Lecture Notes on American Literature

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H I SHIVAJI UNIVERSITY, KOLHAPUR CENTRE FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION (Elective Group 4 : American Literature : Paper-IV) th 19 Century American Literature For M. A. Part-I K J Unit-1 (A) PURITANISM Index 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Introduction 1.3 Puritanism 1.3.1 Self Assessment Questions 1.4 Model Answers of Self-Assessment Questions 1.5 Summary 1.6 Exercises 1.6.1 Broad Questions with Answers 1.7 Activities/ Field Work 1.8 Further Reading 1.1 Objectives : After studying this unit, you will be able to :  Know the significance of the general topic that has shaped American literature  examine the general topic in relation to American literature  understand the impact of Puritanism on different forms of literature  trace impact of Puritanism on Nathaniel Hawthorne  know the history and development of Puritanism. 1.2 Introduction : One of the chief problems in the study of any literature is to understand the relationship existing between that literature and the social milieu in which it was produced. 1 th M. A. I (English) : 19 Century American Literature…1 Literature tends to reflect the dominant tendencies of its era and to grow out of the moral, social, and intellectual ferment impinging upon the sensibilities of literary men. Particularly this is true of American literature. The students of American literature should note that the conditions prevailing in that particular age would not only affect but also shape the literary work. The influence of the Puritanism can be traced in the novels and short stories of Nathaniel Hawthorne and a host of others The Frontier, the Adamic myth, Transcendentalism and Puritanism reflect the tendencies of the age. With this perspective at the back of mind, let us see these general topics what the role they have played in shaping American literature. 1.3 Puritanism 1.3.1 Self Assessment Questions (a) Answer the following questions in one word/ phrase/ sentence each : 1. How is the word "Puritan" formed? 2. What is Puritanism? 3. What type of movement Puritanism is? 4. Which book inspired the Puritans? 5. Who influenced the Puritans most? 5. What are the four basic tenets of Puritanism? 6. Who were the transcendentalists profoundly affected by Puritanism? (b) Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct option : 1. The Puritans who come to settle down in New England were from _____. (a) England (b) Russia (c) Germany (d) France 2. The Calvinists were the followers of _____. (a) John Bunyan (b) Jean Calvin (c) John Milton (d) Martin Luther 2 3. The Puritans believed that they had found the truth as revealed in the _____. (a) The Bible (b) The Gita (c) The Quran (d) The Upanishads 4. The two dominant themes of the Puritans are _____. (a) Love and Hate (b) Love and Marriage (c) Love and War (d) Sin and predestination 5. The Church of England was established by _____. (a) Henry VIII (b) Queen Elizabeth (c) John Milton (d) Coverdale 6. _____ had shaped the course of the Reformation in Germany. (a) Martin Luther (b) Zwingli (c) Calvin (d) Johnn Tetzel 1.4 Model Answers of Self-Assessment Questions. Sub-Section 1.3.1 (a) 1. Puritan is formed from the Latin word Puritas. 2. Puritanism is a religious movement which has had such a significant role to play in the histories of the United States. 3. Puritanism is a religious movement. 4. The Puritans were influenced by The Bible most. 5. The Puritans were mostly influenced by the French religious reformer, Jean Calvin. 6. Total Depravity; Limited Atonement; Irresistible Grace and Predestination. 7. Nathaniel Hawthorne was influenced by Puritanism. Sub-Section 1.3.1 (b) 1) a 2) b 3) a 4) d 5) a 6) a 1.5 Summary : Puritanism is a religious movement. The movement played a significant role in the histories of the United States, England and Germany. 3 The word "Puritan" is formed from the Latin word "Puritas" which means "purity". The King of England, Henry VIII, established his own church. This irked the Puritans because they felt that the Roman Catholic Church was in danger. They raised their voices against the King. The result was that the King gave an order to execute all the Puritans. The Puritans ran away, and came to settle down in New England, in the north part of America. The Puritans believed in the Bible as the source of all authority, accepted "inner light" as a source of understanding and maintained a rigid faith in hard work and duty. They were mostly influenced by the French religious reformer, Jean Calvin (1509-1574) whose belief in "Predestination" and "Grace" they fully accepted. According to the theory of "Grace", God's ways are unknown to men. Men only have to work hard and pray hopefully, but which souls are to be saved and whose to be