Printed circuit board Lecture notes

printed circuit board advantages and disadvantages, how to design printed circuit board and how to solder printed circuit board, how printed circuit board works
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Published Date:14-07-2017
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PRINTER CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES CHAPTER 12: PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) DESIGN ISSUES INTRODUCTION 12.1 SECTION 12.1: PARTITIONING 12.3 SECTION 12.2: TRACES 12.5 RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTORS 12.5 VOLTAGE DROP IN SIGNAL LEADS—"KELVIN FEEDBACK" 12.7 SIGNAL RETURN CURRENTS 12.7 GROUND NOISE AND GROUND LOOPS 12.9 GROUND ISOLATION TECHNIQUES 12.11 STATIC PCB EFFECTS 12.15 SAMPLE MINIDIP AND SOIC OP AMP PCB GUARD LAYOUTS 12.17 DYNAMIC PCB EFFECTS 12.19 INDUCTANCE 12.21 STRAY INDUCTANCE 12.21 MUTUAL INDUCTANCE 12.22 PARASITIC EFFECTS IN INDUCTORS 12.24 Q OR "QUALITY FACTORS" 12.25 DON'T OVERLOOK ANYTHING 12.26 STRAY CAPACITANCE 12.27 CAPACITATIVE NOISE AND FARADAY SHIELDS 12.28 BUFFERING ADCs AGAINST LOGIC NOISE 12.29 HIGH CIRCUIT IMPEDANCES ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO NOISE PICKUP 12.30 SKIN EFFECT 12.33 TRANSMISSION LINES 12.35 DESIGN PCBs THOUGHTFULLY 12.36 DESIGNNING+B46 CONTROLLED IMPEDANCE TRACES ON PCBs 12.36 MICROSTRIP PCB TRANSMISSION LINES 12.38 SOME MICROSTRIP GUIDELINES 12.39 SYMMETRIC STRIPLINE PCB TRANSMISSION LINES 12.40 SOME PROS AND CONS OF EMBEDDING TRACES 12.42 DEALING WITH HIGH SPEED LOGIC 12.43 LOW VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL SIGNALLING (LVDS) 12.49 REFERENCES 12.51 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN SECTION 12.3: GROUNDING 12.53 STAR GROUND 12.54 SEPARATE ANALOG AND DIGITAL GROUNDS 12.55 GROUND PLANES 12.56 GROUNDING AND DECOUPLING MIXED SIGNALS ICs WITH LOW DIGITAL CONTENT 12.60 TREAT THE ADC DIGITAL OUTPUTS WITH CARE 12.62 SAMPLING CLOCK CONSIDERATIONS 12.64 THE ORIGINS OF THE CONFUSION ABOUT MIXED SIGNAL GROUNDING 12.66 SUMMARY: GROUNDING MIXED SIGNAL DEVICES WITH LOW DIGITAL CURRENTS IN A MULTICARD SYSTEM 12.67 SUMMARY: GROUNDING MIXED SIGNAL DEVICES WITH HIGH DIGITAL CURRENTS IN A MULTICARD SYSTEM 12.68 GROUNDING DSPs WITH INTERNAL PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS 12.69 GROUNDING SUMMARY 12.70 GROUNDING FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION 12.70 BE CAREFUL WITH GROUND PLANE BREAKS 12.73 REFERENCES 12.75 SECTION 12.4: DECOUPLING 12.77 LOCAL HIGH FREQUENCY BYPASS / DECOUPLING 12.77 RINGING 12.80 REFERENCES 12.82 SECTION 12.5: THERMAL MANAGEMENT 12.83 THERMAL BASICS 12.83 HEAT SINKING 12.85 DATA CONVERTER THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS 12.90 REFERENCES 12.96 PRINTER CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 12: PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) DESIGN ISSUES Introduction Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are by far the most common method of assembling modern electronic circuits. Comprised of a sandwich of one or more insulating layers and one or more copper layers which contain the signal traces and the powers and grounds, the design of the layout of printed circuit boards can be as demanding as the design of the electrical circuit. Most modern systems consist of multilayer boards of anywhere up to eight layers (or sometimes even more). Traditionally, components were mounted on the top layer in holes which extended through all layers. These are referred as through hole components. More recently, with the near universal adoption of surface mount components, you commonly find components mounted on both the top and the bottom layers. The design of the printed circuit board can be as important as the circuit design to the overall performance of the final system. We shall discuss in this chapter the partitioning of the circuitry, the problem of interconnecting traces, parasitic components, grounding schemes, and decoupling. All of these are important in the success of a total design. PCB effects that are harmful to precision circuit performance include leakage resistances, IR voltage drops in trace foils, vias, and ground planes, the influence of stray capacitance, and dielectric absorption (DA). In addition, the tendency of PCBs to absorb atmospheric moisture (hygroscopicity) means that changes in humidity often cause the contributions of some parasitic effects to vary from day to day. In general, PCB