Lecture notes Financial Accounting

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FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING B.Com/BBA II Semester CORE COURSE (2011 ADMISSION ONWARDS) UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Calicut University, P.O. Malappuram, Kerala, India-673 635 307     School of Distance Education    UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE B.Com/BBA II SEMETER FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING Prepared by: Udaya Kumar.O.K. Associate Professor, Dept. of Commerce, Govt. College Madappally. Scrutinised by: Dr. K. Venugopalan Associate Professor, Dept. of Commerce, Govt. College Madappally. Layout & Settings: Computer Section, SDE © Reserved Financial Accounting   2       School of Distance Education    CONTENTS PAGES               Module ‐ I           05  ‐   13                Module ‐2            14  ‐   71                Module ‐3           72  ‐   86               Module –4            87  ‐115                Module ‐5          116 ‐ 133  Financial Accounting   3       School of Distance Education    Financial Accounting   4       School of Distance Education                                    Module 1 INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING Meaning and Definition of Accounting Accounting has rightly been termed as the language of the business. It records, classifies, analyses and communicates all the business transactions that have taken place during a particular period. It is a system of recording and reporting business transactions in financial terms, to interested parties. According to American Institute of Certified Public Accounts “Accounting is the art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner in terms of money, transactions and events which are , in part at least, of a financial character and interpreting the results there of”. Thus accounting is the art of recording, classifying, summarizing, analyzing and interpreting the financial transactions and communicating the results thereof to the interested person. Features or characteristics or nature of Accounting Following are the features of accounting:- (1) Accounting is an art. (2) Accounting is a science. (3) Recording of business transactions. (4) Classifying business transactions. (5) Summarizing the classified data (6) Analysis and interpret the summarized data (7) Communicating information to the interested parties. (8) Records transaction and events which are financial character. Objectives of Accounting or functions of accounting The following are the main objectives: 1. To keep systematic records. 2. To ascertain the operational profit or loss. 3. To ascertain the financial position of the business. 4. To make information available to various users. 5. To protect business properties. 6. To facilitate rational decision making. 7. To ascertain the cost of production and selling price. 8. To control expenditure of business. 9. To satisfy the requirements of law. 10.To calculate the amount due to and due from others. Importance of accounting (Uses or advantages) Accounting brings the following advantages: Financial Accounting   5       School of Distance Education    1. It serves as a historical record. 2. It facilitates the preparation of financial statements. 3. It supplies information to interested persons 4. It helps the management in taking important business decisions. 5. It facilitates comparative study of the performance of business over different periods. 6. It provides evidence in case of disputes. 7. It helps to forecast the future. 8. It provides information for judging the efficiency of business 9. It is useful in getting loans. 10. It helps in valuation of good will. 11. It helps in controlling expenses. 12. It helps in controlling employees. 13. It helps in prevention and detection of errors and frauds. Scope of Financial accounting Following activities are included within the framework of financial accounting: (1) Book-keeping (2) Financial Statements (3) Analysis and interpretation of financial statements. (4) Financial reporting (5) Accounting principles (6) Accounting standards. Limitations of Accounting Accounting suffers from the following limitations: 1. It is historical in nature. 2. Transactions of non-monetary nature will not be recorded in accounting. 3. Information recorded in accounts is influenced by the personal judgment of the accountant. 4. In accounting valueless assets are also shown. 5. In accounting price changes are not considered. 6. It is not an exact science. 7. Use of different accounting methods reduces the reliability of accounts. 8. Account records show only actual cost figures. Accounting Concepts or principles Accounting concepts are those assumptions, principles or conditions on which the accounting system is based. Principles are set of rules to be followed in accounting. The following are important accounting concepts or principles : Financial Accounting   6       School of Distance Education    1. Business Entity Concepts: According to these concepts, a business is treated as separate Entity distinct from its owner. This means that in accounting the business and owner must be treated separately. Thus, when one person invests amount in to the business, it will be deemed to the liability of the business. The concept of separate entity is applicable to all form of business. 2. Going concern concepts: According to this, it is assumed that business will exist for a long time. There is no intention t o liquidate the business in the immediate future. 