What is Human resource development management all about

what is human resource management and development and what is human resource management and professional development pdf free download
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PhilipMorris,Switzerland,Researcher
Published Date:17-07-2017
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Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU MGT - 501 his subject/course is designed to teach the basic principles of Human Resource Management (HRM) to diverse audience/students, including those who are studying this as a supporting subject T for their bachelor degree program. This course is designed to provide you the foundations of HRM whether you intend to work in HRM or not, most of these elements will affect you at some point in your career. Either you will be working with some organizations or having people working for you, in both cases you will be dealing with people. To be understandable and lively means that we need to communicate you. We start every chapter with learning objectives. The most important thing you will get out of this course are the basic skills required to succeed in today’s environment which are, you must be able to communicate, think creatively, plan effectively and deal with people. Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 1Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU Lesson 1 INTRODUCTION TO HRM After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following: ƒ Describe HRM? ƒ Explain why are we concerned about HRM? ƒ Discuss Road-map of HRM LESSON OVERVIEW This chapter introduces the students with the basic concepts of the human resource management (HRM). During the lecture, we will be discussing the three main things, i.e. the introduction to HRM, the importance of HRM, and a brief discussion of the Resource topics that will follow today’s lecture. A basic concept of management states that manager works in organizations. Organization has three basic components, People, Purpose, and Structure. HRM is the study of activates regarding people working in an Human Management organization. It is a managerial function that tries to match an organization’s needs to the skills and abilities of its employees. Let’s see what is meant by the three HRM key terms… human, resource, and management. Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed • Human (Homo-sapiens – Social Animal) • Resources (Human, Physical, Financial, Technical, Informational etc) • Management (Function of Planning, Organizing, Leading & Controlling of organizational resources to accomplish goals efficiently and effectively) Functions of HRM Basic functions that all managers perform: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. HR management involves the policies and practices needed to carry out the staffing (or people) function of management. HRM department regardless of the organization’s size must perform following human resource management functions… • Staffing (HR planning, recruitment and selection) • Human resource development • Compensation and benefits • Safety and health • Employee and labor relations • Records maintaining, etc. • HR research (providing a HR information base, designing and implementing employee communication system). • Interrelationship of HR functions. A. What is human resource management? As we said that HRM is the management of people working in an organization, it is a subject related to human. For simplicity, we can say that it is the management of humans or people. HRM is a managerial function that tries to match an organization’s needs to the skills and abilities of its employees. Human Resource Management is responsible for how people are managed in the organizations. It is responsible for bringing people in organization helping them perform their work, compensating them for their work and solving problems that arise. Growing Importance of HRM The success of organizations increasingly depends on people-embodied know-how- the knowledge, skill, Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 2Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU and abilities imbedded in an organization's members. This knowledge base is the foundation of an organization' core competencies (integrated knowledge sets within an organization that distinguish it from its competitors and deliver value to customers). HRM plays important role in creating organizations and helping them survive. Our world is an organizational world. We are surrounded by organizations and we participate in them as members, employees, customers, and clients. Most of our life is spent in organization, and they supply the goods and services on which we depend to live. Organizations on the other hand depend on people, and without people, they would disappear. Factors Contributing to the Growing Importance of HRM a. Accommodation to workers' needs Workers are demanding that organizations accommodate their personal needs by instituting such programs as flexible work schedules, parental leave, child-care and elder-care assistance, and job sharing. The human resource department plays a central role in establishing and implementing policies designed to reduce the friction between organizational demands and family responsibilities. b. Increased complexity of the Manager’s job Management has become an increasingly complex and demanding job for many reasons, including foreign competition, new technology, expanding scientific information, and rapid change. Therefore, organizations frequently ask human resource managers for assistance in making strategic business decisions and in match- ing the distinctive competencies of the firm's human resources to the mission of the organization. Executives need assistance from the human resource department in matters of recruitment, performance evaluation, compensation, and discipline. c. Legislation and litigation The enactment of state laws has contributed enormously to the proliferation and importance of human resource functions. The record keeping and reporting requirements of the laws are so extensive that to comply with them, many human resource departments must work countless hours and often must hire additional staff. Four areas that have been influenced most by legislation include equal employment, Compensation, safety, and labor relations. An organization's failure to comply with laws regulating these areas can result in extremely costly back-pay awards, class action suits, and penalties. d. Consistency Human resource policies help to maintain consistency and equity within an organization. Consistency is particularly important in compensation and promotion decisions. When managers make compensation decisions without consulting the human resource department the salary structure tends to become very uneven and unfair promotion decisions also may be handled unfairly when the HR department does not coordinate the decision of individual manger. e. Expertise Now a days there exist sophisticated personnel activities that require special expertise. For example, researchers have developed complex procedures for making employee-selection decisions; statistical formulas that combine interviews, test scores, and application-blank information have replaced the subjective interviews traditionally used in making selection decisions. Similarly, many organizations have developed compensation systems with elaborate benefits packages to replace simple hourly pay or piece rate incentive systems f. Cost of Human Resource Human resource activities have become increasingly important because of the high cost of personal problem. The largest single expense in most organizations is labor cost, which is often considerably higher than the necessary because of such problems as absenteeism tardiness and discrimination. Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 3Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU B. Why are we concerned with HRM? 1. Helps you get results - through others. Different managerial techniques help mangers to direct the performance of employees in desirable direction in order to achieve the organizational objectives. Through the efforts of others working in an organization, managers get things done that require effective human resource management. 2. Helps you avoid common personnel mistakes Qualified HR mangers utilize organization resources in such a way that helps to avoid common personnel mistakes like the following… a. Hiring the wrong person for the job b. Experiencing high turnover c. Finding employees not doing their best d. Having your company taken to court because of your discriminatory actions e. Having your company cited under federal occupational safety laws for unsafe practices f. Allowing a lack of training to undermine your department’s effectiveness g. Committing any unfair labor practices 3. Helps you to gain Competitive Advantage Among all the resources possessed by the organizations it is only Manpower or the Human resources that create the real difference. Because all organizations can have the same technology, they can possess same type of financial resources, same sort of raw material can be used to produce the goods and services but the organizational source that can really create the difference is work force of the organization. Therefore they are the main sources of innovation creativity in the organizations that can be used as a competitive advantage. In today’s competitive environment, these are the people which can create competitive Su ccessful H RM advantageous for the organizations. The world around us is changing. No longer can we „ Organization : H ig h le ve l o f p ro fita b ility, Hig her an nu al sa le s per e m p lo ye e , H igh consider our share of the “good Life” given. If we ma rke t va lue . are to maintain some semblance of that life, we as „ Em ployee : M o re em p loym e nt se c urity, individual, as organizations, as society will have to M o re jo b o p po rtun itie s, Hig h w a g e s. fight actively for it an increasingly competitive global environment. If organizations are able to „ Society : Ele vatin g the sta nda rd o f living , Stre ngthen in g eth ic a l g uid e line s. mange its work force efficiently/effectively this will be beneficial for all stakeholders (Organization, D r. M ukhtar A hm ed Employees and Society). Challenges/Issues of Managing Human Resources in present era Following are the main issues that are faced by the mangers to manage the workforce of today’s organization for achievement of objectives. a. To Attract People People will be interested to join any organization if it is providing them quality working environment, attractive benefit and opportunities to excel in future. Keeping in view the opportunities in the market, the first issues will be to attract good people for your organization. b. To Develop People Development is related to provide the opportunities for training and development to match the skills to job in particular areas. It requires careful need assessment for training and selecting effective training methods and tools. After attracting/selecting, Continuous development of workforce of the organization leads towards development of the organization. So that they will start playing their important role in the organization. Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 4Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU c. To Motivate Motivation means to influence performance of others and to redirect the efforts in desirable direction by using different motivational tools that can help in fulfilling the mission of organization. Third important issues/concern will be to keep your workforce motivated so that they should keep on delivering effectively. d. To Keep Talented People This is related to retention of workforce in organization and to take steps that can prevent undesirable detachments of talented and motivated workers from the organization. C. Discussion on the road-map of HRM For the convenience and attainment of our course objectives, we divide our course into 42 modules. Each module includes information for you to acquire and understand, issues for you to consider, and skills for you to develop. Road Map of the Course The list of topics, which we call the ‘road map’ of this course, is given below… 1. Introduction 2. Basic concepts of management and its relationships with HRM 3. Components of an organization 4. Concepts of people working together 5. Individual vs. Group behavior and Teams 6. History of HRM 7. New trends at workplace with changing environment 8. Workforce diversity, pros and cons 9. Functions of HRM 10. Relationship between HR specialist and line managers 11. Legal and ethical issues in HRM 12. Human resource planning (HRP)Human resource information system (HRIS) 14. Job analysis 15. Job analysis continued Job analysis outcomes. 16. Recruitment 17. Source of recruitment 18. Selection 19. Selection Tests 20. Selection process, continued 21. Socialization 22. Training & development 23. Maximizing learning 24. Career management 25. Performance Performance Appraisal 27. Job evaluation and pricing 28. Compensation system 29. Benefits 30. Role of money in performance of employee 31. MotivationOccupation health and safety 33. Stress management 34. Communication in organization 35. Trade union 36. Conflict and Negotiation 37. Power & politics 38. Discipline 39. HR auditing Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 5Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU 40. HR control process 41. Leadership 42. Leadership in organization 43. Employee separation 44. International dimension of HRM 45. Conclusion & Review. Key Terms Human Resource Management The staffing functions of the management process. Or the policies and practices needed to carry out the “people” or human resource aspects of a management position, including recruiting, screening, training, rewarding, and appraising etc. Manager Individuals in an organization who direct the activities of others. Member of the organization performing the management function Motivation: Motivation means to influence performance of others and to redirect the efforts in desirable direction by using different motivational tools that can help in fulfilling the mission of organization Organization A systematic arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. Competitive Advantage Any factor that allows an organization to differentiate its product or service from those of its competitors to increase market share. Stakeholders All individuals and groups that are directly or indirectly affected by an organization’s decisions Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 6Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU Lesson 2 ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT LESSON OUTLINE After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following: ƒ Concepts and Essential of Management ƒ Management and its relationship with HRM LESSON OVERVIEW This lecture discusses the management process and its role in the organization. To start with, first of all we will define the Management and then we will go through the functions of management as well as relationship between management and HRM . A. Concepts and Essential of Management i. What is Management? Management is the process of working with different resources to accomplish organizational goals. Good managers do those things both effectively and efficiently. To be effective is to achieve organizational goals. To be efficient is to achieve goals with minimum waste of resources, that is, to make the best possible use of money, time, materials, and people. Some managers fail on both criteria, or focus on one at the expense of another. The best managers maintain a clear focus on both effectiveness and efficiency. ii. The Functions of Management What can managers do to be effective and efficient? The management process, properly executed, involves a wide variety of activities including planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. These activities, described below, are Functions of Management the traditional functions of management Planning a. Planning Planning is specifying the goals to be achieved and deciding in advance the Controlling Organizing appropriate actions taken to achieve those goals. Planning activities include analyzing current situations, anticipating the future, determining Leading objectives, deciding what types of Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed activities the company will engage in, choosing corporate and business strategies, and determining the resources needed to achieve the organization's goals. The outcome of the planning process is the organization’s strategy. b. Organizing Organizing is assembling and coordinating the human, financial, physical, informational, and other resources needed to achieve goals. Activities include attracting people to the organization, specifying job responsibilities, grouping jobs into work units, marshalling and allocating resources, and creating conditions so that people and things work together to achieve maximum success. The outcome of organizing is an organizational structure. c. Leading Leading is stimulating people to be high performers. It is directing, motivating, and communicating with employees, individually and in groups. Leading involves close day-to-day contact with people, helping to guide and inspire them toward achieving team and organizational goals. Leading takes place in teams, departments, divisions, and at the tops of entire organization. The outcome of leading is a high level of motivation and commitment. Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 7Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU d. Controlling Comprehensive plans; solid organization, and outstanding leaders do not guarantee success. The fourth functional controlling, monitors progress and implements necessary changes. When managers implement their plans, they often find that things are not working out as planned. The controlling function makes sure that goals are met. It asks and answers the question, "Are our actual outcomes consistent with our goals?" It makes adjustments as needed. Specific controlling activities are to set performance standards that indicate progress toward long-term goals; to identify performance problems by comparing performance data against standards; and to take actions to correct problems. Budgeting, information systems, cost The Management Process cutting, and disciplinary action are just a few of the tools of control. Successful organizations, large and small, pay close attention to how well HUMAN PHYSICAL Planning RESOURCES RESOURCES they are doing. They take fast action when problems arise, and are able to change as needed. The outcome of controlling is an accurate ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS measurement of performance and regulation of efficiency and effectiveness INFORMATION Leading iii. Effectiveness & Efficiency FINANCIAL RESOURCES RESOURCES Productivity = Efficiency x Effectiveness Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed a. Efficiency is the ratio of Organizational Performance outputs to inputs. b. Effectiveness is the degree „ Efficiency: A measure of how well resources to which the organizations are used to achieve a goal output correspond to the “Doing Things Right” need and wants of the external environment that „ Effectiveness: A measure of the appropriateness of the goals chosen (are these include customers’ suppliers’ the right goals?), and the degree to which they competitors and regulatory are achieved agencies. “Doing the Right Things Right” iv. Manager Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed The member of the organization who participates in the management process by planning, organizing, leading, or controlling the organization's resources. v. Types of Mangers There are three types of mangers… ‘‘M Ma an na ag giin ng g iis s lliik ke e h ho olld diin ng g a a d do ov ve e iin n y yo ou ur r h ha an nd d.. IIff y yo ou u s sq qu ue ee ez ze e tto oo o ttiig gh htt,, y yo ou u k kiillll iitt.. O Op pe en n y yo ou ur r 1. Strategic Manager: Strategic managers are the senior executives h ha an nd d tto oo o m mu uc ch h,, y yo ou u lle ett iitt g go o’’ - - T T.. L La as so or rd da a of an organization and are responsible for its overall management. Major activities include developing the company's goals and plans. Typically strategic managers focus on long-term issues and emphasize the survival, growth, and overall effectiveness of the organization. 2. Tactical Managers: Tactical managers are responsible for translating the general goals and plans developed by strategic managers into objectives that are more specific and activities. These decisions, or tactics, involve both a Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 8 Controlling OrganizingHuman Resource Management (MGT501) VU shorter time horizon and the coordination of resources. Tactical managers are often called middle managers, because in large organizations they are located between the strategic and operational managers. Today's best middle managers have been called "working leaders." They focus on rela- tionships with other people and on achieving results. They are hands-on, working managers. They do not just make decisions, give orders, wait for others to produce, and then evaluate results. They get dirty, do hard work themselves, solve problems, and produce value. 