effects can be divided into two broad categories—those that most noticeably affect the static or dc operation of the circuit, and those that most noticeably affect dynamic or ac circuit operation, especially at high frequencies. Another very broad area of PCB design is the topic of grounding. Grounding is a problem area in itself for all analog and mixed signal designs, and it can be said that simply implementing a PCB based circuit doesn’t change the fact that proper techniques are required. Fortunately, certain principles of quality grounding, namely the use of ground planes, are intrinsic to the PCB environment. This factor is one of the more significant advantages to PCB based analog designs, and appreciable discussion of this section is focused on this issue. Some other aspects of grounding that must be managed include the control of spurious ground and signal return voltages that can degrade performance. These voltages can be due to external signal coupling, common currents, or simply excessive IR drops in ground conductors. Proper conductor routing and sizing, as well as differential signal 12-1 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN handling and ground isolation techniques enables control of such parasitic voltages. One final area of grounding to be discussed is grounding appropriate for a mixed-signal, analog/digital environment. Indeed, the single issue of quality grounding can influence the entire layout philosophy of a high performance mixed signal PCB design—as it well should. 12.2 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES PARTITIONING SECTION 1: PARTITIONING Any subsystem or circuit layout operating at high frequency and/or high precision with both analog and digital signals should like to have those signals physically separated as much as possible to prevent crosstalk. This is typically difficult to accomplish in practice. Crosstalk can be minimized by paying attention to the system layout and preventing different signals from interfering with each other. High level analog signals should be separated from low level analog signals, and both should be kept away from digital signals. TTL and CMOS digital signals have high edge rates, implying frequency components starting with the system clock and going up form there. And most logic families are saturation logic, which has uneven current flow (high transient currents) which can modulate the ground. We have seen elsewhere that in waveform sampling and reconstruction systems the sampling clock (which is a digital signal) is as vulnerable to noise as any analog signal. Noise on the sampling clock manifests itself as phase jitter, which as we have seen in a previous section, translates directly to reduced SNR of the sampled signal. If clock driver packages are used in clock distribution, only one frequency clock should be passed through a single package. Sharing drivers between clocks of different frequencies in the same package will produce excess jitter and crosstalk and degrade performance. The ground plane can act as a shield where sensitive signals cross. Figure 12.1 shows a good layout for a data acquisition board where all sensitive areas are isolated from each other and signal paths are kept as short as possible. While real life is rarely as simple as this, the principle remains a valid one. There are a number of important points to be considered when making signal and power connections. First of all a connector is one of the few places in the system where all signal conductors must run in parallel—it is therefore imperative to separate them with ground pins (creating a Faraday shield) to reduce coupling between them. Multiple ground pins are important for another reason: they keep down the ground impedance at the junction between the board and the backplane. The contact resistance of a single pin of a PCB connector is quite low (typically on the order of 10 mΩ) when the board is new—as the board gets older the contact resistance is likely to rise, and the board's performance may be compromised. It is therefore well worthwhile to allocate extra PCB connector pins so that there are many ground connections (perhaps 30% to 40% of all the pins on the PCB connector should be ground pins). For similar reasons there should be several pins for each power connection. Manufacturers of high performance mixed-signal ICs, like Analog Devices, often offer evaluation boards to assist customers in their initial evaluations and layout. ADC evaluation boards generally contain an on-board low jitter sampling clock oscillator, output registers, and appropriate power and signal connectors. They also may have additional support circuitry such as the ADC input buffer amplifier and external reference. 