condemned is not decided by one's devotion to God and the holiness of one's life, but by God Himself, although purity of thought and action is important. Hence, all life was a stage for the constant struggle between the forces of good (God) and evil (Satan). There were four basic tenets of Puritanism. They are : 1. Total Depravity is the first tenet. Adam and Eve, the creations of God, were in the Garden of Eden; they were tempted by the devil. Because of disobedience to God, they were thrown out of Eden. Belief in the fact of the fall was the basis of all Puritan thought. Puritans believed that with this fall came Total Depravity; that is, all nature and all humans were corrupted and incapable of perfection; 'In Adam's Fall/ We sinned all', as the New England primer pithily expressed it. 2. Limited Atonement is the second tenet. Contrary to the belief that Christ's crucifixion had made redemption available to all, the Puritans believed in Limited Atonement; that is, only a minority, called the elect, were to be saved. The majority were damned or reprobate. 3. Irresistible Grace is the third tenet. The doctrine stated that the condition of being elect or reprobate was unalterable. 4. The fourth tenet is predestination. As in the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination, God had determined the course of human history since the beginning of time, and this included deciding who would be damned and who 4 saved. Good works could not bring about salvation, although it was believed that individuals could show a readiness for grace by moral conduct. Because of rigid principles of Puritanism, the influence in the colonies waned with increased immigration of non-Puritans. The critics of Puritanism have seen it as a blight on American history and culture. Ezra Pound called Puritanism 'blood poison' in a 1920 letter to William Carlos Williams. It has been held responsible for the American repression of sexuality, a fear of the body, a dualistic world view, the denigration of women and the cultivation of censoriousness. In addition to the rich legacy of Puritan Literature, Puritanism profoundly affected many later American writers, including Hawthorne, Melville, T. S. Eliot and Emily Dickinson. 1.6 Exercises : 1. What is Puritanism? 2. What are the characteristics of Puritanism? 3. What were the efforts of Martin Luther in regard to the establishment of the Protestant Church? 4. In between 1630 and 1640 how many Puritans emigrated in the United States. 5. Trace the influence of Puritanism on Hawthorne. 6. What are the limitations of Puritanism? 7. Which were the Puritan themes that bothered Hawthorne? 1.6.1 Exercises with Model Answers. A.1 What is Puritanism? Mention its characteristics. OR Trace the impact of Puritanism on Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville. What is Puritanism? Puritanism is a "spiritual movement": which developed under Elizabeth I (late 16 century), blossomed in the Interregnum (1640's and 1650's), and withered in the persecution between the Restoration (1660) and Toleration (1689). 5 Because of The Civil War (1638-1642) and the execution of King Charles I made enemies out of the Puritans and the King's supporters. After the Restoration (1660), the Puritans were persecuted by the civic authorities and they left England to settle in America, where the Mayflower expedition (1620) had already seen them settled in New England. The Puritans in New England established as Congregationalist Church in close association with their political rulers. Heretics and Dissidents were not accepted by them, and religion was the basis of this society. The priests were appointed by ability rather than by official patronage. The puritans were very strict in the their principles. Those who did not attend Church for worship were severely punished. Members of the community were denied the freedom. The Bible was the source of understanding and maintained a rigid faith in hard work and duty. They were mostly influenced by the French religious reformer, Jean Calvin whose belief in "predestination" and "Grace" they fully accepted. According to the theory of "Elections" or "Grace", God's ways are unknown to men. Men only have to work hard and pray hopefully, but which souls are to be saved and whose to be condemned is not decided by one's devotion to God and the holiness of one's life, but by God Himself, although purity of thought and action is important. Hence, all life was a stage for the constant struggle between the forces of good (God) and evil (Satan). This theme of struggle between good and evil is presented in most of the poets, the novelists and the dramatists John Milton's Paradise Lost, John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, Christopher Marlowe's Dr. Faustus are good examples in this regard. Nathaniel Hawthorne imbibed most of