3. Operational Managers: Operational managers are lower-level managers who supervise the operations of the organization. These managers often have titles such as supervisor or sales manager. They are directly involved with non-management employees, implementing the specific plans developed with tactical managers. This role is critical in the organization, because opera- tional managers are the link between management and non-management personnel. Your first management position probably will fit into this category. vi. Managers are Universal: Managers work in all types of organizations, at all levels, and in all functional areas. Large and small businesses, hospitals, schools and governments benefit from efficient and effective management. The leaders of these organizations may be called executives, administrators, or principals, but they are all managers and are responsible for the success or failure of the organization. This success or failure is reflected in a manager's career. For example, when a CEO saves a failing corporation, the board rewards this success with bonuses and stock options. When a professional football team starts losing, the owner fires the coach, not the team. vii. The Managerial Skills Managers need three basic sets of skills: technical, interpersonal, and conceptual. a. Technical Skills Managerial Skills & Managerial Level The skills that include knowledge of and Top proficiency in a certain specialized field Managers Managers need to be technically competent. They need to know how to plan, organize lead and control. Line Middle managers need this skill the most while top Managers manager will need minimum of technical skills. Line b. Interpersonal Skills/Human Skills Managers Interpersonal skills include the ability to work well with other people both individually and in a Conceptual Human Technical group. Mangers need good interpersonal skills, knowledge about human behaviors and group processes, ability to understand the feelings, attitudes and motives of others, and ability to communicate, clearly and persuasively. Human skills are very important at each level of management. Levels of Managers c. Conceptual Skills Conceptual skills include the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations, to see the organization as a whole, and to Top Managers understand the relationships among the various subunits, and to visualize how the organization fits Middle into its broader environment. Conceptual skills Managers include analytical ability, logical thinking, concept formation, and inductive reasoning. They manifest First-line themselves in things like good judgment, creativity, Managers and the ability to see the big picture. Top Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed mangers/CEO needs this type of skill the most. Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 9Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU viii. Levels of Management Three level in the organization can classify managers, particularly for traditionally structured organizations… 1. First-line managers are the lowest level of management. They’re often called supervisors 2. Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization. 3. Top managers include managers at or near the top of the organization who are responsible for making organization wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. Manager’s Roles: a. Interpersonal roles • Figurehead—duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature • Leadership—hire, train, motivate, and discipline employees • Liaison—contact outsiders who provide the manager with information. These may be individuals or groups inside or outside the organization. b. Informational roles • Monitor—collect information from organizations and institutions outside their own • Disseminator—a conduit to transmit information to organizational members • Spokesperson—represent the organization to outsiders c. Decisional roles • Entrepreneur—managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance • Disturbance handlers—take corrective action in response to unforeseen problems • Resource allocators—responsible for allocating human, physical, and monetary resources • Negotiator role—discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit All managers are mostly concerned with following activities: • Staffing • Retention • Development • Adjustment • Managing change HR Professionals’ Responsibilities: Line manager Authorized to direct the work of subordinates—they’re always someone’s boss. In addition, line managers are in charge of accomplishing the organization’s basic goals. Staff manager Authorized to assist and advise line managers in accomplishing these basic goals. HR managers are generally staff managers. B. Management and its Effective Effective Effective Effective relationship with HRM Organization HRM Organization HRM There are five basic functions that all managers perform: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. HR management involves the policies and practices needed to carry out the staffing (or people) Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 10Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU function of management. HRM can help to manage the following factors in the organization. • Productivity • Operations • Relationships • Conflict • Stress • Reward systems Effectiveness and success of entire organization depends upon effective manpower of organization. Key Terms Controlling: Specific activities are to set performance standards that indicate progress toward long-term goals Decisional roles included those of entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator activities. Disseminator is a conduit to transmit information to organizational members Disturbance handlers take corrective action in response to unforeseen problems Effectiveness: A measure of the appropriateness of the goals chosen (are these the right goals?), and the degree to which they are achieved Efficiency measure of how well resources are used to achieve a goal Entrepreneur: managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance Figurehead: duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature Informational roles included monitoring, disseminating, and spokesperson activities Interpersonal roles included figurehead, leadership, and liaison activities Leadership: hires, train, motivate, and discipline employees Leading: Leading is stimulating people to be high performers It is directing, motivating, and com- municating with employees, individually and in groups. Liaison: contact outsiders who provide the manager with information. These may be individuals or groups inside or outside the organization. Line manager: Authorized to direct the work of subordinates—they’re always someone’s boss. In addition, line managers are in charge of accomplishing the organization’s basic goals. Management: Management is the process of working with different resources to accomplish organizational goals. Manager: The member of the organization who participates in the management process by planning, organizing, leading, or controlling the organization's resources Monitor: collect information from organizations and institutions outside their own Negotiator role: discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit Organizing is assembling and coordinating the human, financial, physical, informational, and other resources needed to achieve goals. Planning: Planning is specifying the goals to be achieved and deciding in advances the appropriate actions taken to achieve those goals. Resource allocators: responsible for allocating human, physical, and monetary resources Spokesperson: represent the organization to outsiders Staff manager: Authorized to assist and advise line managers in accomplishing these basic goals. Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 11Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU Lesson 3 ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the concepts about: ƒ Organization ƒ Components of an Organization LESSON OVERVIEW This lecture discusses the organization, its types, and the components of organization. An organization is a managed system designed and operated to achieve a specific set of objectives. We will also discuss the components of an organization. Remember Managers operate in organizations. A. Organization An organization is not a random group of people who come together by chance. They consciously and formally establish it to accomplish certain goals that its members would be unable to reach What is an Organization? What is an Organization? individually. A manager's job is to achieve high performance relative to the organization's objectives. For example, a business organization has objectives to (1) make a profit (2) furnish its customers with goods and services; (3) provide an income for its employees; and (4) increase the level of satisfaction for everyone involved. An organization is a social entity, which is goal orients and deliberately structured. Organizations 7 are not functioning in isolated but are linked to external dynamic environment. Virtually all organization combines (1) Raw material, (2) Capital and (3) labor & knowledge to produce Goods and Services. Types of organization a) Formal: The part of the organization that has legitimacy and official recognition. b) Informal: The unofficial part of the organization. B. Components of Organization: 1. Task 2. People 3. Structure 4. Technology 1. Task: This component can be defined as a mission or purpose of the existence of organization. Every organization is having a purpose of Organization’s basic systems view existence that is accomplished by producing certain goods and services as an output, which is termed as task. Environment 2. People: The workforce or human part of organization that performs different INPUTS operations in the organization. TRANS- OUTPUTS Human, physical, Products financial, and FORMATION 3. Structure: Structure is the basic information and PROCESS resources Services arrangement of people in the organization. 4. Technology: The intellectual and Feedback loops mechanical processes used by an organization to transform inputs into products or services. Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 12Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU Systematic Approach to Management: A system is an entity with a purpose that has interdependent parts. The systems approach suggests viewing the organization as a system. All systems have four basic characteristics: 1) they operate within an environment; 2) they are composed of building blocks called elements, components, or subsystems; 3) they have a central purpose against which the organization’s efforts and subsystems can be evaluated; and 4) essential systems thinking places focus on the interrelatedness among the subsystems and its environment. Systematic management emphasized internal operations because managers were concerned primarily with meeting the explosive growth in demand brought about by the Industrial Revolution. In addition, managers were free to focus on internal issues of efficiency, in part because the government did not constrain business practices significantly. Finally, labor was poorly organized. As a result, many managers were oriented more toward things than toward people. The influence of the systematic management approach is clear in the following description of one organization's attempt to control its workers. Open versus Closed Systems A closed system does not interact with the outside environment. Although few systems actually take this form, some of the classical approaches treated organizations as closed systems. The assumption was that if managers improve internal processes, the organization would succeed. Clearly, however, all organizations are open systems, dependent on inputs from the outside world, such as raw materials, human resources, and capital, and output to the outside world that meet the market's needs for goods and services. Above figure illustrates the open-system perspective. The organizational system requires inputs, which the organization transforms into outputs, which are received by the external environment. The environment reacts to these outputs through a feedback loop, which then becomes an input for the next cycle of the system. The process continues to repeat itself for the life of the system. As above Figure shows, a system is a set of interdependent parts that processes inputs (such as raw materials) into outputs (products). Business inputs typically known as resources including human, physical, financial etc resources. Most businesses use a variety of human, financial, physical, and informational resources. Manager’s function is to transform these resources into the outputs of the business. Goods and services are the outputs of the business. Some of the major components of the external environment include customers, competitors, suppliers, and investors. Efficiency and Effectiveness The closed-system focus of the classical theorists emphasized the internal efficiency of the organization; that is, these perspectives addressed only improvements to the transformation process. Efficiency is the ratio of outputs to inputs. Systems theory highlights another important dimension for managers: effectiveness. Effectiveness is the degree to which the organization's outputs correspond to the needs and wants of the external environment. The external environment includes groups such as customers, suppliers, competitors, and regulatory agencies. Even a firm that has mastered Taylor's scientific management techniques and become extremely efficient is vulnerable if, it does not consider the effectiveness of its output Subsystem Systems theory also emphasizes that an organization is one level in a series of subsystems. For instance, Pakistan Air force is a subsystem of our defense industry and the flight crews are a subsystem of Pakistan Air force. Again, systems theory points out that each subsystem is a component of the whole and is interdependent with other subsystems. Synergy Systems theory also popularized the concept of synergy, which states that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. For example, 3M have applied its core technology of adhesives to many products, from industrial sealers to Post-it notes. 3M has not had to start from scratch with each product; its adhesives expertise provides synergies across products. Human Relation Approach Another approach to management, human relations, developed during the early 1930s. This approach aimed Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 13Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU at understanding how psychological and social processes interact work situation to influence performance. Human relations were the first major approach to emphasize informal work relationships and worker satisfaction. This approach owes much to other major schools of thought. The Hawthorne Studies Western Electric Company, a manufacturer of communications equipment, hired a team of Harvard researchers led by Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger. They were to investigate the influence of physical working conditions on workers' productivity and efficiency in one of the company's factories outside Chicago. This research project, known as the Hawthorne Studies provided some of the most interesting and controversial results in the history of management. The