Lecture notes in Network programming

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Beej's Guide to Network Programming Using Internet Sockets Brian “Beej Jorgensen” Hall beejbeej.us Version 3.0.21 June 8, 2016 Copyright © 2015 Brian “Beej Jorgensen” Hall1. Intro Hey Socket programming got you down? Is this stuff just a little too difficult to figure out from the man pages? You want to do cool Internet programming, but you don't have time to wade through a gob of structs trying to figure out if you have to call bind() before you connect(), etc., etc. Well, guess what I've already done this nasty business, and I'm dying to share the information with everyone You've come to the right place. This document should give the average competent C programmer the edge s/he needs to get a grip on this networking noise. And check it out: I've finally caught up with the future (just in the nick of time, too) and have updated the Guide for IPv6 Enjoy 1.1. Audience This document has been written as a tutorial, not a complete reference. It is probably at its best when read by individuals who are just starting out with socket programming and are looking for a foothold. It is certainly not the complete and total guide to sockets programming, by any means. Hopefully, though, it'll be just enough for those man pages to start making sense... :-) 1.2. Platform and Compiler The code contained within this document was compiled on a Linux PC using Gnu's gcc compiler. It should, however, build on just about any platform that uses gcc. Naturally, this doesn't apply if you're programming for Windows—see the section on Windows programming, below. 1.3. Official Homepage and Books For Sale This official location of this document is http://beej.us/guide/bgnet/. There you will also find example code and translations of the guide into various languages. To buy nicely bound print copies (some call them “books”), visit http://beej.us/guide/url/ bgbuy. I'll appreciate the purchase because it helps sustain my document-writing lifestyle 1.4. Note for Solaris/SunOS Programmers When compiling for Solaris or SunOS, you need to specify some extra command-line switches for linking in the proper libraries. In order to do this, simply add “-lnsl -lsocket -lresolv” to the end of the compile command, like so: cc -o server server.c -lnsl -lsocket -lresolv If you still get errors, you could try further adding a “-lxnet” to the end of that command line. I don't know what that does, exactly, but some people seem to need it. Another place that you might find problems is in the call to setsockopt(). The prototype differs from that on my Linux box, so instead of: int yes=1; enter this: char yes='1'; As I don't have a Sun box, I haven't tested any of the above information—it's just what people have told me through email. 1.5. Note for Windows Programmers At this point in the guide, historically, I've done a bit of bagging on Windows, simply due to the fact that I don't like it very much. But I should really be fair and tell you that Windows has a huge install base and is obviously a perfectly fine operating system. They say absence makes the heart grow fonder, and in this case, I believe it to be true. (Or maybe it's age.) But what I can say is that after a decade-plus of not using Microsoft OSes for my personal work, I'm much happier As such, I can sit back and safely say, “Sure, feel free to use Windows” ...Ok yes, it does make me grit my teeth to say that. 1Beej's Guide to Network Programming 2 1 2 So I still encourage you to try Linux , BSD , or some flavor of Unix, instead. But people like what they like, and you Windows folk will be pleased to know that this information is generally applicable to you guys, with a few minor changes, if any. 3 One cool thing you can do is install Cygwin , which is a collection of Unix tools for Windows. I've heard on the grapevine that doing so allows all these programs to compile unmodified. But some of you might want to do things the Pure Windows Way. That's very gutsy of you, and this is what you have to do: run out and get Unix immediately No, no—I'm kidding. I'm supposed to be Windows-friendly(er) these days... This is what you'll have to do (unless you install Cygwin): first, ignore pretty much all of the system header files I mention in here. All you need to include is: include winsock.h Wait You also have to make a call to WSAStartup() before doing anything else with the sockets library. The code to do that looks something like this: include winsock.h WSADATA wsaData; // if this doesn't work //WSAData wsaData; // then try this instead // MAKEWORD(1,1) for Winsock 1.1, MAKEWORD(2,0) for Winsock 2.0: if (WSAStartup(MAKEWORD(1,1), &wsaData) = 0) fprintf(stderr, "WSAStartup failed.\n"); exit(1); You also have to tell your compiler to link in the Winsock library, usually called wsock32.lib or winsock32.lib, or ws2_32.lib for Winsock 2.0. Under VC++, this can be done through the Project menu, under Settings.... Click the Link tab, and look for the box titled “Object/library modules”. Add “wsock32.lib” (or whichever lib is your preference) to that list. Or so I hear. Finally, you need to call WSACleanup() when you're all through with the sockets library. See your online help for details. Once you do that, the rest of the examples in this tutorial should generally apply, with a few exceptions. For one thing, you can't use close() to close a socket—you need to use closesocket(), instead. Also, select() only works with socket descriptors, not file descriptors (like 0 for stdin). There is also a socket class that you can use, CSocket. Check your compilers help pages for more information. 4 To get more information about Winsock, read the Winsock FAQ and go from there. Finally, I hear that Windows has no fork() system call which is, unfortunately, used in some of my examples. Maybe you have to link in a POSIX library or something to get it to work, or you can use CreateProcess() instead. fork() takes no arguments, and CreateProcess() takes about 48 billion arguments. If you're not up to that, the CreateThread() is a little easier to digest...unfortunately a discussion about multithreading is beyond the scope of this document. I can only talk about so much, you know 1.6. Email Policy I'm generally available to help out with email questions so feel free to write in, but I can't guarantee a response. I lead a pretty busy life and there are times when I just can't answer a question you have. When that's the case, I usually just delete the message. It's nothing personal; I just won't ever have the time to give the detailed answer you require. 