the views of his Puritan ancestors. He projected Puritanism in his novels such as The Scarlet Letter and The House of the Seven Gables. Herman Melville was equally influenced by this theme. He projected this theme in his masterpiece Moby Dick. The puritan themes of the universality of sin and "Predestination" also bothered Hawthorne's mind. The tales like "The Young Goodman Brown" and "Ethan brand" are good examples in this regard. Critics of Puritanism have seen it as a blight on American history and culture. Ezra Pound called it "blood poison". It has been held responsible for the American 6 repression of sexuality, a fear of the body, a dualistic world view, the denigration of women and the cultivation of censoriousness. Despite its limitations, one could notice that Puritanism, even in the later periods, profoundly affected many later American writers like Emily Dickinson, T. S. Eliot and a host of others. 1.7 Activities/ Field Work : 1. Make a list of the puritans who have influenced English literature. 2. Point out the Puritanical atmosphere prevailing in New England during the times of Nathaniel Hawthorne. 1.8 Further Reading : 1. Matterson, Stephen. American Literature. New York : O.U.P., 2003. Print. 2. Horton, Rod W. and et al. (eds.) Backgrounds of American Literary Thought. New Jersey : Prentice-Hall, 1952. Print. 3. Inge, Thomas M. (ed.) A Nineteenth Century : American Reader. New Delhi : Asian Books Pvt. Ltd., 1989. Print. 4. Fisher, William J. and et al. (eds.) American Literature of Nineteenth Century : An Anthology. New Delhi : Eurasia Publishing House, 1965. Print.  7 Unit-1 (B) TRANSCENDENTALISM Index 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Introduction 1.3 Transcendentalism 1.3.1 Self Assessment Questions 1.4 Model Answers of Self-Assessment Questions 1.5 Summary 1.6 Exercises 1.6.1 Broad Questions with Answers 1.7 Activities/ Field Work 1.8 Further Reading 1.1 Objectives : After studying this unit, you will be able to :  know the significance of the general topic that has shaped American literature  examine the general topic in relation to American literature  see how transcendentalism is formed.  know the characteristics of transcendentalism  know who were the British writers influenced the transcendentalists  trace various transcendentalists and their respective contribution  know different forms of literature such as Essay, Short Story, Novel, Gothic tales  know the rise of American individualism and the American dream 8 1.2 Introduction 1.3 Transcendentalism 1.3.1 Self Assessment Questions a) Answer the following questions in one word/ phrase/sentence each : 1. What is transcendentalism? 2. Who were the transcendentalists? 3. Who were the British writers influenced the transcendentalists? 4. Which was the famous magazine that R. W. Emerson edited? 5. Who wrote The American Scholar? 6. Who was the Indian politician influenced by Civil Disobedience? 7. What does Moby Dick symbolize? 8. In which novel does the character Hester Prynne appear? 9. To whom does the title O Captain My Captain refer to? 10. What was the name of the poet who wrote "The Raven"? b) Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct options: 1. Emerson's first major work was _____ . (a) The Dial (b) Nature (c) The American Scholar (d) Self-Reliance 2. The Scarlet Letter was written by _____. (a) Emerson (b) Thoreau (c) Hawthorne (d) Melville 3. The composer of The Leaves of Grass was _____. (a) Walt Whitman (b) Herman Melville (c) Nathaniel Hawthorne (d) E. A. Poe 9 4. Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque appeared in _____. (a) 1940 (b) 1840 (c) 1950 (d) 1810 5. Of these transcendentalists, _____ was a composer of the art of short story. (a) E. A. Poe (b) Walt Whitman (c) Emerson (d) Thoreau 1.4 Model Answers of Self-Assessment Questions. Sub-Section 1.3.1 (a) 1. Transcendentalism is a literary, religious and philosophical movement originating in New England. 2. The transcendentalists are - Bronson Alcott, Emerson, Margaret Fuller, Thoreau, E. A. Poe, Hawthorne, Melville, Whitman. 3. The British writers who influenced the transcendentalists are William Wordsworth, S. T. Coleridge and Carlyle. 4. The name of the magazine is The Dial. 5. Emerson wrote The American Scholar. 6. M. K. Gandhi was influenced by Civil Disobedience. 7. Moby Dick symbolizes evil. 8. Hester Prynne appears in The Scarlet Letter. 9. The title O Captain My Captain refers to Abraham Lincoln. 