Hawthorne Studies were a series of experiments conducted from 1924 to 1932. During the first stage of the project (the Illumination Experiments), various working conditions, particularly the lighting in the factory, were altered to determine the effects of these changes on productivity. The researchers found no systematic relationship between the factory lighting and production levels. In some cases, productivity continued to increase even when the illumination was reduced to the level of moonlight. The researchers concluded that the workers performed and reacted differently because the researchers were observing them. This reaction is known as the Hawthorne Effect. This conclusion led the researchers to believe productivity may be affected more by psychological and social factors than by physical or objective influences. With this thought in mind, they initiated the other four stages of the project. During these stages, the researchers performed various work group experiments and had extensive interviews with employees. Mayo and his team eventually concluded that the informal work group influenced productivity and employee behavior. The Human Relations Viewpoint Human relations proponents argued that managers should stress primarily employee welfare, motivation, and communication. They believed social needs had precedence over economic needs. Therefore, management must gain the cooperation of the group and promote job satisfaction and group norms consistent with the goals of the organization. Another noted contributor to the field of human relations was Abraham Maslow. In 1943, Maslow suggested that humans have five levels of needs. The most basic needs are the physical needs for food, water, and shelter; the most advanced need is for self-actualization, or personal fulfillment. Maslow argued that people try to satisfy their lower level needs and then progress upward to the higher-level needs. Managers can facilitate this process and achieve organizational goals by removing obstacles and encouraging behaviors that satisfy people's needs and organizational goals simultaneously. Although the human relations approach generated research into leadership, job attitudes, and group dynamics, it drew heavy criticism. Critics believed the philosophy, while scientific management overemphasized the economic and formal aspects of the workplace; human relations ignored the more rational side of the worker and the important characteristics of the formal organization. However, human relations were a significant step in the development of management thought, because it prompted managers and researchers to consider the psychological and social factors that influence performance. The Challenges of today’s organization Organizations are facing different challenges in Technology today’s environment like: Technology Diverse Globalization Only 20 years ago, few workers used fax machines Workforce or e-mail, and computers occupied entire rooms, Today’s not desktops. Advances in information and organizations communication technology have permanently Multiple Rapid altered the workplace by changing the way Stakeholders Changes information is created, stored, used, and shared. Diverse Workforce Responsiveness 30 A diverse workforce refers to two or more groups, Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 14Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU each of whose members are identifiable and distinguishable based on demographic or other characteristics like gender, age group, education etc. Several barriers in dealing with diversity include stereotyping, prejudice, ethnocentrism, discrimination, tokenism, and gender-role stereotypes. Multiple Stakeholders Stakeholders are those who have interests in the organization. Multiple stakeholders for an organization include the customers, suppliers, consumers, investors, lenders, etc. Responsiveness An organization has to be responsive to the challenges and threats that it faces from within the internal or external environment. It requires quick responsiveness to meet the challenges and opportunities arising out of these changes. Rapid Changes Due to changing internal and external environment, rapid changes in the organization occur. Organization has to be flexible to adjust to those changes. Globalization Managers are faced with a myriad of challenges due to an array of environmental factors when doing business abroad. These managers must effectively plan, organize, lead, control, and manage cultural differences to be successful globally. Key Terms Diverse Workforce: A diverse workforce refers to two or more groups, each of whose members are identifiable and distinguishable Effectiveness: A measure of the appropriateness of the goals chosen (are these the right goals?), and the degree to which they are achieved Efficiency: Efficiency is the ratio of outputs to inputs Organization: Organization is a managed system designed and operated to achieve a specific set of objectives. Stakeholders: Stakeholders are those who have interests in the organization Structure: Structure is the basic arrangement of people in the organization. Synergy: This concept states that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts System: A system is an entity with a purpose that has interdependent parts Task: This component can be defined as a mission or purpose of the existence of organization Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 15Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU Lesson 4 PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand: A. Concepts of people working together B. Organizations and human behavior LESSON OVERVIEW As we discussed in the earlier lectures that human resource management is the management of human as important resources of organization. Each human is different from one another. This difference is due to the difference of behavior of each employee. In order to manage the humans well, managers need to know the behavior of people in order to take the best out of them. Today we will be discussing some basic concepts of the Organizational Behavior. We will have detail discussion on individual behaviors and the factors influencing the individual behavior. A. Concepts of people working together Why to work in organizations? People can be more productive when working in groups than when working alone. What Managers can do and what Managers cannot do while managing people, organizations and society is the myths of management. People Working Together Basic purpose of the working or existence of organization is: • Link individuals into relationships • Allocate the tasks to fulfill the objective • Allocate authority to perform individual tasks • Coordinate the objectives and activities of separate units • Facilitate the flow of work Organizational Behavior • OB is concerned specifically with the actions of people at work. Managers need to develop their interpersonal or people skills if they are going to be effective in their jobs. Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization, and then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively. Specifically, OB focuses on how to improve productivity, reduce absenteeism and turnover, and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction. We all hold generalizations about the behavior of people. Some of our generalizations may provide valid insights into human behavior, but many are erroneous. Organizational behavior uses systematic study to improve predictions of behavior that would be made from intuition alone. Yet, because people are different, we need to look at OB in a contingency framework, using situational variables to moderate cause-effect relationships. • OB addresses some issues that are not obvious, such as informal elements. It offers both challenges and opportunities for managers. It recognizes differences and helps managers to see the value of workforce diversity and practices that may need to change when managing in different situation and countries. It can help improve quality and employee productivity by showing managers how to empower their people as well as how to design and implement change programs. It offers specific insights to improve a manager’s people skills. In times of rapid and ongoing change, faced by most managers today, OB can help managers cope in a world of “temporariness” and learn ways to stimulate innovation. Finally, OB can offer managers guidance in creating an ethically healthy work environment. Focus of Organizational Behavior OB looks at individual behavior, which includes personality, perception, learning, and motivation. It is also concerned with group behaviors specifically in areas of norms roles, team building, conflicts and negotiation. Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 16Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU The Goals of Organizational Behavior 1. The emphasis will be on employee productivity, reduce absenteeism, and turnover. 2. Organizational citizenship—a fourth type of behavior becoming important in determining employee performance. 3. Attitudes are evaluative statements—favorable or unfavorable—concerning objects, people, or events. 4. An attitude is made-up of three components: cognition, affect, and behavior. 5. The cognitive component consists of a Components of Attit Components of Attitudes udes person’s beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person. 6. The affective component of an attitude is the „ Cognitive thinking emotional, or feeling, segment of an attitude. 7. The behavioral component of an attitude „ Affective feeling refers to an intention to behave in a certain way. „ Behavioral doing 8. The three most important job-related attitudes are job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Contribution of OB to effectiveness of Organization: Wouldn’t a Manager’s job be easier if he or she could explain and predict behavior? This is the focus of organizational behavior (OB), the study of the actions of people at work. The goal of OB is to explain and predict behavior of employees at work. Understand OB focuses on both individual behavior and organizational group behavior. Managers must understand events behavior in both the formal and informal components of an organization. Managers are particularly concerned with three types of Organizational employee behaviors: productivity, absenteeism, Behavior and turnover. A fourth type of behavior, Research organizational citizenship, is emerging as a vital concern. Predict Influence organizational Managers must also be attentive to employee organizational attitudes. Attitudes are value statements, either events events favorable or unfavorable, concerning people, events, or objects. Attitudes of special interest to managers pertain to those related to job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Can you think of ways in which your personal attitudes (values) have impact on your behavior at work? Sometimes an individual experiences an inconsistency between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Are happy workers productive workers? The answer to this question is not as simple as it might appear. Review the relationship between employee happiness and productivity and see what you think. Many researchers now believe that managers should direct their attention primarily to what might help employees become more productive. Five specific personality traits have proven most powerful in explaining individual behavior in organizations. These are locus of control, Machiavellians, self-esteem, self-monitoring, and risk propensity. Review these traits so you can be prepared to predict practical work-related behaviors. Sometimes different people will hear or witnesses the same situations yet interpret them differently. This happens because of differences in perception. Perception is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment. Managers need to recognize that employees react to perceptions, not to reality (if there is such a thing as “reality”). Thus, managers must pay Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 17Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU close attention to how employees perceive both their jobs and management practices. We constantly learn from our experiences. Sometimes we learn from rewards and punishments that are a consequence of our behavior. We learn to behave in order to get something we want or to avoid something we do not want. This is called operative conditioning. An extension of operant conditioning is social learning theory. Social learning theory emphasizes that we can learn through observation as well as direct experience. Managers can influence an employees learning through the rewards they allocate and the examples they set. Does this advice seem equally applicable to parenting? The behavior of individuals in groups is not the same as the sum total of all of the individuals’ behavior. Individuals often act differently in groups than when they are alone. This means that managers must also understand the elements of group behavior. This chapter describes the basic concepts of group behavior. It is clear that the ability to understand and predict employee behavior is a powerful tool for managers. To illustrate, a movie director must often “get into the mindset” of characters in a script. Understanding a character’s perceptions and motivation can help the director guide actors toward an award-winning performance. Managers, too, can serve as a guide and coach, helping employees meet organizational goals. B. Organizations and human behavior Variables Influencing the Individual Human Behaviors: In simple word behavior is the function of Person and Environment in which he/she is working. The following two factors mainly influence the individual behaviors… 1. The Persons 2. The Environment of the Organization The Person The PersonsNo single measure of individual • Skills & abilities The Environment differences can provide a complete understanding of • Personality • Organization an individual or predict all the behaviors of an • Perceptions • Work group individual. It is therefore more useful to consider a • Attitudes •Job variety of differences that explain aspects of •Values • Personal life employee behavior. These can be •Ethics • Skills & Abilities • Personality Behavior • Perceptions B = B = ff(P, (P,E E) ) • Attitudes • Values • Ethics Skills & Abilities: Mental and physical capacities to perform various tasks. This comes from knowledge, learning, and experiences. Personality: Research has shown five major dimensions to be consistent components of personality. The Big Five personality dimensions are conscientiousness, Personality extroversion/introversion, and openness to experience, Attitudes Self-concept emotional