12-3 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN SAMPLING TIMING CONTROL CLOCK GENERATOR CIRCUITS LOGIC BUFFER REFERENCE ADC DEMULTIPLEXER REGISTER DIGITAL ANALOG FILTER DSP BUFFER OR MEMORY µP AMPLIFIER POWER MULTIPLE ADDRESS MULTIPLE GROUNDS BUS GROUNDS ANALOG DATA INPUT BUS Figure 12.1: Analog and Digital Circuits Should Be Partitioned on PCB Layout The layout of the evaluation board is optimized in terms of grounding, decoupling, and signal routing and can be used as a model when laying out the ADC section of the PC board in a system. The actual evaluation board layout is usually available from the ADC manufacturer in the form of computer CAD files (Gerber files). In many cases, the layout of the various layers appears on the data sheet for the device. It should be pointed out, though, that an evaluation board is an extremely simple system. While some guidelines can be inferred from inspection of the evaluation board layout, the system that you are designing is undoubtedly more complicated. Therefore, direct use of the layout may not be optimum in larger systems. 12.4 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES TRACES SECTION 2: TRACES Resistance of Conductors Every engineer is familiar with resistors. But far too few engineers consider that all the wires and PCB traces with which their systems and circuits are assembled are also resistors (as well as inductors as well, as will be discussed later). In higher precision systems, even these trace resistances and simple wire interconnections can have degrading effects. Copper is not a superconductor—and too many engineers appear to think it is Figure 12.2 illustrates a method of calculating the sheet resistance R of a copper square, given the length Z, the width X, and the thickness Y. ρ Z R = XY ρ = RESISTIVITY R Z Y X SHEET RESISTANCE CALCULATION FOR 1 OZ. COPPER CONDUCTOR: ρ = 1.724 X 10-6 Ωcm, Y = 0.0036cm Z R = 0.48 mΩ X Z = NUMBER OF SQUARES X R = SHEET RESISTANCE OF 1 SQUARE (Z=X) = 0.48mΩ/SQUARE Figure 12.2: Calculation of Sheet Resistance and Linear Resistance for Standard Copper PCB Conductors -6 At 25°C the resistivity of pure copper is 1.724X10Ω/cm. The thickness of standard 1 ounce PCB copper foil is 0.036 mm (0.0014"). Using the relations shown, the resistance of such a standard copper element is therefore 0.48 mΩ/square. One can 12-5 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN readily calculate the resistance of a linear trace, by effectively "stacking" a series of such squares end to end, to make up the line’s length. The line length is Z and the width is X, so the line resistance R is simply a product of Z/X and the resistance of a single square, as noted in the figure. For a given copper weight and trace width, a resistance/length calculation can be made. For example, the 0.25 mm (10 mil) wide traces frequently used in PCB designs equates to a resistance/length of about 19 mΩ/cm (48 mΩ /inch), which is quite large. Moreover, the temperature coefficient of resistance for copper is about 0.4%/°C around room temperature. This is a factor that shouldn’t be ignored, in particular within low impedance precision circuits, where the TC can shift the net impedance over temperature. As shown in Figure 12.3, PCB trace resistance can be a serious error when conditions aren’t favorable. Consider a 16-bit ADC with a 5 kΩ input resistance, driven through 5 cm of 0.25 mm wide 1 oz. PCB track between it and its signal source. The track resistance of nearly 0.1 Ω forms a divider with the 5 kΩ load, creating an error. The resulting voltage drop is a gain error of 0.1/5 k (0.0019%), well over 1 LSB (0.0015% for 16 bits). And this ignores the issue of the return path It also ignores inductance, which could make the situation worse at high frequencies. 5cm SIGNAL 16-BIT ADC, SOURCE R = 5kΩ IN 0.25mm (10 mils) wide, 1 oz. copper PCB trace Assume ground path resistance negligible Figure 12.3: Ohm’s law predicts 1 LSB of error due to drop in PCB conductor So, when dealing with precision circuits, the point is made that even simple design items such as PCB trace resistance cannot be dealt with casually. There are various solutions that can address this issue, such as wider traces (which may take up excessive space), and may not be a viable solution with the smallest packages and with packages with multiple rows of pins, such as a ball grid array (BGA), the use of heavier copper (which may be too expensive) or simply choosing a high input impedance converter. But, the most important thing is to think it all through, avoiding any tendency to overlook items appearing innocuous on the surface. 