Lecture notes English grammar

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Published Date:11-07-2017
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English and CommunicationsENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD MODULE 1: COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD PURPOSE The purpose of this module is to enable Leaving Certificate Applied students develop and apply good communication skills. An emphasis is placed on oral, aural and functional communication. The module is designed on the premise that the development of effective communication requires an understanding of how language works in a variety of communicative contexts. This module provides opportunities for the acquisition and application of communicative skills through active engagement with a range of texts. The term ‘text’ may refer to any communicative product, oral, written, or visual. Letters, reports, newspaper articles, speeches, short stories, poems, novels, films etc. can all be described as texts. The skills of communication are central to the learning activities of the Leaving Certificate Applied programme. This module introduces skills which will serve the needs of other courses including telephone techniques, letter writing, research methodologies and report writing. The skills acquired in this module will be developed in the ensuing modules. PREREQUISITES None. 8ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD AIMS This module aims: • to develop the students’ understanding of the communicative process • to provide opportunities for students to learn and practise skills in interpersonal communication • to develop accurate and effective oral, aural, reading and writing skills • to identify the mode of communication and register of language appropriate to a variety of communicative situations including the world of work • to develop the students’ awareness of language • to introduce students to such terms and concepts as: context, theme, tone, structure, style and register • to familiarise students with a range of communication skills central to the active learning methodologies of the Leaving Certificate Applied, including researching and presenting reports and participating in discussion and debates. UNITS Unit 1: Introduction to Communication Unit 2: Oral Communication and Listening Skills Unit 3: Telephone Techniques Unit 4: Language Skills and Composition Unit 5: Letter Writing Unit 6: Research Skills and Report Writing 9ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION Unit 1: Introduction to Communication LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES The student should be able to: 1. explain what is meant by  Brainstorm ideas on a definition of communication communication. 2. list all the written, verbal and  Brainstorm the different ways of non-verbal communications communicating information. Use a s/he encounters in daily living worksheet to list examples of written, verbal and non-verbal communication. Use short film clips as a focus for identification and discussion of verbal and non-verbal communication such as gesture, facial expression eye contact, posture etc. Role play various forms of non-verbal communication. Play charades and analyse the communication process. 3. outline the factors which contribute  Form small groups. (1) to effective communication Each group is assigned a specific short communication exercise e.g. a party (2) to ineffective communication invitation, directions for a visitor to the school, a notice to the local radio station of a disco, concert, sporting event to be held in the school, an announcement for the inter-com, an e-mail. Each group reads and/or presents a written copy of the communication (an overhead projector or flip chart is useful here). A structured discussion of the good points and possible shortcomings of each follows. Necessary corrections are made. 10ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION Unit 1: Introduction to Communication (Continued) LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES Use clips from film, television interviews/discussion, advertisements, radio etc. as a basis for discussion of effective and ineffective communication. Brainstorm and draw up guidelines for good communication. 4. Read a short story, poem or any literary  Choose a text or texts appropriate to text which explores the theme of the interests and abilities of the group. communication and discuss the writer’s Do a pre-reading exercise i.e. identify ideas and the tone of the writing. the genre, the context and some of the key issues explored in the text. Read the text. Discuss and carry out assignments which require a close re-reading of the text. Read two or more literary texts or extracts to compare styles of presenting the theme of communication. 11ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • ORAL COMMUNICATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Unit 2: Oral Communication and Listening Skills LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES The student will be able to: 1. exchange greetings and introduce  In pairs students role-play exchanging her/himself in an appropriate manner greetings and introductions in a variety in the following contexts: of contexts. - to peers Two volunteers are given specific scenarios or role playing greetings - to adults outside the family circle and introductions. - to persons in authority The group identifies the context of each. - at a job interview Discussion follows. - to tutor/work supervisor Design a worksheet listing various forms of greetings and a set of contexts. - to a client/customer in Students match these as they think a work situation appropriate. Discussion follows. 