stability, and agreeableness. Emotions Internal Behavior Abilities Conscientiousness - defined as being reliable and processes Values dependable, being careful and organized, and being a person who plans - is the dimension most strongly correlated to job performance. Extroversion/introversion refers to the degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, assertive, active, and ambitious. Openness to experience is the degree to which someone is imaginative, broad-minded, curious, and seeks new experiences. Emotional stability is the degree to which someone is anxious, depressed, angry, and insecure. Agreeableness refers to the degree to Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 18Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU which a person is courteous, likable, good-natured, and flexible. Managers must remember that the relevance of any personality dimension depends on the situation, the type of job, and the level at which a person is working. Four personality traits that have been consistently related to work-related behavior are locus of control, Type-A behavior, self-monitoring, and Machiavellianism. Locus of control indicates an individual's sense of control over his/her life, the environment, and external events. Those with an internal locus of control believe that their actions affect what happens to them, while those with an external locus of control believe that outside factors affect what happens to them. People who exhibit Type-A behavior try to do more in less and less time in an apparently tireless pursuit of everything. Type-A people feel great time urgency, are very competitive, try to do many things at once, and are hostile. Self-monitoring, the fourth personality trait is the degree to which people are capable of reading and using cues from the environment to determine their own behavior. Strong self-monitoring skills can help managers and employees read environmental and individual cues quickly and accurately and adjust behavior accordingly. People with elements of a Machiavellian personality put self-interest above the group's interests and manipulate others for personal gain. Perceptions: We use the mental process of perception to pay attention selectively to some stimuli and cues in our environment. There are two types of perception. Social perception process is the process of gathering, selecting, and interpreting information about how we view themselves and others. In contrast, physical perception focuses on gathering and interpreting information about physical objects rather than people. Closure permits us to interpret a stimulus by filling in missing information based on our experiences and assumption. Attitudes: Attitudes are comprised of feelings, beliefs, and behaviors. One important work-related attitude is job satisfaction, the general attitude that people have toward their jobs. Main five factors contribute to job satisfaction: pay; the job itself; promotion opportunities; the supervisor; and relations with co-workers. The relationship between job satisfaction and work performance is complex and influenced by multiple organizational and personal factors. Managers have more influence over job satisfaction than any other individual difference discussed in this chapter. Values: Values are long-lasting beliefs about what is important, worthwhile, and desirable. A person's value system is the way he/she organizes and prioritizes values. Terminal values are goals for behavior or for a certain result that someone wants to achieve. Instrumental values are the means—the instruments—that people believe they should use to attain their goals. Cultural values can affect personal valuesETHICS. A key work-related value is the employee's ethics. Those who hold a relativist's view of ethics believe that what is right or wrong depends on the situation or culture. Those with a Universalist’s view believe that ethical standards should be applied consistently in all situations and cultures. Value conflict occurs when there is disagreement among values that an individual holds or between individual and organizational values. To avoid value conflict, managers should work toward integrating and fitting the values of different employees with the values of the organization. The Environment Of Organization • Work group • Job • Personal life Inside the organization, the work group or the relationship between the group members can affect the individual behavior. Organizational culture can also have impact on the individual behavior. Cultural values indicate what a cultural group considers important, worthwhile, and desirable. People share the values of their culture, which form the basis for individual value systems composed of terminal values and instrumental values. A key work-related value is a person's ethics. Value systems affect ethical behavior in organizations. Managers must be most concerned with interpersonal and person-organization value conflicts. Interpersonal value conflicts occur when two or more people have opposing values, which can Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 19Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU prevent co-workers from working together effectively. Person-organization value conflicts occur when someone's values conflict with the organization's culture, causing frustration and possibly disrupting personal performance. The factors that influence job satisfaction are pay; the job itself; promotion opportunities; supervisors; and co-workers. The link between job satisfaction and work performance is complex and influenced by multiple organizational and personal factors. The link appears to be stronger for professionals than for employees at higher organizational levels. The Basic OB Model The basic OB model suggests study of the organization at following three levels: 1. Organization 2. Group 3. Individual The purpose of understanding organizations from all three levels (individual, group, and organization) is to develop a well-rounded view that will prepare us for the challenges that managers face in today's business environment. Focusing on the individual level allows us to understand individual differences, perception, motivation, and learning. Focusing on the group level shows us how more than two people can work together in groups or teams within an organization. Focusing on the organization level allows us to see the effects of the organizational environment, technology, strategy, structure, and culture. Key Terms Organizational Behavior: OB is concerned specifically with the actions of people at work Cognitive component: The cognitive component consists of a person’s beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person. Skills & Abilities: Mental and physical capacities to perform various tasks. This comes from knowledge, learning, and experiences. Personality: The unique combination of psychological traits that describes a person. OR behaviors or trends that influence other people. Perceptions: Perception is the mental process to pay attention selectively to some stimuli and cues in our environment. Attitudes: Attitudes are comprised of feelings, beliefs, and behaviors. Values: Basic convictions about what is right and wrong. Ethics: Rules and principles that define right and wrong conduct. Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 20

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