12.6 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES TRACES Voltage Drop in Signal Leads—Kelvin Feedback The gain error resulting from resistive voltage drop in PCB signal leads is important only with high precision and/or at high resolutions (the Figure 12.3 example), or where large signal currents flow. Where load impedance is constant and resistive, adjusting overall system gain can compensate for the error. In other circumstances, it may often be removed by the use of "Kelvin" or "voltage sensing" feedback, as shown in Figure 12.4. In this modification to the case of Figure 12.3 a long resistive PCB trace is still used to drive the input of a high resolution ADC, with low input impedance. In this case however, the voltage drop in the signal lead does not give rise to an error, as feedback is taken directly from the input pin of the ADC, and returned to the driving source. This scheme allows full accuracy to be achieved in the signal presented to the ADC, despite any voltage drop across the signal trace. FEEDBACK "SENSE" LEAD S SIGNAL ADC with F HIGH RESISTANCE SOURCE low R IN SIGNAL LEAD Assume ground path resistance negligible Figure 12.4: Use of a Sense Connection Moves Accuracy to the Load Point The use of separate force (F) and sense (S) connections (often referred to as a Kelvin connection) at the load removes any errors resulting from voltage drops in the force lead, but, of course, may only be used in systems where there is negative feedback. It is also impossible to use such an arrangement to drive two or more loads with equal accuracy, since feedback may only be taken from one point. Also, in this much-simplified system, errors in the common lead source/load path are ignored, the assumption being that ground path voltages are negligible. In many systems this may not necessarily be the case, and additional steps may be needed, as noted below. Signal Return Currents Kirchoff's Law tells us that at any point in a circuit the algebraic sum of the currents is zero. This tells us that all currents flow in circles and, particularly, that the return current must always be considered when analyzing a circuit, as is illustrated in Figure 12.5 (see References 7 and 8). 12-7 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN I SIGNAL LOAD SOURCE R I L GROUND RETURN CURRENT G1 G2 I AT ANY POINT IN A CIRCUIT THE ALGEBRAIC SUM OF THE CURRENTS IS ZERO OR WHAT GOES OUT MUST COME BACK WHICH LEADS TO THE CONCLUSION THAT ALL VOLTAGES ARE DIFFERENTIAL (EVEN IF THEY’RE GROUNDED) Figure 12.5: Kirchoff’s Law Helps in Analyzing Voltage Drops Around a Complete Source/Load Coupled Circuit In dealing with grounding issues, common human tendencies provide some insight into how the correct thinking about the circuit can be helpful towards analysis. Most engineers readily consider the ground return current "I," only when they are considering a fully differential circuit. However, when considering the more usual circuit case, where a single-ended signal is referred to "ground," it is common to assume that all the points on the circuit diagram where ground symbols are found are at the same potential. Unfortunately, this happy circumstance just ain’t necessarily so This overly optimistic approach is illustrated in Figure 12.6 where, if it really should exist, "infinite ground conductivity" would lead to zero ground voltage difference between source ground G1 and load ground G2. Unfortunately this approach isn’t a wise practice, and when dealing with high precision circuits, it can lead to disasters. A more realistic approach to ground conductor integrity includes analysis of the impedance(s) involved, and careful attention to minimizing spurious noise voltages. 