1. http://www.linux.com/ 2. http://www.bsd.org/ 3. http://www.cygwin.com/ 4. http://tangentsoft.net/wskfaq/Beej's Guide to Network Programming 3 As a rule, the more complex the question, the less likely I am to respond. If you can narrow down your question before mailing it and be sure to include any pertinent information (like platform, compiler, error messages you're getting, and anything else you think might help me troubleshoot), you're much more likely to get a response. For more pointers, read ESR's document, How To Ask Questions The 5 Smart Way . If you don't get a response, hack on it some more, try to find the answer, and if it's still elusive, then write me again with the information you've found and hopefully it will be enough for me to help out. Now that I've badgered you about how to write and not write me, I'd just like to let you know that I fully appreciate all the praise the guide has received over the years. It's a real morale boost, and it gladdens me to hear that it is being used for good :-) Thank you 1.7. Mirroring You are more than welcome to mirror this site, whether publicly or privately. If you publicly mirror the site and want me to link to it from the main page, drop me a line at beejbeej.us. 1.8. Note for Translators If you want to translate the guide into another language, write me at beejbeej.us and I'll link to your translation from the main page. Feel free to add your name and contact info to the translation. Please note the license restrictions in the Copyright and Distribution section, below. If you want me to host the translation, just ask. I'll also link to it if you want to host it; either way is fine. 1.9. Copyright and Distribution Beej's Guide to Network Programming is Copyright © 2015 Brian “Beej Jorgensen” Hall. With specific exceptions for source code and translations, below, this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial- No Derivative Works 3.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. One specific exception to the “No Derivative Works” portion of the license is as follows: this guide may be freely translated into any language, provided the translation is accurate, and the guide is reprinted in its entirety. The same license restrictions apply to the translation as to the original guide. The translation may also include the name and contact information for the translator. The C source code presented in this document is hereby granted to the public domain, and is completely free of any license restriction. Educators are freely encouraged to recommend or supply copies of this guide to their students. Contact beejbeej.us for more information. 5. http://www.catb.org/esr/faqs/smart-questions.html2. What is a socket? You hear talk of “sockets” all the time, and perhaps you are wondering just what they are exactly. Well, they're this: a way to speak to other programs using standard Unix file descriptors. What? Ok—you may have heard some Unix hacker state, “Jeez, everything in Unix is a file” What that person may have been talking about is the fact that when Unix programs do any sort of I/O, they do it by reading or writing to a file descriptor. A file descriptor is simply an integer associated with an open file. But (and here's the catch), that file can be a network connection, a FIFO, a pipe, a terminal, a real on- the-disk file, or just about anything else. Everything in Unix is a file So when you want to communicate with another program over the Internet you're gonna do it through a file descriptor, you'd better believe it. “Where do I get this file descriptor for network communication, Mr. Smarty-Pants?” is probably the last question on your mind right now, but I'm going to answer it anyway: You make a call to the socket() system routine. It returns the socket descriptor, and you communicate through it using the specialized send() and recv() (man send, man recv) socket calls. “But, hey” you might be exclaiming right about now. “If it's a file descriptor, why in the name of Neptune can't I just use the normal read() and write() calls to communicate through the socket?” The short answer is, “You can” The longer answer is, “You can, but send() and recv() offer much greater control over your data transmission.” What next? How about this: there are all kinds of sockets. There are DARPA Internet addresses (Internet Sockets), path names on a local node (Unix Sockets), CCITT X.25 addresses (X.25 Sockets that you can safely ignore), and probably many others depending on which Unix flavor you run. This document deals only with the first: Internet Sockets. 2.1. Two Types of Internet Sockets What's this? There are two types of Internet sockets? Yes. Well, no. I'm lying. There are more, but I didn't want to scare you. I'm only going to talk about two types here. Except for this sentence, where I'm going to tell you that “Raw Sockets” are also very powerful and you should look them up. All right, already. What are the two types? One is “Stream Sockets”; the other is “Datagram Sockets”, which may hereafter be referred to as “SOCK_STREAM” and “SOCK_DGRAM”, respectively. Datagram sockets are sometimes called “connectionless sockets”. (Though they can be connect()'d if you really want. See connect(), below.) Stream sockets are reliable two-way connected communication streams. If you output two items into the socket in the order “1, 2”, they will arrive in the order “1, 2” at the opposite end. They will also be error-free. I'm so certain, in fact, they will be error-free, that I'm just going to put my fingers in my ears and chant la la la la if anyone tries to claim otherwise. What uses stream sockets? Well, you may have heard of the telnet application, yes? It uses stream sockets. All the characters you type need to arrive in the same order you type them, right? Also, web browsers use the HTTP protocol which uses stream sockets to get pages. Indeed, if you telnet to a web site on port 80, and type “GET / HTTP/1.0” and hit RETURN twice, it'll dump the HTML back at you How do stream sockets achieve this high level of data transmission quality? They use a protocol 6 called “The Transmission Control Protocol”, otherwise known as “TCP” (see RFC 793 for extremely detailed info on TCP.) TCP makes sure your data arrives sequentially and error-free. You may have heard 7 “TCP” before as the better half of “TCP/IP” where “IP” stands for “Internet Protocol” (see RFC 791 .) IP deals primarily with Internet routing and is not generally responsible for data integrity. Cool. What about Datagram sockets? Why are they called connectionless? What is the deal, here, anyway? Why are they unreliable? Well, here are some facts: if you send a datagram, it may arrive. It may arrive out of order. If it arrives, the data within the packet will be error-free. 6. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc793 7. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc791 4Beej's Guide to Network Programming 5 Datagram sockets also use IP for routing, but they don't use TCP; they use the “User Datagram 8 Protocol”, or “UDP” (see RFC 768 .) Why are they connectionless? Well, basically, it's because you don't have to maintain an open connection as you do with stream sockets. You just build a packet, slap an IP header on it with destination information, and send it out. No connection needed. They are generally used either when a TCP stack is unavailable or when a few dropped packets here and there don't mean the end of the Universe. Sample applications: tftp (trivial file transfer protocol, a little brother to FTP), dhcpcd (a DHCP client), multiplayer games, streaming audio, video conferencing, etc. “Wait a minute tftp and dhcpcd are used to transfer binary applications from one host to another Data can't be lost if you expect the application to work when it arrives What kind of dark magic is this?” Well, my human friend, tftp and similar programs have their own protocol on top of UDP. For example, the tftp protocol says that for each packet that gets sent, the recipient has to send back a packet that says, “I got it” (an “ACK” packet.) If the sender of the original packet gets no reply in, say, five seconds, he'll re-transmit the packet until he finally gets an ACK. This acknowledgment procedure is very important when implementing reliable SOCK_DGRAM applications. For unreliable applications like games, audio, or video, you just ignore the dropped packets, or perhaps try to cleverly compensate for them. (Quake players will know the manifestation this effect by the technical term: accursed lag. The word “accursed”, in this case, represents any extremely profane utterance.) Why would you use an unreliable underlying protocol? Two reasons: speed and speed. It's way faster to fire-and-forget than it is to keep track of what has arrived safely and make sure it's in order and all that. If you're sending chat messages, TCP is great; if you're sending 40 positional updates per second of the players in the world, maybe it doesn't matter so much if one or two get dropped, and UDP is a good choice. 