10. E. A. Poe wrote The Raven Sub-Section 1.3.1 (b) 1) b 2) c 3) a 4) b 5) a 1.5 Summary : Transcendentalism is a literary and philosophical movement in New England in th the early and middle part of the 19 century. It gave expression to several strains of thought : 1) the weakening of Calvinistic views about the corruption of human nature; 10 2) the rise of Romantic attitudes toward the pervasiveness of the divine and the inherent power of the individual imagination; 3) and the frustration with what was seen as the polite and unemotional rationalism of Unitarian thought. Once considered to have derived from European movements, it is now generally seen as a development of native tendencies. Centered on Boston and Concord, some of its most notable voices were those of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thorean, Walt Whitman, Edgar Allan Poe, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Margaret Fuller and Bronson Alcott. The British writers such as William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Thomas Carlyle profoundly influenced these writers. Transcendentalism was opposed to the idea that man needed an intercessor through which to reach the divine, and was critical of formalized religion. Like the physical universe itself, all constructive practical activity, all great literature, all forms of spiritual awareness were viewed as an expression of the divine spirit. The oft- expressed ambition was to achieve vivid perception of the divine as it operates in common life, an awareness seen as leading at once to personal cultivation and to a sense of history as an at least potentially progressive movement. 1.6 Exercises : 1. Explain the meaning of the term 'Transcendentalism' and show its treatment in th 19 century American literature. 2. What was the contribution of R. W. Emerson to transcendentalism? 3. Discuss Walt Whitman as a poet of democracy. 4. Write a note on E. A. Poe as a short story writer. 1.6.1 Exercises with model Answers : Q.1 Explain the meaning of the term 'Transcendentalism' and show its treatment in th 19 century American Literature. th Like Puritanism, Transcendentalism also played an important role in the 19 century American literature. The pioneers of this movement not only enriched American literature but also paved the way for the coming writers. In addition to 11 this, these pioneers broke out the old traditions and established their own distinctive form of literature. What is transcendentalism? Transcendentalism was a philosophical dissent from Unitarianism, which represented the compromise of rational Deism with Calvinism, relating to the rationalist's acceptance of liberal scientific thought and rejecting extreme concepts concerning the original depravity and the inherited guilt of man. The rising young transcendentalists asserted that the Unitarian creed had become conventional and complacement in its orthodox fidelity to Christian dogmas of supernaturalism. They rejected Locke's materialistic psychology in favour of the idealism of the German thinker Immanuel Kant who declared that the "transcendental" knowledge in the mind of man was innate. Following the philosophy of Kant, they asserted the doctrine of correspondence between the microcosom of the individual mind and the macrocosom over-soul of the universe, and they derived an enlarged conception of the sanctity of the individual and his freedom to follow his intuitional knowledge. The American Transcendentalists were influenced by British writers as Wordsworth, Coleridge and Carlyle; Kant, Hegel, Fichte, Schelling, Goethe, Richter, Harder influenced the transcendentalists with their philosophy; Greek philosophers like Plato, the Sufis, and the writers of the Upanishads and the Bhagavad-Gita, and the Buddhists and the eclectic idealists profoundly influenced the transcendentalists. These transcendentalists used to meet at Emerson's Concord house, and through their magazine The Dial, they published their philosophy. "Book Farm" (1841) and "Fruit Lands" (1842) were agrarian experiments in communal living, supported briefly by the transcendentalists concerned with the social order. 'Nature' was the first comprehensive expression of American Transcendentalism. Emerson provided a fresh and lyrical intimation of many of the leading ideas that developed in various essays and poems. Thoreau's transcendentalism was empirical, not theological. He did what he felt to be right and publicly opposed what he felt to be wrong. If Emerson believed in Man, Thoreau believed in men. Both were the party of Hope against the party of Memory, and were symbolic of a New England turn from Calvinism through Unitarianism to a belief in man. Both wrote and lived as if the 'American Adam' were more possibility than myth. Walden is his famous book. 12 Whitman came to transcendentalism by way of his mother's Quakerism, and Carlyle's and Hegel's writings, but Emerson was the immediate influence. The Leaves of Grass was his mommental work. Through his book, he taught the philosophy of democracy. He believed in the transforming power of love in humanity and in life. Whitman was theoretically the answer of Emerson's prayer, as he was also the voice of the land of Promise, the first