2. provide some basic information about  In pairs students engage in conversation him/herself e.g. family, hobbies, school, with peers asking and receiving basic future aspirations etc. information. In fours students adopt the identity of their partner and present him/her to the other members of the group. In small groups students draw up short personal profiles of well known personalities, based on specific key information. The other groups try to identify the person. This exercise may help familiarise students with the idea of a personal profile and serve as an ice breaker. 12ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • ORAL COMMUNICATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Unit 2: Oral Communication and Listening Skills (Continued) LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES 3. obtain basic information from peers  Some preliminary discussion of appropriate and inappropriate (1) in a personal context questions may be helpful. (2) in a work context 4. discuss the meaning and importance  Students form small groups. Short of confidentiality case studies on issues of confidentiality are presented to each group for (1) in a personal context discussion. Feedback is taken from a (2) in a work context spokesperson from each group. General discussion follows. 5. participate in class group discussion  The teacher/trainer proposes a motion. and debate The students brainstorm arguments first for the proposition and then for the opposition. The class is divided into two groups with half the group proposing and the other half opposing the motion. A speaker is nominated by each group. Arguments are prepared. The debate takes place and is reviewed in a class discussion. Alternatively students participate in a walking debate.  The class is brought to a local inter schools debate.  A representative of the local youth service, Chamber of Commerce or Toastmasters Club may work with the group on this. 13ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • ORAL COMMUNICATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Unit 2: Oral Communication and Listening Skills (Continued) LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES 6. plan and present a short oral account  Introduce students to relevant texts such of a personal experience e.g. a sporting as newspaper reports, extracts from event, a visitor to the classroom, autobiographical accounts, film reviews, a school outing, film, television radio tapes. Use these as a stimulus for programme etc. the students own presentations. 7. listen attentively to a piece of spoken  Use a radio recording of a news report, communication in one of the discussion or phone in, or a film or following forms: television clip. Students listen and report on the content. - one to one conversation - small group discussion - lecture/talk - radio news report and sum up the content verbally 8. listen to a poem, short story or drama  Choose a text on audio cassette and comment on features of appropriate to the interests and abilities presentation such as tone of voice, of the group. Do a pre-listening exercise sound effects as well as content i.e. raise some general questions for consideration during the listening. Listen to the text. Listen closely a second time and answer a set of specific questions. The questions should be designed to encourage understanding at an inferential as well as literal level. 9. plan and participate in a  Discuss the groups interest in the topic. visitor exercise. Prepare questions. Participate in a question and answer session with the visitor. Prepare and deliver an appropriate ‘thank you’ to the visitor. Review the experience. 14ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • TELEPHONE TECHNIQUES Unit 3: Telephone Techniques LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES The student will be able to: 1. locate telephone numbers by effective  Use a telephone directory to do a use of a telephone directory number of specific exercises e.g. identification of international codes, area codes, telecom services and business listings. 2. list the essential points to be  Brainstorm ideas. Conduct a guided considered when making and discussion which will refer to such taking telephone calls considerations as: - identification of the caller - clarity of the communication - tone of voice - timing of the call - appropriate closure - cost etc. Use short case studies as a basis for discussion. Draw up a checklist for good practice in the making and taking of calls. The students might work in pairs or small groups. 3. role play appropriate techniques for:  Ask two students to conduct a scripted/guided role play of a - making telephone calls telephone call. - taking telephone calls The group observes and discusses the effectiveness of the telephone techniques. Students work in pairs on role plays. Tape recorders may be useful. 15ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • TELEPHONE TECHNIQUES Unit 3: Telephone Techniques (Continued) LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES 4. role-play effective ways of dealing with  Present students with a typical scenario difficult calls of an angry caller. Discuss how the call could best be dealt with. Present one or more scripted role plays as a basis for discussion. The teacher/trainer might participate in one. Invite students to work in pairs on their own role plays. 5. practise leaving messages on  Listen to examples of messages left on answering machines answering machines. Discuss and evaluate on the basis of tone, clarity and effectiveness. Working with a set of scenarios (students may be able in groups or pairs to devise some of these), students use a tape recorder to leave messages. Typical scenarios might include: - returning a telephone call - enquiring about the cost and availability of a product or service - changing arrangements for a social meeting. 