2.2. Low level Nonsense and Network Theory Since I just mentioned layering of protocols, it's time to talk about how networks really work, and to show some examples of how SOCK_DGRAM packets are built. Practically, you can probably skip this section. It's good background, however. Data Encapsulation. Hey, kids, it's time to learn about Data Encapsulation This is very very important. It's so important that you might just learn about it if you take the networks course here at Chico State ;-). Basically, it says this: a packet is born, the packet is wrapped (“encapsulated”) in a header (and rarely a footer) by the first protocol (say, the TFTP protocol), then the whole thing (TFTP header included) is encapsulated again by the next protocol (say, UDP), then again by the next (IP), then again by the final protocol on the hardware (physical) layer (say, Ethernet). When another computer receives the packet, the hardware strips the Ethernet header, the kernel strips the IP and UDP headers, the TFTP program strips the TFTP header, and it finally has the data. Now I can finally talk about the infamous Layered Network Model (aka “ISO/OSI”). This Network Model describes a system of network functionality that has many advantages over other models. For instance, you can write sockets programs that are exactly the same without caring how the data is physically transmitted (serial, thin Ethernet, AUI, whatever) because programs on lower levels deal with it for you. The actual network hardware and topology is transparent to the socket programmer. Without any further ado, I'll present the layers of the full-blown model. Remember this for network class exams: • Application 8. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc768Beej's Guide to Network Programming 6 • Presentation • Session • Transport • Network • Data Link • Physical The Physical Layer is the hardware (serial, Ethernet, etc.). The Application Layer is just about as far from the physical layer as you can imagine—it's the place where users interact with the network. Now, this model is so general you could probably use it as an automobile repair guide if you really wanted to. A layered model more consistent with Unix might be: • Application Layer (telnet, ftp, etc.) • Host-to-Host Transport Layer (TCP, UDP) • Internet Layer (IP and routing) • Network Access Layer (Ethernet, wi-fi, or whatever) At this point in time, you can probably see how these layers correspond to the encapsulation of the original data. See how much work there is in building a simple packet? Jeez And you have to type in the packet headers yourself using “cat” Just kidding. All you have to do for stream sockets is send() the data out. All you have to do for datagram sockets is encapsulate the packet in the method of your choosing and sendto() it out. The kernel builds the Transport Layer and Internet Layer on for you and the hardware does the Network Access Layer. Ah, modern technology. So ends our brief foray into network theory. Oh yes, I forgot to tell you everything I wanted to say about routing: nothing That's right, I'm not going to talk about it at all. The router strips the packet to 9 the IP header, consults its routing table, blah blah blah. Check out the IP RFC if you really really care. If you never learn about it, well, you'll live. 9. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7913. IP Addresses, structs, and Data Munging Here's the part of the game where we get to talk code for a change. But first, let's discuss more non-code Yay First I want to talk about IP addresses and ports for just a tad so we have that sorted out. Then we'll talk about how the sockets API stores and manipulates IP addresses and other data. 3.1. IP Addresses, versions 4 and 6 In the good old days back when Ben Kenobi was still called Obi Wan Kenobi, there was a wonderful network routing system called The Internet Protocol Version 4, also called IPv4. It had addresses made up of four bytes (A.K.A. four “octets”), and was commonly written in “dots and numbers” form, like so: You've probably seen it around. In fact, as of this writing, virtually every site on the Internet uses IPv4. Everyone, including Obi Wan, was happy. Things were great, until some naysayer by the name of Vint Cerf warned everyone that we were about to run out of IPv4 addresses 10 (Besides warning everyone of the Coming IPv4 Apocalypse Of Doom And Gloom, Vint Cerf is also well-known for being The Father Of The Internet. So I really am in no position to second-guess his judgment.) Run out of addresses? How could this be? I mean, there are like billions of IP addresses in a 32-bit IPv4 address. Do we really have billions of computers out there? Yes. Also, in the beginning, when there were only a few computers and everyone thought a billion was an impossibly large number, some big organizations were generously allocated millions of IP addresses for their own use. (Such as Xerox, MIT, Ford, HP, IBM, GE, AT&T, and some little company called Apple, to name a few.) In fact, if it weren't for several stopgap measures, we would have run out a long time ago. But now we're living in an era where we're talking about every human having an IP address, every computer, every calculator, every phone, every parking meter, and (why not) every puppy dog, as well. And so, IPv6 was born. Since Vint Cerf is probably immortal (even if his physical form should pass 11 on, heaven forbid, he is probably already existing as some kind of hyper-intelligent ELIZA program out in the depths of the Internet2), no one wants to have to hear him say again “I told you so” if we don't have enough addresses in the next version of the Internet Protocol. What does this suggest to you? That we need a lot more addresses. That we need not just twice as many addresses, not a billion times as many, not a thousand trillion times as many, but 79 MILLION BILLION TRILLION times as many possible addresses That'll show 'em You're saying, “Beej, is that true? I have every reason to disbelieve large numbers.” Well, the difference between 32 bits and 128 bits might not sound like a lot; it's only 96 more bits, right? But 32 remember, we're talking powers here: 32 bits represents some 4 billion numbers (2 ), while 128 bits 128 represents about 340 trillion