12.8 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES TRACES SIGNAL ADC SIGNAL SOURCE INFINITE GROUND G1 CONDUCTIVITY G2 → ZERO VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL BETWEEN G1 & G2 Figure 12.6: Unlike this Optimistic Diagram, it Is Unrealistic to Assume Infinite Conductivity Between Source/Load Grounds in a Real-World System Ground Noise and Ground Loops A more realistic model of a ground system is shown in Figure 12.7. The signal return current flows in the complex impedance existing between ground points G1 and G2 as shown, giving rise to a voltage drop ΔV in this path. But it is important to note that additional external currents, such as I , may also flow in this same path. It is critical to EXT understand that such currents may generate uncorrelated noise voltages between G1 and G2 (dependent upon the current magnitude and relative ground impedance). Some portion of these undesired voltages may end up being seen at the signal’s load end, and they can have the potential to corrupt the signal being transmitted. It is evident, of course, that other currents can only flow in the ground impedance, if there is a current path for them. In this case, severe problems can be caused by a high current circuit sharing an unlooped ground return with the signal source. Figure 12.8 shows just such a common ground path, shared by the signal source and a high current circuit, which draws a large and varying current from its supply. This current flows in the common ground return, causing an error voltage ΔV to be developed. 12-9 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN SIGNAL LOAD SIGNAL SOURCE I SIG ΔV = VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL DUE TO SIGNAL CURRENT AND/OR EXTERNAL CURRENT FLOWING IN GROUND IMPEDANCE G1 G2 I EXT Figure 12.7: A More Realistic Source-to-Load Grounding System View Includes Consideration of the Impedance Between G1-G2, Plus the Effect of Any Nonsignal-Related Currents +V s SIGNAL HIGH SIGNAL ADC CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUIT ΔV ΔV = VOLTAGE DUE TO SIGNAL CURRENT PLUS CURRENT FROM HIGH CURRENT CIRCUIT FLOWING IN COMMON GROUND IMPEDANCE Figure 12.8: Any Current Flowing Through a Common Ground Impedance Can Cause Errors 12.10 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES TRACES From Figure 12.9, it is also evident that if a ground network contains loops, or circular ground conductor patterns (with S1 closed), there is an even greater danger of it being vulnerable to EMFs induced by external magnetic fields. There is also a real danger of ground-current-related signals "escaping" from the high current areas, and causing noise in sensitive circuit regions elsewhere in the system. HIGH SIGNAL A CURRENT CIRCUIT A ZA CLOSING S1 FORMS A GROUND LOOP. NOISE MAY COME FROM: ‹ MAGNETIC FLUX CUTTING THE GROUND LOOP NEXT ‹ GROUND CURRENT OF A IN ZB GROUND STAGE MAGNETIC ‹ GROUND CURRENT OF B IN ZA IMPEDANCES S1 FLUX ZB HIGH CURRENT SIGNAL B CIRCUIT B Figure 12.9: A Ground Loop For these reasons ground loops are best avoided, by wiring all return paths within the circuit by separate paths back to a common point, i.e., the common ground point towards the mid-right of the diagram. This would be represented by the S1 open condition. Ground Isolation Techniques While the use of ground planes does lower impedance and helps greatly in lowering ground noise, there may still be situations where a prohibitive level of noise exists. In such cases, the use of ground error minimization and isolation techniques can be helpful. Another illustration of a common-ground impedance coupling problem is shown in Figure 12.10. In this circuit a precision gain-of-100 preamp amplifies a low level signal V , using an AD8551 chopper-stabilized amplifier for best dc accuracy. At the load end, IN the signal V is measured with respect to G2, the local ground. Because of the small OUT 700 μA I of the AD8551 flowing between G1 and G2, there is a 7 μV ground SUPPLY error—about 7 times the typical input offset expected from the op amp 12-11 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN +5V U1 AD8551 R1 V 99kΩ IN 5mV FS V OUT I R2 SUPPLY 700μA 1kΩ R GROUND 0.01Ω G1 G2 ΔV ≅ 7μV Figure 12.10: Unless Care Is Taken, Even Small Common Ground Currents Can Degrade Precision Amplifier Accuracy This error can be avoided simply by routing the negative supply pin current of the op amp back to star ground G2 as opposed to ground G1, by using a separate trace. This step eliminates the G1-G2 path power supply current, and so minimizes the ground leg voltage error. Note that there will be little error developed in the "hot" V lead, so long OUT as the current drain at the load end is small. In some cases, there may be simply unavoidable ground voltage differences between a source signal and the load point where it