3. Money measurement concepts: Accounting records only those transactions which are expressed in monetary terms. Transactions which cannot be expressed in money do not find place in the books of accounts. 4. Cost Concepts: According to this concept, all transactions are recorded in the books of accounts at actual price involved. 5. Dual aspect Concepts: according to this concept, every transaction has two aspects. These two aspects are receiving aspect and giving aspect. These two aspects have to be recorded. The basis of this principle is that for every debit, there is an equal and corresponding credit. 6. Realization Concept: According to this principle revenue is said to be realized when goods or services are sold to be a customer. It emphasizes the fact that the mere receipt of an order for goods or services cannot be taken for the realization of revenue. So advanced payment received from a customer cannot be considered as revenue earned. 7. Matching Concept: According to this concept, cost of a business of a particular period is compared with the revenue of that period in order to ascertain net profit or net loss. 8. Accounting period Concept: According to this assumption, the life of a business is divided in to different periods for preparing financial statements. Generally business concern adopt twelve months period for measuring the income of the concern. This time interval is known as accounting period. Accounting conventions Accounting conventions are the customs and traditions which guide the accountant while preparing accounting statements. Some of the accounting conventions are:- (1) Convention of consistency: - This convention follows that the basis followed in several accounting periods should be consistent. This means the methods adopted in one accounting year should not be changed in another year. Then only comparison of results is possible. (2) Convention of conservatism: - This is a convention of playing safe, which is followed while preparing the financial statements. The idea of this convention is to consider all possible losses and to ignore all probable profits. (3) Convention of Materiality: - Materiality means relevance or importance or significance. It is generally accepted in the accounting circle that the accounting statements and records must reveal all material facts. Financial Accounting   7       School of Distance Education    (4) Convention of full disclosure: - The accounting convention of full disclosure implies that accounts must be honestly prepared and all material information must be disclosed therein. Accounting standards Accounting standards are considered as a guide for maintaining and preparing accounts. They are the rules that ensure uniformity of preparation, presentation and reporting of accounting information. Accounting standards may be defined as the accounting principles and rules which are to be followed for various accounting treatments while preparing financial statements on uniform basis and which will reveal the same meaning to all the interested groups. Need for accounting standards (Objects of Accounting standards): The need for accounting standards arises from limitations of financial statements. The need for accounting standards arises due to the following reasons. 1. To communicate uniform results to external users as well as internal users for decision making. 2. To serve as a tools for information systems catering the needs of management, owners , creditors , Government etc. 3. To facilitate inter firm, intra firm comparison. 4. To make the financial statement more reliable comparable and understandable. Accounting standard Board of India ( ASB) The institute of Chartered Accountant of India, set up, Accounting Standard Board. The primary duty of ASB is to formulate the accounting standard for India. During the formulation of accounting standards, the ASB considered the applicable laws, usage, customs and the business environment existing in our country. The ASB will give due consideration to International Accounting Standards (IASs) issued by the International Accounting Standard Committee and tries to integrate them to the extent possible. The body consists of the following members: Company Law Board, CBDT, Central Board of Excise and Customs, SEBI, Comptroller and Auditor General of accounts, UGC, Educational and Professional institutions, and councils of the institutes and representatives of Industry. The following are the objectives and functions of the ASB: (1) To suggest areas in which accounting standards need to be developed. (2) To formulate accounting standards. (3) To review the accounting standards at periodical intervals. (4) To provide guidance on accounting standards. (5) To carry out other functions relating to accounting standards. Accounting Standards in India ASB of India has issued 32 accounting standards so far. They are as follows Financial Accounting   8       School of Distance Education    As1: Disclosure of accounting policies As2: Valuation of inventories As3: Cash flow statements As4: Contingencies and events occurring after the B/S date As5: Prior period and extra ordinary items and change in accounting policies As6: Depreciation accounting As7: Accounting for construction contracts As8: Accounting for research and development As9: Revenue recognition As10: Accounting for fixed assets As11: Accounting for effects of changes in foreign exchange rates As12: Accounting for govt. grants As13: Accounting for investments As14: Accounting for amalgamation As15; Accounting for retirement benefits in the financial statements of employers As16: Borrowing cost As17: Segment reporting As18: Related party disclosures As19: Leases As20: Earning per share As21: Consolidated financial statement As22: Taxes on income As23: Accounting for investment in associates in consolidated financial statement As24: Discontinuing operations As25: Interim financial reporting As26: Intangible assets As27: Financial reporting of interest in joint ventures As28: Impairment of assets. As29: Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets As30: Financial instruments-recognition and measurements As31: Financial instruments-presentation As32: Financial instruments disclosure Accounting process Accounting process begins when a financial transactions takes place. Firstly day to day transactions are recorded in the journal or subsidiary books. From the journal the transactions move further to ledger. Here entries are posted in the appropriate accounts, and then accounts are balanced to get the effect of debit and credit. These balance moves to a statement called trial balance. From the trial balance, we can prepare trading and profit and loss accounts and balance sheet. The different stages through which the transactions move from journal to final accounts are collectively known as accounting cycles or accounting process. Financial Accounting   9       School of Distance Education    Journal and ledger A book of original entry in which transactions are recorded in the order of their occurrence is called journal. Journal is a primary record of business transactions. Recording of transactions in the journal is known as journalizing and recorded transactions are called journal entries Ledger is a book, which contains various accounts it is said to be secondary books of account. It is a collection of all accounts debited or credited in journal. Ledger is defined as,” a book in which all the personal, real, and nominal accounts of business are kept for permanent records so that up to date statement of an account can be easily known”. Rules of accounting Accounts are classified in to three namely real accounts, personal accounts and nominal accounts. There are separate rules for each type of accounts they are as follows 1. Real accounts An account relating to an asset or property is called real account.cash, furniture, plant and machinery etc are examples of real accounts the debit, credit rule applicable to real account is: Debit what comes in Credit what goes out 2. Personal accounts It includes the account of person with whom the business deals. These accounts are classified in to three categories a) Natural personal accounts –the term natural persons mean persons who are creation of god. For e.g.;-Raja’s accounts, Guptha’s accounts etc b) Artificial personal accounts-these accounts includes accounts of corporate bodies or institutions b) Representative personal account-these are accounts which represents certain person or group of persons. For example salary due, rent outstanding etc the rule of personal account is Debit the receiver Credit the giver 3) Nominal accounts Accounts relating to expenses and losses and incomes and gains are called nominal accounts. Salary accounts, commission account etc are examples. Debit all expenses and losses Credit all incomes and gains Financial Accounting   10       School of Distance Education    Posting The term posting means transferring the debit and credit items from the journal to their respective accounts in the ledger. It is the process of recording the transaction from journal to ledger. The following rules should be observed while posting transactions in the ledger from the journal: a) separate account should be opened in the ledger for posting transactions relating to different accounts recorded in the journal b) The concerned account, which has been debited in the journal should also be debited in the ledger c) The concerned account, which has been credited in the journal should also be credited in the ledger SUB-DIVISION OF JOURNAL The journal is sub-divided into many subsidiary books called special journals. The journal in which transaction of a similar nature is recorded is known as special journal or day book. The special journals are ruled differently on the basis of the nature of transactions to be recorded. Transactions that cannot be recorded in any of the special journals are recorded in a journal called journal proper or miscellaneous journal. Advantages of Special Journals 1. Division of work: since there are so many subsidiary books, the accounting work may be divided amongst a number of clerks. 2. Specialization: when the same work is allotted to a period of time he acquires full knowledge of it and becomes efficient thus the accounting works will be done more efficiently. 3. Save in time: the trader can save time and labor by avoiding repetitions 4. Availability of information: since separate subsidiary book is kept for each class of transactions, information relating to that will be readily available. 