trillion trillion numbers (for real, 2 ). That's like a million IPv4 Internets for every single star in the Universe. Forget this dots-and-numbers look of IPv4, too; now we've got a hexadecimal representation, with each two-byte chunk separated by a colon, like this: 2001:0db8:c9d2:aee5:73e3:934a:a5ae:9551. That's not all Lots of times, you'll have an IP address with lots of zeros in it, and you can compress them between two colons. And you can leave off leading zeros for each byte pair. For instance, each of these pairs of addresses are equivalent: 2001:0db8:c9d2:0012:0000:0000:0000:0051 2001:db8:c9d2:12::51 10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinton_Cerf 11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ELIZA 7Beej's Guide to Network Programming 8 2001:0db8:ab00:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 2001:db8:ab00:: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 ::1 The address ::1 is the loopback address. It always means “this machine I'm running on now”. In IPv4, the loopback address is Finally, there's an IPv4-compatibility mode for IPv6 addresses that you might come across. If you want, for example, to represent the IPv4 address as an IPv6 address, you use the following notation: “::ffff:”. We're talking serious fun. In fact, it's such serious fun, that the Creators of IPv6 have quite cavalierly lopped off trillions and trillions of addresses for reserved use, but we have so many, frankly, who's even counting anymore? There are plenty left over for every man, woman, child, puppy, and parking meter on every planet in the galaxy. And believe me, every planet in the galaxy has parking meters. You know it's true. 3.1.1. Subnets For organizational reasons, it's sometimes convenient to declare that “this first part of this IP address up through this bit is the network portion of the IP address, and the remainder is the host portion. For instance, with IPv4, you might have, and we could say that the first three bytes are the network and the last byte was the host. Or, put another way, we're talking about host 12 on network (see how we zero out the byte that was the host.) And now for more outdated information Ready? In the Ancient Times, there were “classes” of subnets, where the first one, two, or three bytes of the address was the network part. If you were lucky enough to have one byte for the network and three for the host, you could have 24 bits-worth of hosts on your network (16 million or so). That was a “Class A” network. On the opposite end was a “Class C”, with three bytes of network, and one byte of host (256 hosts, minus a couple that were reserved.) So as you can see, there were just a few Class As, a huge pile of Class Cs, and some Class Bs in the middle. The network portion of the IP address is described by something called the netmask, which you bitwise-AND with the IP address to get the network number out of it. The netmask usually looks something like (E.g. with that netmask, if your IP is, then your network is AND which gives Unfortunately, it turned out that this wasn't fine-grained enough for the eventual needs of the Internet; we were running out of Class C networks quite quickly, and we were most definitely out of Class As, so don't even bother to ask. To remedy this, The Powers That Be allowed for the netmask to be an arbitrary number of bits, not just 8, 16, or 24. So you might have a netmask of, say, which is 30 bits of network, and 2 bits of host allowing for four hosts on the network. (Note that the netmask is ALWAYS a bunch of 1-bits followed by a bunch of 0-bits.) But it's a bit unwieldy to use a big string of numbers like as a netmask. First of all, people don't have an intuitive idea of how many bits that is, and secondly, it's really not compact. So the New Style came along, and it's much nicer. You just put a slash after the IP address, and then follow that by the number of network bits in decimal. Like this: Or, for IPv6, something like this: 2001:db8::/32 or 2001:db8:5413:4028::9db9/64. 3.1.2. Port Numbers If you'll kindly remember, I presented you earlier with the Layered Network Model which had the Internet Layer (IP) split off from the Host-to-Host Transport Layer (TCP and UDP). Get up to speed on that before the next paragraph. Turns out that besides an IP address (used by the IP layer), there is another address that is used by TCP (stream sockets) and, coincidentally, by UDP (datagram sockets). It is the port number. It's a 16-bit number that's like the local address for the connection. Think of the IP address as the street address of a hotel, and the port number as the room number. That's a decent analogy; maybe later I'll come up with one involving the automobile industry.Beej's Guide to Network Programming 9 Say you want to have a computer that handles incoming mail AND web services—how do you differentiate between the two on a computer with a single IP address? Well, different services on the Internet have different well-known port numbers. You can see them 12 all in the Big IANA Port List or, if you're on a Unix box, in your /etc/services file. HTTP (the 13 web) is port 80, telnet is port 23, SMTP is port 25, the game DOOM used port 666, etc. and so on. Ports under 1024 are often considered special, and usually require special OS privileges to use. And that's about it 3.2. Byte Order By Order of the Realm There shall be two byte orderings, hereafter to be known as Lame and Magnificent I joke, but one really is better than the other. :-) There really is no easy way to say this, so I'll just blurt it out: your computer might have been storing bytes in reverse order behind your back. I know No one wanted to have to tell you. The thing is, everyone in the Internet world has generally agreed that if you want to represent the two-byte hex number, say b34f, you'll store it in two sequential bytes b3 followed by 4f. Makes sense, 14 and, as Wilford Brimley would tell you, it's the Right Thing To Do. This number, stored with the big end first, is called Big-Endian. Unfortunately, a few computers scattered here and there throughout the world, namely anything with an Intel or Intel-compatible processor, store the bytes reversed, so b34f would be stored in memory as the sequential bytes 4f followed by b3. This storage method is called Little-Endian. But wait, I'm not done with terminology yet The more-sane Big-Endian is also called Network Byte Order because that's the order us network types like. Your computer stores numbers in Host Byte Order. If it's an Intel 80x86, Host Byte Order is Little- Endian. If it's a Motorola 68k, Host Byte Order is Big-Endian. If it's a PowerPC, Host Byte Order is... well, it depends A lot of times when you're building packets or filling out data structures you'll need to make sure your two- and four-byte numbers are in Network Byte Order. But how can you do this if you don't know the native Host Byte Order? Good news You just get to assume the Host Byte Order isn't right, and you always run the value through a function to set it to Network Byte Order. The function will do the magic conversion if it has to, and this way your code is portable to machines of differing endianness. All righty. There are two types of numbers that you can convert: short (two bytes) and long (four bytes). These functions work for the unsigned variations as well. Say you want to convert a short from Host Byte Order to Network Byte Order. Start with “h” for “host”, follow it with “to”, then “n” for “network”, and “s” for “short”: h-to-n-s, or htons() (read: “Host to Network Short”). It's almost too easy... You can use every combination of “n”, “h”, “s”, and “l” you want, not counting the really stupid ones. For example, there is NOT a stolh() (“Short to Long Host”) function—not at this party, anyway. But there are: htons() host to network short htonl() host to network long ntohs() network to host short ntohl() network to host long Basically, you'll want to convert the numbers to Network Byte Order before they go out on the wire, and convert them to Host Byte Order as they come in off the wire. I don't know of a 64-bit variant, sorry. And if you want to do floating point, check out the section on Serialization, far below. 