wholly unique one to emerge from American continent. Nathaniel Hawthorne satirized Book Farm in his novel The Blithedale Romance. The Scarlet Letter was his another novel in which he has bitterly satirized Puritanism. Herman Melville satirized Puritanism in his novel Moby Dick. These transcendentalists – Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Melville, Whitman – seem to differ from one another more than they agree. First, they are divergent in temperament; second, they are different in their choice of subject matter and literary form; thirdly, they differ in their interest and capacity for sustained philosophical thought. Despite their differences, they have certain common things. These writers have a profound sense of human predicament. They are worried about the problem of man. They all believe that individual virtue and happiness depends upon self realization and the self realization depends upon the harmonious reconciliation of two universal psychological tendencies. The five writers have a common assumption. They think that intuition and imagination offer a surer road to truth than abstract logic or scientific method. Finally, these five writers were able to deduce a consequence of immense practical importance not only for their own work but for the subsequent course of American literature as a whole. th To conclude, American literature of 19 century was developed, and enriched by these writers. They are unforgettable for their philosophy. They prepared the way for the coming writers. 1.7 Activities/ Field Work : 1. Write a note on every transcendentalist and find out the differences in between them. 2. Take the help of Internet for further study. 13 1.8 Further Reading : 1. Matterson, Stephen. American Literature. New York : Oxford University Press, 2003. Print. 2. Horton Rod W. et al. (eds.) Backgrounds of American Literary Thought. New Jersey : Prentice-Hall, 1952. Print. 3. Inge, Thomas M. (ed.) A Nineteenth Century American Reader. New Delhi : Asian Books Pvt. Ltd., 1989. Print. 4. Fisher, William J. et al. (eds.) American Literature of Nineteenth Century :An Anthology. New Delhi : Eurasia Publishing House, 1965. Print.  14 Unit-2 (A) THE FRONTIER Index : 2.1 Objectives 2.2 Introduction 2.3 The Frontier 2.3.1 Self Assessment Questions 2.4 Model Answers of Self-Assessment Questions 2.5 Summary 2.6 Exercises 2.6.1 Broad Questions with Answers 2.7 Activities/ Field Work 2.8 Further Reading 2.1 Objectives : After studying this unit, you will be able to :  know the significance of the general topic that has shaped American Literature  examine the general topic in relation to American literature  know different implications of the frontier  know how the frontier provided basic qualities like optimism  acknowledge Thark Twain's contribution to American humour. 15 2.2 Introduction 2.3 The Frontier 2.3.1 Self-Assessment Questions : (a) Answer the following questions in one word/ phrase/ sentence each : 1. Who wrote Frontier Thesis? 2. Who is the author of Leather Stocking Tales? 3. What do you mean by the frontier? 4. How do you distinguish the American frontier from the European frontier? 5. What was the pen name of Samuel Clemens? (b) Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct option : 1. Roughing It was written by _____. a) Hamlin Garland b) Sinclair Lewis c) Willa Cather d) Mark Twain 2. Mark Twain suffered from the disease _____. a) cancer b) tuberculosis c) swine-flu d) cholera 3. The important contribution of the Frontier to the American literature was _____ a) Irony b) Satire c) Humour d) Metaphor 4. Davy Crockett published his autobiography in _____. a) 1834 b) 1846 c) 1872 d) 1976 5. Huckleberry Finn was published in _____. a) 1885 b) 1883 c) 1876 d) 1873 2.4 Model Answers of Self-Assessment questions. Sub-Section 2.3.1 (a) : 1. Frontier Thesis was written by Frederick Jackson Turner 2. The author of Leather Stocking Tales is James Fenimore Cooper 16 3. The Frontier means the outer limits of settlement 4. The American frontier is sharply distinguished from the European frontier – a fortified boundary line running through dense population 5. The pen name of Samuel Clemens is Mark Twain. Sub-Section 2.3.1 (b) : 1) d 2) b 3) c 4) a 5) a 2.5 Summary : In his book Frontier Thesis, Frederick Jackson Turner has noted the significance of the frontier in American literature. According to him, the historical experience of the frontier has been considered a key element of the American character. While for early settlers the frontier was simply the land beyond the settlement, to later generation it became a challenge to be overcome so that the Manifest Destiny of the United States could be fulfilled. The concept of the frontier has been repeatedly invoked and revised. The significance of the frontier is notably examined in works by Mark Twain, Hamlin Garland, Sinclair Lewis and Willa Cather. A great deal of Western and Dime Novel writing is concerned with the frontier which also shaped the Tell Tale, a great deal of folklore, and a particular kind of humour. James Fenimore Cooper's Leather – Stocking Tales are the earliest sustained examination of the frontier as it moves westward from the eastern seaboard. 