5. Facility in checking: checking is facilitated in subsidiary books which will prevent errors and frauds Important special journals The journal is sub divided in to the following subsidiary books 1. CASH BOOK: For recording all cash transactions 2. PURCHASES BOOK: For recording credit purchases of goods Financial Accounting   11       School of Distance Education    3. SALES BOOK: For recording credit sales 4. PURCHASE RETURNS BOOKS. For recording the goods returned by the trader to the suppliers 5. SALES RETURNS BOOK: For recording the goods returned to the trader by his customer 6. BILLS RECIEVABLE BOOKS: For recording all bills received by the trader from his customer 7. BILLS PAYABLE BOOK: For recording all the bills given (accepted)to suppliers 8. JOURNAL PROPER: For all transactions that do not find a place in any of the above books TRIAL BALANCE Trial balance is a statement containing the various ledger balances on a particular date. This statement is prepared to check the correctness of ledger posting and balancing of accounts. If the total of the debit balances is equal to the credit balances. It is implied that posting and balancing of accounts are correct Features of trial balance 1. It is prepared on a specific date 2. It is not a part of double entry and not an account 3. It is a statement of balance of all accounts or totals of ledger accounts 4. Total of the debit and credit columns of the trial balance must tally 5. If the debit and credit columns are equal it is presumed that accounts are arithmetically accurate 6. Difference in the debit and credit columns indicate that some mistakes have been committed 7. Tallying of trial balance is not a conclusive proof of accuracy of books of accounts; it serves to prove only the arithmetical accuracy of books Objectives of trial balance The following are the objectives of preparing trial; balance 1. To ascertain the arithmetical accuracy of the ledger accounts 2. To help in locating errors 3. To help in the preparation of final accounts Financial Accounting   12       School of Distance Education    Specimen of trial balance is given below Trial Balance as on ………. Account Debit Credit Name of the account code Amount(Rs) Amount(Rs) Cash in hand Xxx Cash at bank Xxx Sundry debtors Xxx Sundry creditors Xxx Sales Xxx Sales returns Xxx Purchases Xxx Purchase returns xxx Drawing xxx Capital xxx Bills receivable xxx Bills payable xxx Stock of goods xxx Bank loan/overdraft Xxx Carriage inwards xxx Carriage outwards xxx Rent paid xxx Interest paid xxx Salary paid xxx Discount received Xxx Commission received xxx Plant and machinery xxx Buildings xxx Furniture xxx Vehicles xxx Goodwill xxx Provisions Xxx Outstanding expenses xxx Prepaid expenses xxx Accrued income xxx Pre received income Xxx Reserve accounts Xxx Advance from customers xxx XXXX xxxx Financial Accounting   13       School of Distance Education    Module 2 CAPITAL AND REVENUE All accounting items are broadly classified into capital and revenue items. Capital items are further classified into capital expenditure and capital receipts similarly all revenue items are sub divided revenue expenditure and revenue receipts. Classification of income Income can be classified into two categories namely capital income and revenue income. Capital income: The term capital income means an income which does not grow out of or pertain to the running of the business proper. It is synonymous to the term capital gain. For e.g.: if a building costing20000 purchased by a business for its use is sold for Rs 25000,Rs 5000 will be taken as capital profit. Capital profit transferred to the capital reserve and is shown in the balance sheet on the liabilities side. Revenue income: Revenue income means an income, which arises out of and in the course of the regular business transactions of a concern. For eg: in the course of ramming the business, the profit is made on sales of goods, income is received from letting out the business property, dividend received on business investment etc is revenue income. Classification of expenditure Expenditure can be classified into three categories. 1. Capital expenditure: It means an expenditure, which has been incurred for the purpose of obtaining a long term advantage. It consists of expenditure the benefit of which is not fully consumed in one accounting period, but spreads over several accounting periods. It is nonrecurring in nature. In short expenditure incurred for increasing earning capacity of a business is known as capital expenditure. Examples: purchase of plant and machinery, expenses in connection with acquisition of asset like duty freight, installation charges etc.It is shown on the asset side of the balance sheet. 2. Revenue expenditure: An expenditure that arises out of and in the course of regular business transactions of a concern is termed as revenue expenditure. It includes the money spend on day to day operations of business for current and immediate use. It is repetitive in nature. Its benefit will be realized in the current year itself. Wages, legal expenses, transport charges, freight and carriage etc are some of the revenue expenses. it is charged to the trading and profit and loss account. 3. Deferred revenue expenditure: It is that class of revenue expenditure which is incurred during a particular year but benefit of which may extend to a number of years. The whole amount of such expenditure cannot be treated as the expenditure of the year in which it is incurred. Therefore a portion of such expenditure is charged Financial Accounting   14       School of Distance Education    every year to profit and loss account and remaining portion is shown on the asset side of the balance sheet. Classification of receipts: It can be classified into two categories. 1. Capital receipts: it consists of payments made by the shareholders or proprietor of the business or receipts from the sale of fixed assets. Sale of machinery or furniture is capital receipt. 