12. http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doom_(video_game) 14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilford_BrimleyBeej's Guide to Network Programming 10 Assume the numbers in this document are in Host Byte Order unless I say otherwise. 3.3. structs Well, we're finally here. It's time to talk about programming. In this section, I'll cover various data types used by the sockets interface, since some of them are a real bear to figure out. First the easy one: a socket descriptor. A socket descriptor is the following type: int Just a regular int. Things get weird from here, so just read through and bear with me. TM My First Struct —struct addrinfo. This structure is a more recent invention, and is used to prep the socket address structures for subsequent use. It's also used in host name lookups, and service name lookups. That'll make more sense later when we get to actual usage, but just know for now that it's one of the first things you'll call when making a connection. struct addrinfo int ai_flags; // AI_PASSIVE, AI_CANONNAME, etc. int ai_family; // AF_INET, AF_INET6, AF_UNSPEC int ai_socktype; // SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_DGRAM int ai_protocol; // use 0 for "any" size_t ai_addrlen; // size of ai_addr in bytes struct sockaddr ai_addr; // struct sockaddr_in or _in6 char ai_canonname; // full canonical hostname struct addrinfo ai_next; // linked list, next node ; You'll load this struct up a bit, and then call getaddrinfo(). It'll return a pointer to a new linked list of these structures filled out with all the goodies you need. You can force it to use IPv4 or IPv6 in the ai_family field, or leave it as AF_UNSPEC to use whatever. This is cool because your code can be IP version-agnostic. Note that this is a linked list: ai_next points at the next element—there could be several results for you to choose from. I'd use the first result that worked, but you might have different business needs; I don't know everything, man You'll see that the ai_addr field in the struct addrinfo is a pointer to a struct sockaddr. This is where we start getting into the nitty-gritty details of what's inside an IP address structure. You might not usually need to write to these structures; oftentimes, a call to getaddrinfo() to fill out your struct addrinfo for you is all you'll need. You will, however, have to peer inside these structs to get the values out, so I'm presenting them here. (Also, all the code written before struct addrinfo was invented we packed all this stuff by hand, so you'll see a lot of IPv4 code out in the wild that does exactly that. You know, in old versions of this guide and so on.) Some structs are IPv4, some are IPv6, and some are both. I'll make notes of which are what. Anyway, the struct sockaddr holds socket address information for many types of sockets. struct sockaddr unsigned short sa_family; // address family, AF_xxx char sa_data14; // 14 bytes of protocol address ; sa_family can be a variety of things, but it'll be AF_INET (IPv4) or AF_INET6 (IPv6) for everything we do in this document. sa_data contains a destination address and port number for the socket. This is rather unwieldy since you don't want to tediously pack the address in the sa_data by hand. To deal with struct sockaddr, programmers created a parallel structure: struct sockaddr_in (“in” for “Internet”) to be used with IPv4. And this is the important bit: a pointer to a struct sockaddr_in can be cast to a pointer to a struct sockaddr and vice-versa. So even though connect() wants a struct sockaddr, you can still use a struct sockaddr_in and cast it at the last minute // (IPv4 onlysee struct sockaddr_in6 for IPv6)Beej's Guide to Network Programming 11 struct sockaddr_in short int sin_family; // Address family, AF_INET unsigned short int sin_port; // Port number struct in_addr sin_addr; // Internet address unsigned char sin_zero8; // Same size as struct sockaddr ; This structure makes it easy to reference elements of the socket address. Note that sin_zero (which is included to pad the structure to the length of a struct sockaddr) should be set to all zeros with the function memset(). Also, notice that sin_family corresponds to sa_family in a struct sockaddr and should be set to “AF_INET”. Finally, the sin_port must be in Network Byte Order (by using htons()) Let's dig deeper You see the sin_addr field is a struct in_addr. What is that thing? Well, not to be overly dramatic, but it's one of the scariest unions of all time: // (IPv4 onlysee struct in6_addr for IPv6) // Internet address (a structure for historical reasons) struct in_addr uint32_t s_addr; // that's a 32-bit int (4 bytes) ; Whoa Well, it used to be a union, but now those days seem to be gone. Good riddance. So if you have declared ina to be of type struct sockaddr_in, then ina.sin_addr.s_addr references the 4-byte IP address (in Network Byte Order). Note that even if your system still uses the God-awful union for struct in_addr, you can still reference the 4-byte IP address in exactly the same way as I did above (this due to defines.) What about IPv6? Similar structs exist for it, as well: // (IPv6 onlysee struct sockaddr_in and struct in_addr for IPv4) struct sockaddr_in6 u_int16_t sin6_family; // address family, AF_INET6 u_int16_t sin6_port; // port number, Network Byte Order u_int32_t sin6_flowinfo; // IPv6 flow information struct in6_addr sin6_addr; // IPv6 address u_int32_t sin6_scope_id; // Scope ID ; struct in6_addr unsigned char s6_addr16; // IPv6 address ; Note that IPv6 has an IPv6 address and a port number, just like IPv4 has an IPv4 address and a port number. Also note that I'm not going to talk about the IPv6 flow information or Scope ID fields for the moment... this is just a starter guide. :-) Last but not least, here is another simple structure, struct sockaddr_storage that is designed to be large enough to hold both IPv4 and IPv6 structures. (See, for some calls, sometimes you don't know in advance if it's going to fill out your struct sockaddr with an IPv4 or IPv6 address. So you pass in this parallel structure, very similar to struct sockaddr except larger, and then cast it to the type you need: struct sockaddr_storage sa_family_t ss_family; // address family // all this is padding, implementation specific, ignore it: char __ss_pad1_SS_PAD1SIZE; int64_t __ss_align; char __ss_pad2_SS_PAD2SIZE; ;Beej's Guide to Network Programming 12 What's important is that you can see the address family in the ss_family field—check this to see if it's AF_INET or AF_INET6 (for IPv4 or IPv6). Then you can cast it to a struct sockaddr_in or struct sockaddr_in6 if you wanna. 