ph h ho o on n ne e e o o or r r t t te e el l le e ev v vi i is s si i io o on n n i i is s s a a a b b be e es s st t t e e ex x xa a am m mp p pl l le e e f f fo o or r r t t th h hi i is s s m m mo o od d de e el l l... D D Danc anc ance e es s s H H He e el l li i ic c ca a al l l Mo Mo Model del del o o of C f C f Co o ommuni mmuni mmunic c cat at ati i io o on n n D D Da a anc nc nce e e M M Mo o od d de e elll o o offf C C Co o om m mm m mun un uniiic c ca a atttiiio o on n n T T Th h he e e H H Hel el eli i ic c cal al al Mo Mo Mod d de e el l l o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n w w was as as p p pr r ro o op p po o osed sed sed b b by y y F F Fr r ran an ank k k D D Dan an anc c ce e e i i in n n 1967 1967 1967. . . A A A h h he e el l li i ix x x i i is s s n n no o oth th thi i in n ng g g b b bu u ut t t a a a sm sm smo o oo o ot t th h h c c cu u ur r rve ve ve jjju u ust st st l l li i ik k ke e e a a a sp sp spr r ri i in n ng g g w w wh h hi i ic c ch h h i i if f f g g go o oes es es u u up p pw w war ar ard d ds s s al al also so so c c co o om m me e es s s d d do o ow w wn n nw w war ar ard d ds s s... D D Dan an anc c ce e e t t th h ho o ou u ug g gh h ht t t o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n p p pr r ro o oc c ce e ess ss ss si si sim m mi i il l lar ar ar to to to h h hel el eli i ix x x. . . D D Da a an n nc c ce' e' e's s s m m mo o od d del el el em em emp p ph h ha a asi si sized zed zed t t th h he e e c c co o om m mp p pl l lex ex exi i ity ty ty o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n... H H He e e w w wa a as s s i i in n nter ter terest est ested ed ed i i in n n t t th h he e e evo evo evol l lu u uti ti tio o on n nar ar ary y y n n natu atu atur r re e e o o of f f t t th h he e e p p pr r ro o oc c cess ess ess o o of f f c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n... A A Ac c cc c co o or r rd d di i in n ng g g to to to h h hi i im m m, , , o o on n nc c ce e e c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n star star started ted ted, , , i i it t t d d devel evel evelo o op p ps s s g g gr r rad ad adu u ual al all l ly y y ac ac acc c co o or r rd d di i in n ng g g to to to ti ti tim m me. e. e. T T Th h hi i is s s m m mo o od d del el el d d di i isag sag sagr r rees ees ees w w wi i ith th th th th the e e tr tr trad ad adi i it t ti i io o on n nal al al c c co o on n nc c cep ep epts ts ts o o of f f l l li i in n near ear eari i ity ty ty a a an n nd d d c c ci i ir r rc c cu u ul l lar ar ari i ity ty ty i i in n n c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n a a an n nd d d str str stre e esses sses sses t t th h he e e h h hel el eli i ic c cal al al sp sp spi i ir r ral al al n n nat at atu u ur r re e e o o of f f th th the e e p p pr r ro o oc c cess. ess. ess. A A Ac c cc c co o or r rd d di i in n ng g g to to to D D Dan an anc c ce, e, e, ear ear earl l li i ie e er r r c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n h h hel el elp p ps s s w w wi i id d de e en n n th th the e e n n natu atu atur r re e e an an and d d c c co o on n ntex tex text t t o o of f f f f fu u ur r rth th ther er er c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cat at ati i io o on n n. . . T T To o o h h hi i im m m,,, c c co o om m mm m mu u un n ni i ic c cati ati atio o on n n h h ha a as a ver s a ver s a very y y si si sim m mp p pl l le b e b e beg eg egi i in n nn n ni i in n ng g g a a an n nd d d i i it w t w t wi i id d de e en n ns as t s as t s as ti i im m me a e a e an n nd d d c c co o on n ntex tex text p t p t per er erm m mi i it. t. t. I I In n nt t tr r rod od odu u uct ct cti i io o on n n t t to o o M M Ma a as s ss s s C C Com om omm m mu u un n ni i ica ca cat t ti i ion on on Pa Pa Pag g ge e e 1 1 16 6 6School of Distance Education MODULE II DEFINING MASS COMMUNICATION Objectives This unit will introduce  Components of mass communication  Channels of mass communication  The process of mass communication  Nature of mass communication  Functions and dysfunctions of mass communication  Types of mass media Introduction We learnt to define communication, identify its elements and categorize the process based on the number of persons involved in it. Of the above mentioned types of communication, our focus is on mass communication. In this unit, we will learn the various aspects of mass communication, which is the thrust area of this programme. Components of Mass Communication For better understanding of the nature of mass communication, we should analyze its two basic components : the mass and the communication media. TheMass The concept  mass in mass communication is defined as a large, heterogeneous, assorted, anonymous audience. Large means we cant exactly count the number of the members of audience. It is relatively large but it doesnt mean that the audience inclues al d l people. Heterogeneousm eans the audience of mass media includes all types of people  the rich, the poor, farmers, bureaucrats, politicians and so on. Assorted means the audience of mass media is not necessarily limited to a particular geographical sector. They may be scattered everywhere. For example, a newspaper may have a reader in every nook and corner of the world. Anonymousmeans we cant specifically identify a reader of a newspaper of newspaper with his certain characteristics. Today he may be reader of a particular newspaper. Tomorrow, he may change his media habit. Anybody at any time may be a member of mass media audience. The channels of communication that produce and distribute news, entertainment content, visuals and other cultural products to a large number of people. Mass media can be classified in to three major groups on the basis of their physical nature. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 17School of Distance Education They are:  Print Media like newspaper, magazines and periodicals, books etc.  Electronic like radio, cinema, television, video and audio records  Digital Media like CD RoMs, DVDs and the Internet facilities. Mass Communication Process How does mass communication work can be well explained in linear model of mass communication?. According to this traditional concept, mass communication is a component system made up of senders ( the authors, reporters, producers or agencies) who transmit messages ( the book content, the news reports, texts, visuals, images, sounds or advertisements) through mass media channels ( books, newspapers, films, magazines, radio, television or the Internet) to a large group of receivers ( readers, viewers, citizens or consumers) after the filtering of gatekeepers ( editors, producers or media managers) with some chance for feedback ( letters to editors, phone calls to news reporters, web-site postings or as audience members of talk shows or television discussions). The effect of this process may formation of public opinion, acceptance of a particular cultural value, setting the agenda for the society and the like. A simple linear model of mass communication situation can be represented with the diagram given below. Reporter Report Media Audience Feedback Nature of Mass Communication From the above model of mass communication, it is easy to identify the following features of mass communication. 1. Mass communication experience is public one. It means that anybody can be a part of this communication process at any time without much effort or permission. 2. It is a mediated communication act. Nature of the media involved in the process defines the mediation in mass communication. For example, television can transmit a news instantly as it is a fast medium, newspaper takes to bring the same news report to the public because of its limitations. This is how nature of the media defines the mediation process in mass communication. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 18School of Distance Education 3. Mass communication is filtered communication. This filtering processing is called gatekeeping. For example, a news report in a newspaper or on a television channel filtered or controlled at different level by reporter, sub editor, news editor, editor. 4. It is the most complicated form of communication as it involves complex technology like satellites digital networks, management structure, marketing chain etc. 5. Mass communication can alter the way the society thinks about events and attitudes. 6. Mass communication experience is transient. It means that once you used a message ( for example, a news report or a film) you may not use it again. The message is meant to be used once and it is gone. Who will read yesterdays newspaper? 7. Mass communication is most often remains as one-way communication. As receivers, how many of us write letters to editor (sender) ? A very few. But, in interpersonal communication, senders and receivers are in active conversation sending feedback to each other. 8. Unlike other communicators, mass communicators cant see their audience. Karn a Tapar or Pranoy Roy, the leading television personalities in India know that their programmes are watched by millions of Indians. But, they cant see how people respond or react while watching their presentations. Thats why they cant change the style of presentation or mode of communication instantly as we do in interpersonal or group communication. Mass Media Mass media influence our daily life more than any other cultural institution. They are our main sources of news and entertainment. They define our purchase decision, voting behavior, academic achievement and so on. Because of this all-encompassing impact of mass media, politicians, businessmen and government agencies depend on media to influence people. During election time, we witness politicians spending millions of rupess for political campign through mass media. Business firms across the world spend billions of dollars to market their products with the help of mass media advertisements. We are informed of the policies of our governments through newspapers and electronic media. Likewise, we people need mass media to express our needs, complaints and wishes to the authorities. In short, role of mass media in our society is omnipresent. Defining Mass Media According to Wilbur Schramm a mass m d eium is essentially a working group organized around some device for circulating the same message, at about same time, to a large number of people. From this definition, let us know that there is a well organized system behind each mass medium. For example, a newspaper is produced everyday with the collective efforts of a lot of people using various information sources ranging from local reporters to international news agencies. Same is the case of distribution of the newspaper also. Everybody from circulation manager to local newspaper boy is actively engaged in smooth circulation of each copy of a newspaper. Moreover, every county has its own policy, laws, and telecommunication systems to facilitate mass media. In this sense, the production of a mass medium is the result of a well organized system. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 19School of Distance Education And, the messages are disseminated to a large number of people ie. mass. They are called the audience. No media can sustain without a sufficient audience. We learned the characteristics of mass audience in the earlier unit. The definition again talks about devices of circulating messages. These devices are technological means through which messages are communicated to the audience. Devices include printed documents, television, radio, DVD, cassettes, the internet etc. Types of Mass Communication Mass media can be categorized according to physical form, technology involved, nature of the communication process etc. Given below are the major categories of mass media. Print Media Johannes Gutenbergs invention of the moveable metallic type in the fifteenth century paved the way for proliferation of the print media. The printing press using moveable types introduced the method for mass production of texts. Before the invention of the printing press, books were expensive materials affordable only for the aristocrats and royal families. Printing reduced the cost of books and made them available to the common men also. Rapid duplication of multiple copies of handy texts led to the innovation of modern newspapers. Print Media include  Newspapers  Magazines  books  other textual documents Electronic Media The history of electronic mass media starts with the invention of radio by Marconi. The first radio station was set up in Pittsburg, New York and Chicago in the 1920s. Following the USA, European countries also started radio stations for broadcasting news and entertainment content. The colonial powers like Briton and France set radio stations in Asian and African th countries in the early years of 20 century. The next step in electronic communication media history was the invention of cinema. Following cinema, television broadcasting was initiated in the US on experimental basis during 1920s. But, the dramatic impact of television as a mass medium began in 1950s. Parallel to these, recording industry was also boomed in the western countries. In short, the term electronic media mainly include:  Radio  Movies  Television  Audio and Video records Introduction to Mass Communication Page 20School of Distance Education New Media Online and digital means of producing, transmitting and receiving messages are called new media. The term encompasses computer mediated communication technology. It implies the use of desktop and portable computers as well as wireless and handheld devices. Every company in the computer industry is involved with new media in some manner. The forms of communicating in the digital world include  CD-RoMs  DVDs  Internet facilities like World Wide Web, bulleting boarding, email etc. Functions of Mass Media As mentioned earlier, mass media have pervasive effects on our personal and social life. The role and scope of mass media in our society are in the following areas:  Information  Education  Entertainment  Persuasion Information function Mass media carry a lot of information which are essential for our day to day life. We know exam results, weather forecasts, current affairs, traffic regulations, last dates, precautions, government policies etc. from mass media. The core of medias information function is performed by the media content called news. The place or time dedicated for news in a mass media is called news hole. News is the most consumed item of any media. News can be defined as reports on things that people want or need to know. Information should be accurate, objective and complete. Biased or incomplete reports will keep the audience away from the media. Advertising is also mass medias information function. We get much useful information from classified advertisements. Education function Information is different from education. Education is systematically organized information with predefined objectives. The primary source of education in our society is schools or colleges. Media also perform the functions that educational institutions do. Media are life-long educators for the society. They give us comprehensive knowledge of selected topics. Non-news content or news-based content like editorials, articles, columns in newspapers provide us with complete idea of a subject. Health Magazines, IT magazines are also examples for education through media. Recently, mass media in Kerala directly participate in our educational system by publishing educational supplements for school-goers . Padippura of Malayala Manorams, Kutty.com of Mathrubhumi, Velicham of Madhyamam, Kilivatil of Deshabhimani are examples. Moreover, we have a number television channels dedicated for mass education. Victors of IT School Project of Kerala Government, Vyas Channelr of Consortium of Educational Communication under University Grants Commission, Gyandarsan of Doordarshan are some of such efforts. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 21School of Distance Education Entertainment function Irrespective of their type, mass media are wonderful entertainers. All media have entertainment content. Newspapers publish cartoons, comics, puzzles, special weekend supplements for amusing people. Lion share of magazine content such as short stories, novels, satires and cartoons are for entertainment. Movies are another big stock for entertainment. Audio-Visual media such as television and radio are also primarily concentrate on entertainment function through their programmes based on sports, film, and fashion shows etc. Persuasion Persuasion means influencing attitudes or opinions. Mass media have many ways to persuade people. Most people form their opinion from information they get from mass media. Media have direct and indirect methods for persuasion. For public opinion formation, mass media use editorials, news analysis and commentaries. In such cases, the purpose is clear and direct. The most obvious method of persuasion is advertising. Advertisements are direct methods to influence purchasing behaviour of the public. Some media report events hiding their vested interests in news. Such biased, subjective reports are for persuading people to form favourable attitudes towards