2. Revenue receipt: all incomes or receipts that are received by a business in the ordinary conduct of activities are called revenue receipts. Sale of goods, interest and rent received etc are examples. FINAL ACCOUNTS OF A SOLE TRADER  Final account means accounts. Which are prepared at the final stage to give the financial position of the business It consists of trading account profit and loss account and balance sheet. TRADING ACCOUNT Trading account gives the overall result of trading, that is purchasing and selling of goods. The result of trading accounting may be gross profit or gross loss. If the sale proceeds exceed the cost of goods sold the difference is gross profit. Opening stock, purchases, direct expenses, are debited and sales and closing stock are credited to this account. Specimen of Trading account is given below: Trading account for the year ended……….. To opening stock   xxx  By Sales                         xxxx    To purchases                 xxxx       Less returns                    xx      Less returns                   xxx                                           ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐   xxxx                                       ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐   xxxx   By closing stock    xxx   To Direct expenses:     By gross loss ( if loss)    xxx      Carriage inward   xxx        Freight   xxx      Octroi   xxx   xxx      Dock dues      Excise duty   xxx      Royalty   xxx      Motive power    xx     Coal, gas, water   xxx     Factory expenses    xxx  To Gross Profit (if profit)   xxx                                                                     xxxxx  xxxxx         Financial Accounting   15       School of Distance Education    PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT    Profit and loss account is prepared to ascertain the net profit or net loss of the business for  an accounting period. The amount of gross profit is shown on the credit side. Indirect expenses,  operating expenses and losses are shown on the debit side of this account and all incomes and gains  are shown on the credit side .If credit side is more than debit side, the difference is net profit.                 A Specimen of Profit and Loss account is given below:                                                     Profit and Loss account for the year ended….  To Gross loss b/d  Xxxx  By gross profit b/d   Xxx  To salaries   Xxx  By rent received  Xxx  To rent, rates& taxes   Xxx  By discount received   Xxx  To printing & stationary   Xxx  By commission received   Xxx  To Postage   Xxx  By interest  Xxx  To audit fees   Xxx  By other incomes ( if any)   xxx  To General expenses   Xxx  By Net loss ( if loss)  To repair   Xxx  To fire Insurance premium   Xxx  To legal expenses   Xxx  To office expenses   Xxx  To interest on loan   Xxx  To bad debts   Xxx  To discount allowed   Xxx  To commission   Xxx  To advertising   Xxx  To travelling expenses   Xxx  To depreciation   Xxx  To sundry expenses   Xxx  To establishment expenses   Xxx  loss on sale of assets  To   Xxx  To carriage outward   Xxx  To net profit   xxx    xxxx  xxxx         MANUFACTURING ACCOUNT Manufacturing account is an account prepared by manufacturing concerns to ascertain cost of goods manufactured during a period. All the expenses relating to manufacturing activity are debited. The total represents cost of manufactures, which is transferred to trading account. A specimen of manufacturing account is given below: Financial Accounting   16       School of Distance Education                                                       Manufacturing account for the year ended….  To opening Work in progress  Xxxx By closing work in progress  Xxxx To Raw material consumed:    By sale of scrap   Xxx     Opening stock of raw material      xxx    By cost of goods manufactured   xxxx     Add purchase ( less return)           xxx             (balance, transfer to        Less closing stock of raw material xx                trading account )                                                            ‐‐‐‐‐  Xxxx  To direct wages    Xxx  To carriage inward   Xxx  To freight   Xxx  To factory expenses   Xxx  To works manager’s salary   Xxx  To consumable stores   Xxx  To depreciation of plant   Xxx  To repairs of plant   Xxx  To coal, gas, water   Xxx  To motive power   Xxx    xxxx xxxxx     BALANCESHEET     Balance sheet is a statement showing the assets and liabilities of a business on a particular date. It reveals the financial position of a business. Hence it is also known as position statement. In the words of Francis R Stead, ‘balance sheet is a screen picture of financial position of a going business at a certain moment.                 Financial Accounting   17       School of Distance Education     Specimen of Balance Sheet is given below:                                                    Balance Sheet as at ……  Liabilities   Assets    Current liabilities:    Current Assets:       Bills payable  xxxx     Cash in hand   xxxx     Creditors  xxxx     Cash at bank  xxxx     Bank over draft  xxxx     Debtors  xxxx    Outstanding expenses    xx     Bills receivable  xxxx     Income received in advance    xx     Marketable securities  xxxx         Prepaid expenses   xxx  Long term liabilities:       Accrued incomes     xxx     Loan  xxx     Closing stock    xxx     Capital                       xxxx    Long term investments        Add Net profit           xxx     Fixed assets:  xxxx                                    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐       Furniture                                           xxxxx        Vehicles   xxx     Less drawings             xxx       Patent   xxx                                   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐  xxxxx     Loose tools   xxx               Plant   xxx     Land and building  xxxx     Goodwill  xxxx   xxx   xxxxx  xxxxx         OPENING CLOSING AND ADJUSTING ENTRIES    Opening entries are passed at the