3.4. IP Addresses, Part Deux Fortunately for you, there are a bunch of functions that allow you to manipulate IP addresses. No need to figure them out by hand and stuff them in a long with the operator. First, let's say you have a struct sockaddr_in ina, and you have an IP address “” or “2001:db8:63b3:1::3490” that you want to store into it. The function you want to use, inet_pton(), converts an IP address in numbers-and-dots notation into either a struct in_addr or a struct in6_addr depending on whether you specify AF_INET or AF_INET6. (“pton” stands for “presentation to network”—you can call it “printable to network” if that's easier to remember.) The conversion can be made as follows: struct sockaddr_in sa; // IPv4 struct sockaddr_in6 sa6; // IPv6 inet_pton(AF_INET, "", &(sa.sin_addr)); // IPv4 inet_pton(AF_INET6, "2001:db8:63b3:1::3490", &(sa6.sin6_addr)); // IPv6 (Quick note: the old way of doing things used a function called inet_addr() or another function called inet_aton(); these are now obsolete and don't work with IPv6.) Now, the above code snippet isn't very robust because there is no error checking. See, inet_pton() returns -1 on error, or 0 if the address is messed up. So check to make sure the result is greater than 0 before using All right, now you can convert string IP addresses to their binary representations. What about the other way around? What if you have a struct in_addr and you want to print it in numbers-and- dots notation? (Or a struct in6_addr that you want in, uh, “hex-and-colons” notation.) In this case, you'll want to use the function inet_ntop() (“ntop” means “network to presentation”—you can call it “network to printable” if that's easier to remember), like this: // IPv4: char ip4INET_ADDRSTRLEN; // space to hold the IPv4 string struct sockaddr_in sa; // pretend this is loaded with something inet_ntop(AF_INET, &(sa.sin_addr), ip4, INET_ADDRSTRLEN); printf("The IPv4 address is: %s\n", ip4); // IPv6: char ip6INET6_ADDRSTRLEN; // space to hold the IPv6 string struct sockaddr_in6 sa6; // pretend this is loaded with something inet_ntop(AF_INET6, &(sa6.sin6_addr), ip6, INET6_ADDRSTRLEN); printf("The address is: %s\n", ip6); When you call it, you'll pass the address type (IPv4 or IPv6), the address, a pointer to a string to hold the result, and the maximum length of that string. (Two macros conveniently hold the size of the string you'll need to hold the largest IPv4 or IPv6 address: INET_ADDRSTRLEN and INET6_ADDRSTRLEN.) (Another quick note to mention once again the old way of doing things: the historical function to do this conversion was called inet_ntoa(). It's also obsolete and won't work with IPv6.) Lastly, these functions only work with numeric IP addresses—they won't do any nameserver DNS lookup on a hostname, like “www.example.com”. You will use getaddrinfo() to do that, as you'll see later on.Beej's Guide to Network Programming 13 3.4.1. Private (Or Disconnected) Networks Lots of places have a firewall that hides the network from the rest of the world for their own protection. And often times, the firewall translates “internal” IP addresses to “external” (that everyone else in the world knows) IP addresses using a process called Network Address Translation, or NAT. Are you getting nervous yet? “Where's he going with all this weird stuff?” Well, relax and buy yourself a non-alcoholic (or alcoholic) drink, because as a beginner, you don't even have to worry about NAT, since it's done for you transparently. But I wanted to talk about the network behind the firewall in case you started getting confused by the network numbers you were seeing. For instance, I have a firewall at home. I have two static IPv4 addresses allocated to me by the DSL company, and yet I have seven computers on the network. How is this possible? Two computers can't share the same IP address, or else the data wouldn't know which one to go to The answer is: they don't share the same IP addresses. They are on a private network with 24 million IP addresses allocated to it. They are all just for me. Well, all for me as far as anyone else is concerned. Here's what's happening: If I log into a remote computer, it tells me I'm logged in from which is the public IP address my ISP has provided to me. But if I ask my local computer what its IP address is, it says Who is translating the IP address from one to the other? That's right, the firewall It's doing NAT 10.x.x.x is one of a few reserved networks that are only to be used either on fully disconnected networks, or on networks that are behind firewalls. The details of which private network numbers are 15 available for you to use are outlined in RFC 1918 , but some common ones you'll see are 10.x.x.x and 192.168.x.x, where x is 0-255, generally. Less common is 172.y.x.x, where y goes between 16 and 31. Networks behind a NATing firewall don't need to be on one of these reserved networks, but they commonly are. (Fun fact My external IP address isn't really The 192.0.2.x network is reserved for make-believe “real” IP addresses to be used in documentation, just like this guide Wowzers) IPv6 has private networks, too, in a sense. They'll start with fdxx: (or maybe in the future fcXX:), 16 as per RFC 4193 . NAT and IPv6 don't generally mix, however (unless you're doing the IPv6 to IPv4 gateway thing which is beyond the scope of this document)—in theory you'll have so many addresses at your disposal that you won't need to use NAT any longer. But if you want to allocate addresses for yourself on a network that won't route outside, this is how to do it. 15. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1918 16. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc41934. Jumping from IPv4 to IPv6 But I just want to know what to change in my code to get it going with IPv6 Tell me now Ok Ok Almost everything in here is something I've gone over, above, but it's the short version for the impatient. (Of course, there is more than this, but this is what applies to the guide.) 1. First of all, try to use getaddrinfo() to get all the struct sockaddr info, instead of packing the structures by hand. This will keep you IP version-agnostic, and will eliminate many of the subsequent steps. 2. Any place that you find you're hard-coding anything related to the IP version, try to wrap up in a helper function. 3. Change AF_INET to AF_INET6. 4. Change PF_INET to PF_INET6. 5. Change INADDR_ANY assignments to in6addr_any assignments, which are slightly different: struct sockaddr_in sa; struct sockaddr_in6 sa6; sa.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY; // use my IPv4 address sa6.sin6_addr = in6addr_any; // use my IPv6 address Also, the value IN6ADDR_ANY_INIT can be used as an initializer when the struct in6_addr is declared, like so: struct in6_addr ia6 = IN6ADDR_ANY_INIT; 6. Instead of struct sockaddr_in use struct sockaddr_in6, being sure to add “6” to the fields as appropriate (see structs, above). There is no sin6_zero field. 7. Instead of struct in_addr use struct in6_addr, being sure to add “6” to the fields as appropriate (see structs, above). 