Wireless sensor networks book

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WIRELESSSENSORNETWORKS Technology, Protocols, and Applications KAZEM SOHRABY DANIEL MINOLI TAIEB ZNATIWIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSWIRELESSSENSORNETWORKS Technology, Protocols, and Applications KAZEM SOHRABY DANIEL MINOLI TAIEB ZNATICopyright 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformor by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior writtenpermissionofthePublisher,orauthorizationthroughpaymentoftheappropriateper-copyfeeto the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978)750-4470,oronthewebatwww.copyright.com.RequeststothePublisherforpermissionshould be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permission. LimitofLiability/DisclaimerofWarranty:Whilethepublisherandauthorhaveusedtheirbesteffortsin preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representativesorwrittensalesmaterials.Theadviceandstrategiescontainedhereinmaynotbesuitable for your situation.You should consult witha professionalwhere appropriate.Neither the publishernor authorshallbeliableforanylossofprofitoranyothercommercialdamages,includingbutnotlimitedto special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. Forgeneral information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wileyalsopublishesitsbooksinavarietyofelectronicformats.Somecontentthatappearsinprintmay notbeavailableinelectronicformats.FormoreinformationaboutWileyproducts,visitourwebsiteat www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Sohraby, Kazem. Wireless sensor networks: technology, protocols, and applications / by Kazem Sohraby, Daniel Minoli, Taieb Znati. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-471-74300-2 1. Sensor networks. 2. Wireless LANs. I. Minoli, Daniel, 1952– II. Znati, Taieb F. III. Title. TK7872. D48S64 2007 0 681. 2–dc22 2006042143 Printed in the United States of America 10987654321CONTENTS Preface xi About the Authors xiii 1 Introduction and Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks 1 1.1 Introduction, 1 1.1.1 Background of Sensor Network Technology, 2 1.1.2 Applications of Sensor Networks, 10 1.1.3 Focus of This Book, 12 1.2 Basic Overview of the Technology, 13 1.2.1 Basic Sensor Network Architectural Elements, 15 1.2.2 Brief Historical Survey of Sensor Networks, 26 1.2.3 Challenges and Hurdles, 29 1.3 Conclusion, 31 References, 31 2 Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks 38 2.1 Introduction, 38 2.2 Background, 38 2.3 Range of Applications, 42 2.4 Examples of Category 2 WSN Applications, 50 2.4.1 Home Control, 51 2.4.2 Building Automation, 53 2.4.3 Industrial Automation, 56 2.4.4 Medical Applications, 57 vvi CONTENTS 2.5 Examples of Category 1 WSN Applications, 59 2.5.1 Sensor and Robots, 60 2.5.2 Reconfigurable Sensor Networks, 62 2.5.3 Highway Monitoring, 63 2.5.4 Military Applications, 64 2.5.5 Civil and Environmental Engineering Applications, 67 2.5.6 Wildfire Instrumentation, 68 2.5.7 Habitat Monitoring, 68 2.5.8 Nanoscopic Sensor Applications, 69 2.6 Another Taxonomy of WSN Technology, 69 2.7 Conclusion, 71 References, 71 3 Basic Wireless Sensor Technology 75 3.1 Introduction, 75 3.2 Sensor Node Technology, 76 3.2.1 Overview, 76 3.2.2 Hardware and Software, 78 3.3 Sensor Taxonomy, 80 3.4 WN Operating Environment, 84 3.5 WN Trends, 87 3.6 Conclusion, 91 References, 91 4 Wireless Transmission Technology and Systems 93 4.1 Introduction, 93 4.2 Radio Technology Primer, 94 4.2.1 Propagation and Propagation Impairments, 94 4.2.2 Modulation, 101 4.3 Available Wireless Technologies, 103 4.3.1 Campus Applications, 105 4.3.2 MAN/WAN Applications, 120 4.4 Conclusion, 131 Appendix A: Modulation Basics, 131 References, 139 5 Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 142 5.1 Introduction, 142 5.2 Background, 143 5.3 Fundamentals of MAC Protocols, 144 5.3.1 Performance Requirements, 145 5.3.2 Common Protocols, 148CONTENTS vii 5.4 MAC Protocols for WSNs, 158 5.4.1 Schedule-Based Protocols, 161 5.4.2 Random Access-Based Protocols, 165 5.5 Sensor-MAC Case Study, 167 5.5.1 Protocol Overview, 167 5.5.2 Periodic Listen and Sleep Operations, 168 5.5.3 Schedule Selection and Coordination, 169 5.5.4 Schedule Synchronization, 170 5.5.5 Adaptive Listening, 171 5.5.6 Access Control and Data Exchange, 171 5.5.7 Message Passing, 172 5.6 IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPANs Standard Case Study, 173 5.6.1 PHY Layer, 176 