6. take a telephone message and make a  Collect samples of forms for recording written record of the essential details telephone messages. Record in writing telephone messages in a real or simulated setting. Work in pairs or small groups to design suitable forms for telephone messages. 7. list the advantages and disadvantages  Brainstorm the advantages and of mobile phones. disadvantages of using mobile phones. Discuss. Include in the discussion the question of the inappropriate use of mobile phones. 16ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • LANGUAGE SKILLS AND COMPOSITION Unit 4: Language Skills and Composition LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES The student will be able to: 1. use punctuation correctly including  Practise doing exercises on punctuation. sentence structure, paragraphs,  Introduce a short text appropriate to capital letters, full stops, commas, the interests and abilities of the group. colons and apostrophes Discuss the format of the writing e.g. sentence structure, paragraphs, range of vocabulary. 2. complete a range of vocabulary  Worksheets, word games and texts may enlargement exercises be done in pairs or small groups. 3. use a dictionary  Make a good dictionary and thesaurus available to the group. Read one of the following:  Explain some key literary terms. Read and discuss a text from the point a short story, novel (or extract) of view of content and style. poem(s) and comment on the writers purpose, viewpoint and style 4. Show some understanding of each of  Using a suitable text discuss in small the following terms and concepts: groups specific questions in relation genre, setting, theme, character, tone to the writer’s ideas and style. Prepare and register written answers to the questions. 5. Compose a short text which expresses  Introduce and carry out an assignment a personal experience or viewpoint. in the process of: - pre-writing i.e. brainstorming ideas - drafting i.e. free writing - redrafting i.e. organising and refining - editing i.e. re reading and making necessary changes - proof reading i.e. checking spelling and punctuation. Where possible I.T. should be used in this exercise. 17ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • LETTER WRITING Unit 5: Letter Writing LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES The student will be able to: 1. lay out and present a standard  Examine sample letters and practise personal letter the layout. Use business letters as exemplars. Practise writing specific types 2. lay out and present a standard of letters e.g. letter to a penpal, thank business letter you letters etc. 3. write a covering letter to accompany  Using exemplars of business letters a C.V. or a job application form practise writing specific types e.g. letters of application covering letters 4. address envelopes correctly and legibly to accompany a C.V. 5. write a letter of complaint, request  Working in pairs or small groups or acknowledgement students share and discuss samples of their own work. 6. reply to a letter of complaint, request or acknowledgement 7. prepare and present a C.V.  Use exemplar Curriculum Vitaes. Explain the headings of these. Students draw up their own C.V.s. When these have been checked and approved, they use the computer for layout and printing.  The guidance counsellor, local youth services, Chamber of Commerce, FÁS representative etc.. may be willing to help with the preparation of C.V.s. 18ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • RESEARCH SKILLS AND REPORT WRITING Unit 6: Research Skills and Report Writing LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES The student will be able to: 1. outline the type of research that can be  Brainstorm ideas on a definition carried out using: of research. - the local library  Brainstorm situations where research is used and draw up a list of the different - an art gallery kinds of research e.g. medical research, - a museum research for a novel, market research etc. - interpretative centres  Visit the local library and if possible arrange a tour and a talk by the library staff on how to use the library.  If an art gallery, museum or interpretative centre exists in the locality students should visit the premises and be given specific research tasks to perform. 2. outline the type of information that  In consultation with the Information can be accessed by computer Technology teacher demonstrate the use of the computer for research. Use the Internet in the school. If there is a Cyber Cafe in the locality arrange a visit. 3. prepare and conduct an interview to  The teacher suggests and/or the group obtain information brainstorms suggestions for personal interviews that are interesting, relevant to any other module in Session 1 and manageable. Examples might include an interview with a person working in a specific area, the owner/manager of a fast food outlet, an older member of the community, a person working in a community project. Each student decides on the kind of interview s/he wishes to conduct. 19ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • RESEARCH SKILLS AND REPORT WRITING Unit 6: Research Skills and Report Writing (Continued) LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES Some students may prefer to work in pairs. Using the skills acquired in units 3 and 5 they telephone or write to arrange the interview. Questions are prepared and checked. Students agree beforehand with the interviewee whether or not the interview will be taped. Role play is used to practise interviews. This can be done in pairs. They conduct the interview and review the experience. Students then write and thank the interviewee. 