Lecture notes Solid state Physics

solid state physics advances in research and applications and solid-state physics an introduction to principles of materials science pdf free download
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Dr.LeonBurns,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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PHY380 Solid State Physics Professor Maurice Skolnick, Dr Dmitry Krizhanovskii and Professor David Lidzey Syllabus 1. The distinction between insulators, semiconductors and metals. The periodic table. Quantitative aspects. 2. Basic crystal structures. The crystalline forms of carbon. 3. Density of states, Fermi-Dirac statistics. Free electron model. 4. Electrical transport. Resistivity and scattering mechanisms in metals. Temperature dependence. 5. The nearly free electron model. The periodic lattice, Bragg diffraction, Brillouin zones. 6. Prediction of metallic, insulating behaviour: periodic potential and tight-binding descriptions. 7. Real metals, shapes of Fermi surfaces. 8. Soft x-ray emission. http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/physics/teaching/phy380 1 8. Effective mass. Electrons and holes. 9. Optical absorption in semiconductors. Excitons. Comparison with metals. 10. Doping, donors and acceptors in semiconductors. Hydrogenic model. 11. Semiconductor statistics. Temperature dependence. 12. Temperature dependence of carrier concentration and mobility. Compensation. Scattering mechanisms. 13. Hall effect, cyclotron resonance. Landau levels in magnetic field. 14. Plasma reflectivity in metals and semiconductors. 15. Magnetism (6 lectures) The Nobel Prizes 2009 and 2010 2 PHY380: Some General Points Recommended Textbooks nd Solid State Physics, J R Hook and H Hall, Wiley 2 edition th Introduction to Solid State Physics, C Kittel, Wiley 7 edition The Solid State, H M Rosenberg Oxford 1989 All the contents of the course, to a reasonable level, can be found in Hook and Hall. Kittel has wider coverage, and is somewhat more advanced. Ashcroft and Mermin is a more advanced, rigorous textbook, with rigorous proofs. 3 Relation to Previous Courses This course amalgamates much of the previous PHY330 and the magnetism section of PHY331. Assessment The course will be assessed by an end of semester exam (85%) and two home- works (15%) in the middle and towards the end of the semester respectively (1 November, 13 December deadlines) Prerequisite PHY250, 251, Solids (L R Wilson) Lecture Notes The notes provide an overview of the main points, and all important figures. Many more details will be given during lectures. Students thus need to take detailed notes during lectures to supplement the hand-outs. 4 Overall Aims Electrons in solids: determine electrical and optical properties Crystal lattice: bands, band gaps, electronic properties → metals, semiconductors and insulators Underpin large parts of modern technology: computer chips, light emitting diodes, lasers, magnets, power transmission etc, etc Nanosize structures important modern development The next slides gives some examples: there are many more 5 Electronics, computing Integrated circuit http://www.aztex.biz/tag/integrated -circuits/ 25nm 32nm transistors. Intel web site Data storage (cd, dvd, blu-ray) Lighting, displays Telecommunications, internet Multi- colour Telecommunications LED strip light laser: Oclaro 6 Other major, modern-day applications from condensed matter physics: Magnetic materials – hard disks, data storage Superconductors – magnets, storage ring at e.g. CERN, magnetic levitation Liquid crystal displays Solar cells Mobile communications, satellite communications 7 Research in Semiconductor Physics There is a highly active research group in the department in the field of semiconductor physics rd th Opportunities for projects (3 and 4 year), and PhDs See http://ldsd.group.shef.ac.uk/ for more details, or see me for more details 8 Topic 1: Metals, semiconductor and insulators overview and crystal lattices Range of electron densities 28 -3 Metals: Typical metal (sodium), electron density n=2.6x10 m Insulators (e.g. diamond): electron density very small (E 5.6eV, 5000K k T at 300K) g B Semiconductors: electron density controllable, and is 16 -3 25 -3 temperature dependent, in range 10 m to 10 m Conductivity is proportional to electron density 9 Importance of bands and band gaps • Determine electron density and hence optical and electronic properties • Understanding of origin will be important part of first 7 lectures • Bands and band gaps arise for interaction of electrons with periodic crystal lattice • Three schematic diagrams illustrating differences in bands, gaps and their filling in metals, semiconductors and insulators will be given in the lecture (these are important, simple starting point for course) 10 I IV II Note also: Transition metals 11 Noble metals With relation to previous slide: Group 1: alkali metals, partially filled bands Group II: alkaline earths Group IV: semiconductors, insulators, filled bands + transition metals, noble metals 12 Crystal Lattices Space Lattice plus basis The nature of the crystal lattice, and the number of This figure and electrons in the outer shell slide 14 not determine the conduction covered in lecture (a) Space lattice properties of most elements – here for extra (useful) information Periodic arrangement of (b) Basis, containing two different ions atoms Space lattice plus basis (Fig Kittel) Lattice translation vector (c) Crystal structure T = u a + u a + u a 1 1 2 2 3 3 a , a , a lattice constants 1 2 3 (spacings of atoms) Position vector r' = r +T 13 Space lattices in two dimensions Primitive (unit) cell defined by translation vectors 3D 14 Cubic lattices Lattice points defined by translation vectors Also note diamond is fcc space lattice Primitive basis: 2 atoms for each point of lattice (Kittel page 19) 15 Primitive (unit) cell: Parallelipiped defined by axes a , a , a 1 2 3 sc, bcc and fcc lattices, lattice points per cell and per unit volume Simple cubic: 1 lattice point per unit cell bcc: 2 lattice points per unit cell fcc: 4 lattice points per unit cell Number of lattice points per unit volume? 16 Periodic table and crystal structures 17 nd ( ) planes, directions (covered in 2 year) Planes and directions 18 The Crystalline Forms of Carbon Carbon nanotube Diamond Graphite http://physics.berkeley.edu/research/lanzara/ http://diahttp://www.theage.com.au http://www.azonano.com/ Buckyball C 60 Graphene 2010 Nobel Prize to Geim and Novoselov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene http://diahttp://www.theage.com.au 19 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics A Geim and K Novoselov Graphene, single sheet of carbon atoms: high electron motilities, electrons with new properties, very strong, electronics and sensor applications potentially 20

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