5.6.2 MAC Layer, 178 5.7 Conclusion, 192 References, 193 6 Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 197 6.1 Introduction, 197 6.2 Background, 198 6.3 Data Dissemination and Gathering, 199 6.4 Routing Challenges and Design Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks, 200 6.4.1 Network Scale and Time-Varying Characteristics, 200 6.4.2 Resource Constraints, 201 6.4.3 Sensor Applications Data Models, 201 6.5 Routing Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks, 202 6.5.1 WSN Routing Techniques, 203 6.5.2 Flooding and Its Variants, 203 6.5.3 Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation, 206 6.5.4 Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, 210 6.5.5 Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems, 213 6.5.6 Directed Diffusion, 215 6.5.7 Geographical Routing, 219 6.6 Conclusion, 225 References, 225 7 Transport Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 229 7.1 Traditional Transport Control Protocols, 229 7.1.1 TCP (RFC 793), 231 7.1.2 UDP (RFC 768), 233viii CONTENTS 7.1.3 Mobile IP, 233 7.1.4 Feasibility of Using TCP or UDP for WSNs, 234 7.2 Transport Protocol Design Issues, 235 7.3 Examples of Existing Transport Control Protocols, 237 7.3.1 CODA (Congestion Detection and Avoidance), 237 7.3.2 ESRT (Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport), 237 7.3.3 RMST (Reliable Multisegment Transport), 239 7.3.4 PSFQ (Pump Slowly, Fetch Quickly), 239 7.3.5 GARUDA, 239 7.3.6 ATP (Ad Hoc Transport Protocol), 240 7.3.7 Problems with Transport Control Protocols, 240 7.4 Performance of Transport Control Protocols, 241 7.4.1 Congestion, 241 7.4.2 Packet Loss Recovery, 242 7.5 Conclusion, 244 References, 244 8 Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks 246 8.1 Introduction, 246 8.2 WSN Middleware Principles, 247 8.3 Middleware Architecture, 248 8.3.1 Data-Related Functions, 249 8.3.2 Architectures, 252 8.4 Existing Middleware, 253 8.4.1 MiLAN (Middleware Linking Applications and Networks), 253 8.4.2 IrisNet (Internet-Scale Resource-Intensive Sensor Networks Services), 254 8.4.3 AMF (Adaptive Middleware Framework), 255 8.4.4 DSWare (Data Service Middleware), 255 8.4.5 CLMF (Cluster-Based Lightweight Middleware Framework), 256 8.4.6 MSM (Middleware Service for Monitoring), 256 8.4.7 Em, 256 8.4.8 Impala, 257 8.4.9 DFuse, 257 8.4.10 DDS (Device Database System), 258 8.4.11 SensorWare, 258 8.5 Conclusion, 259 References, 259 9 Network Management for Wireless Sensor Networks 262 9.1 Introduction, 262 9.2 Network Management Requirements, 262CONTENTS ix 9.3 Traditional Network Management Models, 263 9.3.1 Simple Network Management Protocol, 263 9.3.2 Telecom Operation Map, 264 9.4 Network Management Design Issues, 264 9.5 Example of Management Architecture: MANNA, 267 9.6 Other Issues Related to Network Management, 268 9.6.1 Naming, 269 9.6.2 Localization, 269 9.7 Conclusion, 270 References, 270 10 Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks 273 10.1 Introduction, 273 10.2 Operating System Design Issues, 274 10.3 Examples of Operating Systems, 276 10.3.1 TinyOS, 276 10.3.2 Mate, 277 10.3.3 MagnetOS, 278 10.3.4 MANTIS, 278 10.3.5 OSPM, 279 10.3.6 EYES OS, 279 10.3.7 SenOS, 280 10.3.8 EMERALDS, 280 10.3.9 PicOS, 281 10.4 Conclusion, 281 References, 281 11 Performance and Traffic Management 283 11.1 Introduction, 283 11.2 Background, 283 11.3 WSN Design Issues, 286 11.3.1 MAC Protocols, 286 11.3.2 Routing Protocols, 286 11.3.3 Transport Protocols, 287 11.4 Performance Modeling of WSNs, 288 11.4.1 Performance Metrics, 288 11.4.2 Basic Models, 289 11.4.3 Network Models, 292 11.5 Case Study: Simple Computation of the System Life Span, 294 11.5.1 Analysis, 296 11.5.2 Discussion, 298 11.6 Conclusion, 300 References, 300 Index 303PREFACE The convergence of the Internet, communications, and information technologies, coupled with recent engineering advances, is paving the way for a new generation of inexpensive sensors and actuators, capable of achieving a high order of spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy. The technology for sensing and control includes sensor arrays, electric and magnetic field sensors, seismic sensors, radio-wave frequency sensors, electrooptic and infrared sensors, laser radars, and location and navigation sensors. Advances in the areas of sensor design, materials, and concepts will further decrease the size, weight, and cost of sensors and sensor arrays by orders of mag- nitude and