4. write away for information  Discuss the work students are doing in other modules or for their tasks. Identify an area where it would be helpful to write away for information. Students research the relevant names and addresses and write a letter requesting information. 5. conduct a vox pop  Discuss the meaning and uses of a vox pop. Identify popular issues suitable for a vox pop. Conduct a vox pop within the school. Review the experience. Conduct a vox pop outside of the school. 6. research, prepare and present a short  Students identify research topics of report on a given topic interest to them or relevant to the work they are doing in other modules. Through discussion with the teacher they ensure that the topic is focused and manageable. 20ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD • RESEARCH SKILLS AND REPORT WRITING Unit 6: Research Skills and Report Writing (Continued) LEARNING OUTCOMES TEACHER GUIDELINES They are helped to plan what they need to do and how they will do it. They carry out the research and present their findings in a written report under a set of headings agreed in consultation with the teacher. The learning is evaluated. 7. prepare and present a work  In consultation with the teacher experience placement report using delivering the Work Experience 1 a suitable layout. module in Vocational Preparation and Guidance, a set of guidelines for the writing of a report on the Work Experience placement is drawn up. Students write a draft of the report. This is checked and a final draft is made. If possible the computer is used for layout and printing. Exemplars of good work experience reports may be used. 21ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD General Guidelines to an Approach to Teaching this Module The above guidelines are not prescriptive. In the delivery of this module, teachers are encouraged to use strategies which are suited to the needs and abilities of their particular students. In working to meet the aims of the module teachers may need to be selective and prioritise learning outcomes. It is however essential that active learning methodologies are employed in the delivery of the module. Good communication is an integral part of every learning experience. In the context of Leaving Certificate Applied, English and Communication will have a role to play in all elements of the course including work experience and the student task. It is important therefore, to work in consultation with other members of the teaching team in the timing of specific learning activities. Since Information Technology is at the centre of communication in today’s working world, the use of the computer in the delivery of this module is highly desirable. Word processing, for example will facilitate the process of drafting, re-drafting, editing and proof-reading involved in composition. The final printed text gives students a sense of ownership and achievement and will in some measure address the issue of literacy. 22ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD RESOURCES Communications and the Working World Communication Skills, by S. Daunt, Gill & Macmillan, Dublin 1996 (This is a resource for the teacher; it would not be suitable for direct use by the students) English Alive An Introduction to Communication and Everyday English, by E. Leddy, & A. Collins, Gill & Macmillan Dublin LCVP Programme Materials for Students, by M. Hannon, E.E.C. Publishing, 1998 Showtime A Guide to Making Effective Presentations, by E. Tierney, Oak Tree Press, Dublin Finding Out About Society, by L. Williams, Collins Educational Information Studies, by P. Wroe, E. Humphries, J. Kelleher, A. Lannon and P. O’Brien Transition Year Support Team and Dun Laoghaire Youth Information Centre Yarns An Anthology of Short Stories by M. Smith, editor., The Educational Company, Dublin Learning in Practice, National Adult Literacy Agency (N.A.L.A.) N.A.L.A. 76 Lr. Gardiner Street, Dublin 1. Photocopiable Resources, B&D Publishing, telephone: 0044 1422 352852/368691. 23KEY ASSIGNMENTS MODULE 1: COMMUNICATIONS AND THE WORKING WORLD CHECKLIST I have visited with my class one of the following: a library cinema theatre heritage centre interpretative centre museum art gallery and presented a report on this experience or I participated in a visitor exercise and I completed a report on the event. I have prepared a C.V. and covering letter or a personal letter and a business letter using I.T. I have read one of the following: a short story a novel (or extract) a drama (or extract) a poem or song and I have written or taped my review of one of the above. I have conducted one of the following: an interview a vox pop a piece of research and I have presented my findings. 24ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS MODULE 2 COMMUNICATIONS AND ENTERPRISE 25ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATIONS • COMMUNICATIONS AND ENTERPRISE MODULE 2: COMMUNICATIONS AND ENTERPRISE PURPOSE The purpose of this module is to enable students develop and apply good communication skills in the context of enterprise. The delivery of this module is concurrent with the Enterprise 1 Module in Vocational Preparation and Guidance. The active involvement in the setting up and running of a company, which is the focus of the Enterprise 1 module, affords opportunities for the application of a range of communicative skills. The focus of this module is communications. It builds on the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills acquired in Module one. It aims to develop interpersonal communication and the skills of co-operation. The implementation of this module involves the expansion of language skills in relation to business. The operation of the enterprise is not the focus of this module. PREREQUISITES Module 1: Communications and the Working World. 26

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