8. Instead of inet_aton() or inet_addr(), use inet_pton(). 9. Instead of inet_ntoa(), use inet_ntop(). 10. Instead of gethostbyname(), use the superior getaddrinfo(). 11. Instead of gethostbyaddr(), use the superior getnameinfo() (although gethostbyaddr() can still work with IPv6). 12. INADDR_BROADCAST no longer works. Use IPv6 multicast instead. Et voila 145. System Calls or Bust This is the section where we get into the system calls (and other library calls) that allow you to access the network functionality of a Unix box, or any box that supports the sockets API for that matter (BSD, Windows, Linux, Mac, what-have-you.) When you call one of these functions, the kernel takes over and does all the work for you automagically. The place most people get stuck around here is what order to call these things in. In that, the man pages are no use, as you've probably discovered. Well, to help with that dreadful situation, I've tried to lay out the system calls in the following sections in exactly (approximately) the same order that you'll need to call them in your programs. That, coupled with a few pieces of sample code here and there, some milk and cookies (which I fear you will have to supply yourself), and some raw guts and courage, and you'll be beaming data around the Internet like the Son of Jon Postel (Please note that for brevity, many code snippets below do not include necessary error checking. And they very commonly assume that the result from calls to getaddrinfo() succeed and return a valid entry in the linked list. Both of these situations are properly addressed in the stand-alone programs, though, so use those as a model.) 5.1. getaddrinfo()—Prepare to launch This is a real workhorse of a function with a lot of options, but usage is actually pretty simple. It helps set up the structs you need later on. A tiny bit of history: it used to be that you would use a function called gethostbyname() to do DNS lookups. Then you'd load that information by hand into a struct sockaddr_in, and use that in your calls. This is no longer necessary, thankfully. (Nor is it desirable, if you want to write code that works for both IPv4 and IPv6) In these modern times, you now have the function getaddrinfo() that does all kinds of good stuff for you, including DNS and service name lookups, and fills out the structs you need, besides Let's take a look include sys/types.h include sys/socket.h include netdb.h int getaddrinfo(const char node, // e.g. "www.example.com" or IP const char service, // e.g. "http" or port number const struct addrinfo hints, struct addrinfo res); You give this function three input parameters, and it gives you a pointer to a linked-list, res, of results. The node parameter is the host name to connect to, or an IP address. Next is the parameter service, which can be a port number, like “80”, or the name of a particular 17 service (found in The IANA Port List or the /etc/services file on your Unix machine) like “http” or “ftp” or “telnet” or “smtp” or whatever. Finally, the hints parameter points to a struct addrinfo that you've already filled out with relevant information. Here's a sample call if you're a server who wants to listen on your host's IP address, port 3490. Note that this doesn't actually do any listening or network setup; it merely sets up structures we'll use later: int status; struct addrinfo hints; struct addrinfo servinfo; // will point to the results memset(&hints, 0, sizeof hints); // make sure the struct is empty hints.ai_family = AF_UNSPEC; // don't care IPv4 or IPv6 17. http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers 15Beej's Guide to Network Programming 16 hints.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM; // TCP stream sockets hints.ai_flags = AI_PASSIVE; // fill in my IP for me if ((status = getaddrinfo(NULL, "3490", &hints, &servinfo)) = 0) fprintf(stderr, "getaddrinfo error: %s\n", gai_strerror(status)); exit(1); // servinfo now points to a linked list of 1 or more struct addrinfos // ... do everything until you don't need servinfo anymore .... freeaddrinfo(servinfo); // free the linked-list Notice that I set the ai_family to AF_UNSPEC, thereby saying that I don't care if we use IPv4 or IPv6. You can set it to AF_INET or AF_INET6 if you want one or the other specifically. Also, you'll see the AI_PASSIVE flag in there; this tells getaddrinfo() to assign the address of my local host to the socket structures. This is nice because then you don't have to hardcode it. (Or you can put a specific address in as the first parameter to getaddrinfo() where I currently have NULL, up there.) Then we make the call. If there's an error (getaddrinfo() returns non-zero), we can print it out using the function gai_strerror(), as you see. If everything works properly, though, servinfo will point to a linked list of struct addrinfos, each of which contains a struct sockaddr of some kind that we can use later Nifty Finally, when we're eventually all done with the linked list that getaddrinfo() so graciously allocated for us, we can (and should) free it all up with a call to freeaddrinfo(). Here's a sample call if you're a client who wants to connect to a particular server, say “www.example.net” port 3490. Again, this doesn't actually connect, but it sets up the structures we'll use later: int status; struct addrinfo hints; struct addrinfo servinfo; // will point to the results memset(&hints, 0, sizeof hints); // make sure the struct is empty hints.ai_family = AF_UNSPEC; // don't care IPv4 or IPv6 hints.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM; // TCP stream sockets // get ready to connect status = getaddrinfo("www.example.net", "3490", &hints, &servinfo); // servinfo now points to a linked list of 1 or more struct addrinfos // etc. I keep saying that servinfo is a linked list with all kinds of address information. Let's write a 18 quick demo program to show off this information. This short program will print the IP addresses for whatever host you specify on the command line: / showip.c show IP addresses for a host given on the command line / include stdio.h include string.h include sys/types.h include sys/socket.h include netdb.h include arpa/inet.h include netinet/in.h int main(int argc, char argv) 18. http://beej.us/guide/bgnet/examples/showip.cBeej's Guide to Network Programming 17 struct addrinfo hints, res, p; int status; char ipstrINET6_ADDRSTRLEN; if (argc = 2) fprintf(stderr,"usage: showip hostname\n"); return 1; memset(&hints, 0, sizeof hints); hints.ai_family = AF_UNSPEC; // AF_INET or AF_INET6 to force version hints.