is to be measured. Within the context of this "same-board" discussion, this might require rejecting ground error voltages of several tens-of-mV. Or, should the source signal originate from an "off-board" source, then the magnitude of the common-mode voltages to be rejected can easily rise into a several volt range (or even tens-of-volts). Fortunately, full signal transmission accuracy can still be accomplished in the face of such high noise voltages, by employing a principle discussed earlier. This is the use of a differential-input, ground isolation amplifier. The ground isolation amplifier minimizes the effect of ground error voltages between stages by processing the signal in differential fashion, thereby rejecting CM voltages by a substantial margin (typically 60 dB or more). Two ground isolation amplifier solutions are shown in Figure 12.11. This diagram can alternately employ either the AD629 to handle CM voltages up to ±270 V, or the AMP03, which is suitable for CM voltages up to ±20 V. In the circuit, input voltage V is referred to G1, but must be measured with respect to IN G2. With the use of a high CMR unity-gain difference amplifier, the noise voltage ΔV existing between these two grounds is easily rejected. The AD629 offers a typical CMR of 88 dB, while the AMP03 typically achieves 100 dB. In the AD629, the high CMV rating is done by a combination of high CM attenuation, followed by differential gain, realizing a net differential gain of unity. The AD629 uses the first listed value resistors 12.12 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES TRACES noted in the figure for R1 to R5. The AMP03 operates as a precision four-resistor differential amplifier, using the 25 kΩ value R1 to R4 resistors noted. Both devices are complete, one package solutions to the ground-isolation amplifier. R5 21.1kΩ (AD629 only) G2 R1 R2 380kΩ / 25kΩ 380kΩ / 25kΩ CMV(V) CMR(dB) AD629 ± 270 88 AMP03 ± 20 100 AD629 / AMP03 DIFFERENCE V IN AMPLIFIERS V OUT R3 R4 380kΩ / 25kΩ Ω / 25kΩ 20k G2 G1 OUTPUT INPUT ΔV COMMON GROUND COMMON NOISE Figure 12.11: A Differential Input Ground Isolating Amplifier Allows High Transmission Accuracy by Rejecting Ground Noise Voltage Between Source (G1) and Measurement (G2) Grounds This scheme allows relative freedom from tightly controlling ground drop voltages, or running additional and/or larger PCB traces to minimize such error voltages. Note that it can be implemented either with the fixed gain difference amplifiers shown, or also with a standard in-amp IC, configured for unity gain. The AD623, for example, also allows single-supply use. In any case, signal polarity is also controllable, by simple reversal of the difference amplifier inputs. In general terms, transmitting a signal from one point on a PCB to another for measurement or further processing can be optimized by two key interrelated techniques. These are the use of high impedance, differential signal-handling techniques. The high impedance loading of an in-amp minimizes voltage drops, and differential sensing of the remote voltage minimizes sensitivity to ground noise. When the further signal processing is A/D conversion, these transmission criteria can be implemented without adding a differential ground isolation amplifier stage. Simply select an ADC which operates differentially. The high input impedance of the ADC minimizes load sensitivity to the PCB wiring resistance. In addition, the differential input feature allows the output of the source to be sensed directly at the source output terminals (even if single-ended). The CMR of the ADC then eliminates sensitivity to noise voltages between the ADC and source grounds. 12-13 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN An illustration of this concept using an ADC with high impedance differential inputs is shown in Figure 12.12. Note that the general concept can be extended to virtually any signal source, driving any load. All loads, even single-ended ones, become differential- input by adding an appropriate differential input stage. The differential input can be provided by either a fully developed high Z in-amp, or in many cases it can be a simple subtractor stage op amp, such as Figure 12.11. SIGNAL HIGH-Z SOURCE V DIFFERENTIAL OUT INPUT ADC Ground path errors not critical Figure 12.12: A High-Impedance Differential Input ADC Also Allows High Transmission Accuracy Between Source and Load 12.14 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES TRACES Static