Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry

what is environmental analytical chemistry, what is environmental organic chemistry and what environmental effects does chemistry have on the ecosystem pdf free download
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Dr.LeonBurns,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Environmental Chemistry    Introduction            Dato’ Prof. Zaini Ujang    Ph.D., PE (M), C.Eng.(UK), C.W.E.M. (UK), C.Sci. (UK)    Institute of Environmental & Water Resource Management              Universiti Teknologi Malaysia   zainiutm.my        http://www.cheme.utm.my/staff/zaini 1   Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my                 Environmental Chemistry Lecture outline      Pollution perspective    Major pollutants    Effects of pollutants on    ecosystems    Fate and behavior of chemicals in    environment    Environmental toxicity testing    Environmental monitoring    Instrumentations 2 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my                   Introduction   Environmental components    Geosphere / lithosphere    Solid earth, including soil, which supports most plant life      Biosphere Living entities on Earth   ECOLOGY   The study of ecosystem Hydrosphere Earth’s water     Atmosphere   Thin layer of gases that cover Earth’s surface 3 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my                     Ecosystem   • Encompasses both living (biotic) and non-living  (abiotic) components of an area – a combination of the  community and physical and chemical components of  the local environment.   • The major feature of this ecological level is the strong  interaction between the biotic and abiotic components   • Major processes:      • Nutrient recycling      • Energy flow 4 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                       Ecosystem processes            Energy flow: • Energy sources     Natural • Photosynthesis  process     • Primary production     • Secondary production 5 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                         Major components & sub somponents   Environmental components            Abiotic Hydrosphere (ocean, lake, river, groundwater)      Lithosphere (solid earth, soils)      Atmosphere Biotic Living organisms (animal, plant, fungi, bacteria, virus)   Dead organic matters 6 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)             Environmental components Atmosphere Geosphere                                               TECHNOLOGY                                       Hydrosphere  Biosphere 7 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                       Pollution Perspective            Multiple sources        - Natural          -Volcano          -Dust          -CO2 from respiration and fire      - Man-made      Urbanisation and industrialisation enhanced pollution    Degradation of self-purification processes 8 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)               Pollution Perspective Manufacturing processes- from problems maker to problem solver      Reactants      Contaminants (impurities)  Reaction media Atmospheric (water, organic solvents)  emissions Manufacturing   Recycle  process    Catalysts  Products & Discharges that may useful by-products  require treatment  Reclaimed Wastewater Solids & sludges by-products 9 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)             Pollution Perspective Paper production, usage and disposal Wood from  Pulp & paper    Paper  forest manufacturing  usages                                                                    Persistent Solid waste -Deforestration        organic -Soil erosion      pollution Environmental pollution generation 10 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)             Pollution Perspective Burning of paper and other organic materials        Global warming Greenhouse effect Asthma NO2 Heat CO2  O2   SO2  H2SO4 Carcinogens H2O           Acid rain Fire 11 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)             Pollution Perspective Pollution from water to air to soil to water to air to soil to … Water pollution Atmosphere Acid rain control            HUMAN BEING Sludge  Pollution of surface water Soil pollution 12 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                   Ecological systems, disturbances & pollution     Concept of tolerance Each species tolerate to a range of optimum for physicochemical factors:  temperature  pH  light  nutrients  biological factors (food, competitors and predators)       Each species is most successful in that area where ranges of optima for different factors overlap to the greatest degree       Each species within a community and habitat has different and unique niche 13 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                 Ecological systems, disturbances & pollution           Concept of disturbance Discrete, punctuated killing, displacement or damaging of one or more individuals or colonies that directly or indirectly creates an opportunity for new individuals to be become established (Sousa, 1984)       Causes a temporary or permanent shift in the community       Risk assessment can be used to identify the risk after disturbances 14 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                   Ecological systems, disturbances & pollution        Concept of pollution  Any change in the natural quality of the environment brought about  by the following factors:    chemical    physical    biological        Normally, pollution causes by activities of man        Physical factors    change naturally in short term (flood, fire, storms, etc.)    longer term change (e.g. climate change)    man’s activities (building, drainage, forest clearence) 15 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                 Ecological systems, disturbances & pollution        Chemical factors  Changes through elevation of concentration of substances, e.g. nutrients eutrophication toxic substances health risk organics reduce quality of raw water supply Biological factors Biological processes like predation or grazing, non-predatory effects like digging and man-induced events like tree felling, hunting etc. reduce species niche ecological imbalance cutting trees reduce oxygen generation capability Note: Eutrophication: Enrichment of nutrients in water bodies 16 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                       Ecological systems, disturbances & pollution          Most pollution, disturbances can be recovered      The ability to recover and rate of recovery are dependent on  the regime of disturbance:        Nature of disturbances    Size of the disturbed area    Magnitude and duration of the event (intensity of disturbing force)    Timing and frequency of the disturbance    Predictability of the disturbance    Turnover rate (average time required to disturb the entire area) 17 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                     Major pollutants Water, Atmosphere, Soil          Sulphur dioxide    Nitrogen oxides and nitrate    Sewage    Agricultural waste    Warfare    Pesticides 18 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)               Centralized (and combined) WWTP Non-treated Municipal WW industrial WW        Urban runoff Partly treated Public sewer industrial WW Stormwater 19 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)                  Sewage in rural and remote areas                     Kitchen Bathrooms Toilets                            Storm drain          Septic tanks 20 Lecture notes on Environmental Chemistry by Prof. Zaini Ujang. zainiutm.my INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IPASA)

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