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM; if ((status = getaddrinfo(argv1, NULL, &hints, &res)) = 0) fprintf(stderr, "getaddrinfo: %s\n", gai_strerror(status)); return 2; printf("IP addresses for %s:\n\n", argv1); for(p = res;p = NULL; p = p-ai_next) void addr; char ipver; // get the pointer to the address itself, // different fields in IPv4 and IPv6: if (p-ai_family == AF_INET) // IPv4 struct sockaddr_in ipv4 = (struct sockaddr_in )p-ai_addr; addr = &(ipv4-sin_addr); ipver = "IPv4"; else // IPv6 struct sockaddr_in6 ipv6 = (struct sockaddr_in6 )p-ai_addr; addr = &(ipv6-sin6_addr); ipver = "IPv6"; // convert the IP to a string and print it: inet_ntop(p-ai_family, addr, ipstr, sizeof ipstr); printf(" %s: %s\n", ipver, ipstr); freeaddrinfo(res); // free the linked list return 0; As you see, the code calls getaddrinfo() on whatever you pass on the command line, that fills out the linked list pointed to by res, and then we can iterate over the list and print stuff out or do whatever. (There's a little bit of ugliness there where we have to dig into the different types of struct sockaddrs depending on the IP version. Sorry about that I'm not sure of a better way around it.) Sample run Everyone loves screenshots: showip www.example.net IP addresses for www.example.net: IPv4: showip ipv6.example.com IP addresses for ipv6.example.com: IPv4: IPv6: 2001:db8:8c00:22::171 Now that we have that under control, we'll use the results we get from getaddrinfo() to pass to other socket functions and, at long last, get our network connection established Keep readingBeej's Guide to Network Programming 18 5.2. socket()—Get the File Descriptor I guess I can put it off no longer—I have to talk about the socket() system call. Here's the breakdown: include sys/types.h include sys/socket.h int socket(int domain, int type, int protocol); But what are these arguments? They allow you to say what kind of socket you want (IPv4 or IPv6, stream or datagram, and TCP or UDP). It used to be people would hardcode these values, and you can absolutely still do that. (domain is PF_INET or PF_INET6, type is SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_DGRAM, and protocol can be set to 0 to choose the proper protocol for the given type. Or you can call getprotobyname() to look up the protocol you want, “tcp” or “udp”.) (This PF_INET thing is a close relative of the AF_INET that you can use when initializing the sin_family field in your struct sockaddr_in. In fact, they're so closely related that they actually have the same value, and many programmers will call socket() and pass AF_INET as the first argument instead of PF_INET. Now, get some milk and cookies, because it's times for a story. Once upon a time, a long time ago, it was thought that maybe an address family (what the “AF” in “AF_INET” stands for) might support several protocols that were referred to by their protocol family (what the “PF” in “PF_INET” stands for). That didn't happen. And they all lived happily ever after, The End. So the most correct thing to do is to use AF_INET in your struct sockaddr_in and PF_INET in your call to socket().) Anyway, enough of that. What you really want to do is use the values from the results of the call to getaddrinfo(), and feed them into socket() directly like this: int s; struct addrinfo hints, res; // do the lookup // pretend we already filled out the "hints" struct getaddrinfo("www.example.com", "http", &hints, &res); // again, you should do error-checking on getaddrinfo(), and walk // the "res" linked list looking for valid entries instead of just // assuming the first one is good (like many of these examples do.) // See the section on client/server for real examples. s = socket(res-ai_family, res-ai_socktype, res-ai_protocol); socket() simply returns to you a socket descriptor that you can use in later system calls, or -1 on error. The global variable errno is set to the error's value (see the errno man page for more details, and a quick note on using errno in multithreaded programs.) Fine, fine, fine, but what good is this socket? The answer is that it's really no good by itself, and you need to read on and make more system calls for it to make any sense. 5.3. bind()—What port am I on? Once you have a socket, you might have to associate that socket with a port on your local machine. (This is commonly done if you're going to listen() for incoming connections on a specific port— multiplayer network games do this when they tell you to “connect to port 3490”.) The port number is used by the kernel to match an incoming packet to a certain process's socket descriptor. If you're going to only be doing a connect() (because you're the client, not the server), this is probably be unnecessary. Read it anyway, just for kicks. Here is the synopsis for the bind() system call: include sys/types.h include sys/socket.h int bind(int sockfd, struct sockaddr my_addr, int addrlen);Beej's Guide to Network Programming 19 sockfd is the socket file descriptor returned by socket(). my_addr is a pointer to a struct sockaddr that contains information about your address, namely, port and IP address. addrlen is the length in bytes of that address. Whew. That's a bit to absorb in one chunk. Let's have an example that binds the socket to the host the program is running on, port 3490: struct addrinfo hints, res; int sockfd; // first, load up address structs with getaddrinfo(): memset(&hints, 0, sizeof hints); hints.ai_family = AF_UNSPEC; // use IPv4 or IPv6, whichever hints.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM; hints.ai_flags = AI_PASSIVE; // fill in my IP for me getaddrinfo(NULL, "3490", &hints, &res); // make a socket: sockfd = socket(res-ai_family, res-ai_socktype, res-ai_protocol); // bind it to the port we passed in to getaddrinfo(): bind(sockfd, res-ai_addr, res-ai_addrlen); By using the AI_PASSIVE flag, I'm telling the program to bind to the IP of the host it's running on. If you want to bind to a specific local IP address, drop the AI_PASSIVE and put an IP address in for the first argument to getaddrinfo(). bind() also returns -1 on error and sets errno to the error's value. Lots of old code manually packs the struct sockaddr_in before calling bind(). Obviously this is IPv4-specific, but there's really nothing stopping you from doing the same thing with IPv6, except that using getaddrinfo() is going to be easier, generally. Anyway, the old code looks something like this: // THIS IS THE OLD WAY int sockfd; struct sockaddr_in my_addr; sockfd = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0); my_addr.sin_family = AF_INET; my_addr.sin_port = htons(MYPORT); // short, network byte order my_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(""); memset(my_addr.sin_zero, '\0', sizeof my_addr.sin_zero); bind(sockfd, (struct sockaddr )&my_addr, sizeof my_addr); In the above code, you could also assign INADDR_ANY to the s_addr field if you wanted to bind to your local IP address (like the AI_PASSIVE flag, above.) The IPv6 version of INADDR_ANY is a global variable in6addr_any that is assigned into the sin6_addr field of your struct sockaddr_in6. (There is also a macro IN6ADDR_ANY_INIT that you can use in a variable initializer.) Another thing to watch out for when calling bind(): don't go underboard with your port numbers. All ports below 1024 are RESERVED (unless you're the superuser) You can have any port number above that, right up to 65535 (provided they aren't already being used by another program.) Sometimes, you might notice, you try to rerun a server and bind() fails, claiming “Address already in use.” What does that mean? Well, a little bit of a socket that was connected is still hanging around in the kernel, and it's hogging the port. You can either wait for it to clear (a minute or so), or add code to your program allowing it to reuse the port, like this: int yes=1; //char yes='1'; // Solaris people use this // lose the pesky "Address already in use" error message

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