PCB Effects Leakage resistance is the dominant static circuit board effect. Contamination of the PCB surface by flux residues, deposited salts, and other debris can create leakage paths between circuit nodes. Even on well-cleaned boards, it is not unusual to find 10 nA or more of leakage to nearby nodes from 15-volt supply rails. Nanoamperes of leakage current into the wrong nodes often cause volts of error at a circuit's output; for example, 10 nA into a 10 MΩ resistance causes 0.1 V of error. Unfortunately, the standard op amp pinout places the −V supply pin next to the + input, which is often hoped to be at high S impedance To help identify nodes sensitive to the effects of leakage currents ask the simple question: If a spurious current of a few nanoamperes or more were injected into this node, would it matter? If the circuit is already built, you can localize moisture sensitivity to a suspect node with a classic test. While observing circuit operation, blow on potential trouble spots through a simple soda straw. The straw focuses the breath's moisture, which, with the board's salt content in susceptible portions of the design, disrupts circuit operation upon contact. There are several means of eliminating simple surface leakage problems. Thorough washing of circuit boards to remove residues helps considerably. A simple procedure includes vigorously brushing the boards with isopropyl alcohol, followed by thorough washing with deionized water and an 85°C bake out for a few hours. Be careful when selecting board-washing solvents, though. When cleaned with certain solvents, some water-soluble fluxes create salt deposits, exacerbating the leakage problem. Unfortunately, if a circuit displays sensitivity to leakage, even the most rigorous cleaning can offer only a temporary solution. Problems soon return upon handling, or exposure to foul atmospheres, and high humidity. Some additional means must be sought to stabilize circuit behavior, such as conformal surface coating. Fortunately, there is an answer to this, namely guarding, which offers a fairly reliable and permanent solution to the problem of surface leakage. Well-designed guards can eliminate leakage problems, even for circuits exposed to harsh industrial environments. Two schematics illustrate the basic guarding principle, as applied to typical inverting and noninverting op amp circuits. Figure 12.13 illustrates an inverting mode guard application. In this case, the op amp reference input is grounded, so the guard is a grounded ring surrounding all leads to the inverting input, as noted by the dotted line. 12-15 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN INVERTING MODE GUARD: RING SURROUNDS ALL LEAD ENDS AT THE "HOT NODE" AND NOTHING ELSE Figure 12.13: Inverting Mode Guard Encloses All Op Amp Inverting Input Connections Within a Grounded Guard Ring Guarding basic principles are simple: Completely surround sensitive nodes with conductors that can readily sink stray currents, and maintain the guard conductors at the exact potential of the sensitive node (as otherwise the guard will serve as a leakage source rather than a leakage sink). For example, to keep leakage into a node below 1 pA (assuming 1000-megohm leakage resistance) the guard and guarded node must be within 1 mV. Generally, the low offset of a modern op amp is sufficient to meet this criterion. NON-INVERTING MODE GUARD: Y RING SURROUNDS ALL "HOT NODE" LEAD ENDS - INCLUDING INPUT TERMINAL ON THE PCB X Y R L Y LOW VALUE GAIN Y RESISTORS USE SHIELDING (Y) OR UNITY-GAIN BUFFER (X) IF GUARD HAS LONG LEAD Figure 12.14: Noninverting Mode Guard Encloses all Op Amp Noninverting Input Connections Within a Low Impedance, Driven Guard Ring 12.16 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ISSUES TRACES There are important caveats to be noted with implementing a true high quality guard. For traditional through hole PCB connections, the guard pattern should appear on both sides of the circuit board, to be most effective. And, it should also be connected along its length by several vias. Finally, when either justified or required by the system design parameters, do make an effort to include guards in the PCB design process from the outset—there is little likelihood that a proper guard can be added as an afterthought. Figure 12.14 illustrates the case for a noninverting guard. In this instance the op amp reference input is directly driven by the source, which complicates matters considerably. Again, the