beginning of an accounting period. When a businessman starts business with cash and other form of assets, it becomes essential to open the necessary ledger accounts. This is made by passing entries through journal proper. Financial Accounting   18       School of Distance Education    At the end of every accounting period, all revenue items are closed by transferring to trading and profit and loss account, such entries are known as closing entries. Thus closing are those entries passed at the end of the accounting year to close the accounts relating to incomes, expense, gains and losses. In the mercantile system of accounting, various adjustments had to be made to accounts of incomes and expenses, so as to show correct figure for the current year. These entries are passed for adjusting the incomes, expenses etc are called adjusting entries When a sum of money from one account to another account has to transferred it is done by a means of an entry called transfer entry. TREATMENT OF CERTAIN ITEMS   CLOSING STOCK  If it is given in the adjustment it is shown on the credit side of the trading account and also shown on the assets side of the balance sheet. If it is given in the trial balance, It should be shown only in the balance sheet. OUTSTANDING EXPENSES: These are those expenses which remains unpaid at the end of the accounting period. If it is given in the adjustment, it should be added to the concerned expenses on the debit side of the trading account or profit or loss account and it should also be shown in the balance sheet as liability. If it is given in the trial balance, it should be shown in the balance sheet as liabilities. PREPAID EXPENSES Prepaid expenses are payments made in the current year but related to the next accounting year. Prepaid expenses are also known as expenses paid in advance or unexpired expenses. If it is given in the adjustment, it should deducted from the concerned expenses on the debit side of trading accounting or profit and loss account and it should also be shown on the asset side of balance sheet. If it is given in the trial balance, it should be taken only in the balance sheet as asset ACCRUED INCOME This is the income earned but not received by the end of the accounting year. This is also known as outstanding incomes. If it is given in the adjustment, it should be added to the concerned income on the credit side of the profit and loss account and it should also be shown on the asset side of balance sheet .If it is given in the trial balance, it should be shown only in the balance sheet on the asset side INCOME RECEIVED IN ADVANCE   It means income which has been received by business before it been earned by the business. It relate to the next accounting period. It is also known as unearned income or income received in advance. If it is given in the adjustment it’s should be deducted from the concerned income on the credit side of the profit and loss account and it should also be shown on the liability side of balance sheet. If it is given in the trial balance it should be shown only in the balance sheet on the liability side. Financial Accounting   19       School of Distance Education    DEPRECIATION If it is given in the adjustment, it should be shown on the debit side of the profit and loss account and deducted from concerned asset on the balance sheet. If it is given in trial balance, depreciation should be taken only on the debit side of profit and loss account. BAD DEBTS When an amount due from debtors is found irrecoverable it is called bad debt .it is a loss the business. If it is given in the adjustment it should be taken on the debit side of the profit and loss account by adding to the bad debt already given in the trial balance and it should also be deducted from debtors on the asset side. PROVISION FOR BAD DEBTS The provision given in the trial balance is the provision created in last year; it is taken on credit side of profit and loss account. If there is bad debt and provision required are given, it should be adjusted against the opening provisions. The treatment is as follows. Bad debt (given in the trial balance xxxx Add: further bad debt (given in the adjustment) xxx Provision required (given in the adjustment) xxx - xxxx Less existing provision (given in the trial balance) xxx Amount shown on the debit side of the P&L account xxx - If the existing provision is more than the bad debt and new provisions, then the balance should be shown on the credit side of profit and loss account. Bad debts and new provisions given in the adjustments are also deducted from the debtors account on the asset side of the balance sheet. LOSS OF STOCK BY FIRE In case goods are not insured the total loss should be shown on the credit side of the trading account. The same amount should be shown on the debit side of the profit and loss account. If goods are insured and insurance company admitted the claim, the total loss should be credited to the trading account, amount claim not admitted by the insurance company is debited to P&L account and claim admitted is shown on the asset side of balance sheet. MANAGERS COMMISSION Commission is shown on the debit side of P&L account. It should also be shown on the liability side of the balance sheet (if it is given in the adjustment). It is calculated as follows. a) Fixed percentage of net profit before charging such commission      Commission is calculated as follows  Net profit x rate of commission                        100  b) Fixed percentage of net profit after charging such commission  Financial Accounting   20   

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