them or their interests. Opinionated news is an undirected method of persuasion. Its against the ethics of responsible journalism. News and opinion should be given separately. According to western media scholars like Harold Laswell, mass media, be print or electronic, have the following functions: Surveillance of the environment Mass media observe the society and its activities and report them to make people aware of their socio-cultural environment. In other words, we as social animals are always under the close observations of mass media. Media are our watchdogs. It always watches who do good things and who do bad things, and report them to encourage or correct our deeds. Reports about corruptions are good example. Considering this watchdog function of mass media, we call the media as the Fourth Estate of our democratic political system. The other estates are Legislative, Judiciary and Executive. Transmission of heritage Mass media are the bridge between our past and present. They report day to day affairs which will become history of tomorrow. The best records of modern history are newspapers of yesteryears. We get our cultural tradition from history and we follow the best of them. In keeping our culture flowing, media play a vital role. It advises us which part of our culture is good and to be followed and which is bad and not to be followed. Interpretation of information Mass media provide us with information from every nook and corner of the world. They do not just report facts and figures of the events, rather they interpret events to make us aware of what happens, and why, where, when and how it happens. Media interpretation may be biased or not. But, it helps develop our views towards an event or object or personality. Every media report is an analysis and one version of the fact. There may be another versions and analysis. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 22School of Distance Education Prescription for conduct How should we behave in a society? What should be our approach towards something important to the society? What is good for social life? As a member of a larger social system, we face these questions every now and then. In most cases, mass media provide us answers. During the election time, we are confused of electing a candidate. But, news coverage of political policies and leaders of various parties give us an insight that helps us take decisions. This is how media prescribe our political conduct. So do the advertising. Which product or service is better? Which is suitable to our budget? We depend on advertisements before taking purchase decisions. Catalyst for Development In a country like India, medias role in nti aonal development is highly important. Medias contributions to national development are mainly in two ways : As advocates for development and as carriers of development messages. Mass media find out problems faced by people in different walks of their life and make the administrators aware of them. Most often, media report such events and further campaign to get the grievances redressed. On the other hand, media make people aware of their rights, government subsidies, development policies and the merits and demerits of adopting or practicing them for better life. Government controlled media perform these duties better than the private media do. This development orient function of media is termed as Development Communication. Development Communication has been recognized as a special area in communication study and research. Nature of Mass Communication From the above model of mass communication, it is easy to identify the following features of mass communication. 1. Mass communication experience is public one. It means that anybody can be a part of this communication process at any time without much effort or permission. 2. It is a mediated communication act. Nature of the media involved in the process defines the mediation in mass communication. For example, television can transmit a news instantly as it is a fast medium, newspaper takes to bring the same news report to the public because of its limitations. This is how nature of the media defines the mediation process in mass communication. 3. Mass communication is filtered communication. This filtering processing is called gatekeeping. For example, a news report in a newspaper or on a television channel filtered or controlled at different level by reporter, sub editor, news editor, editor. 4. It is the most complicated form of communication as it involves complex technology like satellites digital networks, management structure, marketing chain etc. 5. Mass communication can alter the way the society thinks about events and attitudes. 6. Mass communication experience is transient. It means that once you used a message ( for example, a news report or a film) you may not use it again. The message is meant to be used once and it is gone. Who will read yesterdays newspaper? 7. Mass communication is most often remains as one-way communication. As receivers, how many of us write letters to editor (s ender) ? A very few. But, in interpersonal communication, senders and receivers are in active conversation sending feedback to each other. 8. Unlike other communicators, mass communicators cant see their audience. Karan Tapar or Pranoy Roy, the leading television personalities in India know that their programmes are watched by millions of Indians. But, they cant see how people respond or react while watching their presentations. That s why they cant change the style of presentation or mode of communication instantly as we do in interpersonal or group communication. Introduction to Mass Communication Page 23

Advise: Why You Wasting Money in Costly SEO Tools, Use World's Best Free SEO Tool Ubersuggest.