guard ring completely surrounds all of the input nodal connections. In this instance, however, the guard is driven from the low impedance feedback divider connected to the inverting input. Usually the guard-to-divider junction will be a direct connection, but in some cases a unity gain buffer might be used at "X" to drive a cable shield, or also to maintain the lowest possible impedance at the guard ring. In lieu of the buffer, another useful step is to use an additional, directly grounded screen ring, "Y," which surrounds the inner guard and the feedback nodes as shown. This step costs nothing except some added layout time, and will greatly help buffer leakage effects into the higher impedance inner guard ring. Of course what hasn’t been addressed to this point is just how the op amp itself gets connected into these guarded islands without compromising performance. The traditional method using a TO-99 metal can package device was to employ double-sided PCB guard rings, with both op amp inputs terminated within the guarded ring. Sample MINI-DIP and SOIC op amp PCB guard layouts Modern assembly practices have favored smaller plastic packages such as eight pin MINI-DIP and SOIC types. Some suggested partial layouts for guard circuits using these packages are shown in the next two figures. While guard traces may also be possible with even more tiny op amp footprints, such as SOT-23 etc., the required trace separations become even more confining, challenging the layout designer as well as the manufacturing processes. For the ADI "N" style MINI-DIP package, Figure 12.15 illustrates how guarding can be accomplished for inverting (left) and noninverting (right) operating modes. This setup would also be applicable to other op amp devices where relatively high voltages occur at pin 1 or 4. Using a standard eight pin DIP outline, it can be noted that this package’s 0.1" pin spacing allows a PC trace (here, the guard trace) to pass between adjacent pins. This is the key to implementing effective DIP package guarding, as it can adequately prevent a leakage path from the –V supply at pin 4, or from similar high potentials at pin 1. S 12-17 BASIC LINEAR DESIGN 1 8 1 8 GUARD 7 2 7 INPUT 2 GUARD 3 6 3 6 INPUT GUARD GUARD 4 5 4 5 INVERTING MODE NON-INVERTING MODE GUARD PATTERN GUARD PATTERN Figure 12.15: PCB Guard Patterns for Inverting and Noninverting Mode Op Amps Using Eight Pin MINI-DIP (N) Package For the left-side inverting mode, note that the Pin 3 connected and grounded guard traces surround the op amp inverting input (Pin 2), and run parallel to the input trace. This guard would be continued out to and around the source and feedback connections of Figure 12-36 (or other similar circuit), including an input pad in the case of a cable. In the right-side noninverting mode, the guard voltage is the feedback divider voltage to Pin 2. This corresponds to the inverting input node of the amplifier, from Figure 12.14. Note that in both of the cases of Figure 12.15, the guard physical connections shown are only partial—an actual layout would include all sensitive nodes within the circuit. In both the inverting and the noninverting modes using the MINI-DIP or other through hole style package, the PCB guard traces should be located on both sides of the board, with top and bottom traces connected with several vias. Things become slightly more complicated when using guarding techniques with the SOIC surface mount ("R") package, as the 0.05" pin spacing doesn’t easily allow routing of PCB traces between the pins. But, there is still an effective guarding answer, at least for the inverting case. Figure 12.16 shows guards for the ADI "R" style SOIC package. Note that for many single op amp devices in this SOIC "R" package, Pins 1, 5, and 8 are "no connect" pins. Historically these pins were used for offset adjustment and/or frequency compensation. These functions rarely are used in modern op amps. For such instances, this means that these empty locations can be employed in the layout to route guard traces. In the case of the inverting mode (left), the guarding is still completely effective, with the dummy Pin 1 and Pin 3 serving as the grounded guard trace. This is a fully effective guard without compromise. Also, with SOIC op amps, much of the circuitry around the device will not use through hole components. So, the guard ring may only be necessary on the op amp PCB side. 12.18

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