2.6 Exercises : 1. Explain the meaning of the term the Frontier, and show its different implications. 2. What is the role of Mark Twain in the Frontier literature? 3. Briefly summarise the names of the writers who have written on the Frontier. 4. Write a note on Mark Twain. 5. Write a note on the impact of gold and silver, found in Nevada and California. 17 th M. A. I (English) : 19 Century American Literature…2 2.6.1 Broad Questions with Answers. th Q.1 What is the role of the Frontier in 19 century American Literature? Literally, the frontier means the outer limits of settlement. It was a "meeting point between savagery and civilization". Every extension of the settlement meant a ruthless fight against the unknown, mysterious nature – the forests and mountainous soil; and the natives who had a different culture and who fought with their old weapons. The frontier has now become a part of the American unconscious; it is a phase "through which most of the nation has passed". In relation to the American experience the word is used as a thematic metaphor which has many implications – economic, cultural, geographical, spiritual and even psychological. Economically it symbolized man's fight against nature for more and more food and raw material. Culturally, it meant the struggle of the settlers for dominance over the natives. Geographically it stood for that part of the west and the south toward which the settlers moved in their quest for land. Spiritually, it denoted the Puritans' efforts to propagate their creed. Psychologically it was a challenge to man's innate capacity to fight and endure. In all these interpretations of the word the idea of struggle, a hard confrontation with violent forces which the frontier symbolized, should be kept in mind. In due course of time, the frontier was not limited to the settlement only; for the geographical frontier was soon closed. The earlier scene began to change. Places like Nevada and California opened up the economic factor since those places contained gold. People began to shift to those places where they were hungry of gold. The Puritans who settled down here began to fight on the spiritual frontier. Hawthorne and Melville have highlighted this aspect in their novels and short stories. There were certain basic rules and laws. People took laws into their own hands. The frontiers men had a wild kind of justice. In Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn, we come to understand the concept of justice which the people cherished. Hester Prynne, the heroine of The Scarlet Letter, is a good example of the justice. Hester's exposure on the Scaffold is watched by the whole of the town with curious interest. 18 If the frontier was changed by the settlers, it also left its impact on the character and mood of the people, especially the writer. Twain's Huckleberry Finn, Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter and Melville's MockDick, to name a few, are sufficient examples that throw a flood of light on the society of the frontiersmen. To conclude, Edwin Fussel has rightly remarked that "American literature may in origin fairly be called an effect of the frontier", and probably the origin of the present symbolic interpretation of the world. Even where there is no frontier as such, the word has a moral and spiritual force that continues to rejuvenate the American consciousness and nationalistic spirit. And in the greatest possession of the Americans, we have the frontier dramatized in its whole truth that makes it "one of the central elements of American culture". When Bernard De-Voto remarked that Twain 'was the frontier itself' and that Huck's story is American life formed into action", he told the truth. Look for yourself : here is America." 2.7 Activities/ Field work : 1. Point out different frontiers and show its impact upon the residents. 2. Write a note on humour of Mark Twain. 3. Take the help of Internet for further study. 1.8 Further Reading : 1. Matterson, Stephen. American Literature. New York : Oxford University Press, 2003. Print. 2. Horton Rod W. et al. (eds.) Backgrounds of American Literary Thought. New Jersey : Prentice-Hall, 1952. Print. 3. Inge, Thomas M. (ed.) A Nineteenth Century American Reader. New Delhi : Asian Books Pvt. Ltd., 1989. Print. 4. Fisher, William J. et al. (eds.) American Literature of Nineteenth Century : An Anthology. New Delhi : Eurasia Publishing House, 1965. Print.  19

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