will increase their spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy. In the very near future, it will become possible to integrate millions of sensors into sys- temstoimproveperformanceandlifetime,anddecreaselife-cyclecosts.According to current market projections, more than half a billion nodes will ship for wireless sensor applications in 2010. The technology for sensing and control now has the potential for significant advances, not only in science and engineering, but equally important, on a broad range of applications relating to critical infrastructure protection and security, health care, the environment, energy, food safety, production processing, quality of life, and the economy. In addition to reducing costs and increasing efficiencies for industries and businesses, wireless sensor networking is expected to bring con- sumers a new generation of conveniences, including, but not limited to, remote- controlled heating and lighting, medical monitoring, automated grocery checkout, personal health diagnosis, automated automobile checkups, and child care. This book is intended to be a high-quality textbook that provides a carefully designed exposition of the important aspects of wireless sensor networks. The xixii PREFACE text provides thorough coverage of wireless sensor networks, including applica- tions,communicationandnetworkingprotocols,middleware,security,andmanage- ment. The book is targeted toward networking professionals, managers, and practitioners who want to understand the benefits of this new technology and plan for its use and deployment. It can also be used to support an introductory course in the field of wireless sensor networks at the advanced undergraduate or graduate levels. At this time there is a limited number of textbooks on the subject of wireless sensornetworks.Furthermore,mostofthesebooksarewrittenwithaspecificfocus on selected subjects related to the field. As such, the coverage of many important topics in these books is either inadequate or missing. With the ever-increasing popularity of wireless sensor networks and their tremendous potential to penetrate multiple aspects of our lives, we believe that this book is timely and addresses the needs of a growing community of engineers, network professionals and managers, and educators. The book is not so encyclopedic as to overwhelm nonexperts in the field. The text is kept to a reasonable length, and a concerted effort has been madetomakethecoveragecomprehensiveandself-contained,andthematerialeasily understandable and exciting to read. Acknowledgments First author would like to acknowledge the contributions ofhis postdoctoral fellow, Dr. Chonggang Wang, while at the University of Arkansas, in the preparation of some of the material in this book.ABOUT THE AUTHORS Daniel Minoli has many years of telecom, networking, and ITexperiencewith end users, carriers, academia, and venture capitalists, including work at ARPA think tanks, Bell Telephone Laboratories, ITT, Prudential Securities, Bell Communica- tionsResearch(Bellcore/Telcordia),AT&T,CapitalOneFinancial,SESAmericom, New York University, Rutgers University, StevensInstitute, and Societe´ General de Financiament de Quebec (1975–2001). Recently, he played a founding role in the launching of two networking companies through the high-tech incubator Leading Edge Networks Inc., which he ran in the early 2000s: Global Wireless Services, a provider of broadband hotspot mobile Internet and hotspot VoIP services to high- end marinas; and InfoPort Communications Group, an optical and gigabit Ethernet metropolitancarriersupportingDataCenter/SAN/channelextensionandGridCom- puting network access services (2001–2003). Currently, he is working on IPTV, DVB-H, satellite technology and (wireless) emergency communications systems. Mr.Minolihasworkedextensivelyinthefieldofwirelessandovertheyearshas published approximately 20 papers on the topic. His work in wireless started in the mid-1970s with extensive efforts on ARPA-sponsored research on wireless packet networks. In the early 1980s he was involved in the design of high-resilience radio networks. Inthe mid-1980s hewas involved in designing and deployingVSATnet- works, including work on correlated traffic profiles. Recently, he has been involved with the novel design of Wi-Fi hotspot networks for interference-laden public places such as marinas, and has written the first book on the market on hotspot net- working: Hotspot Networks—Wi-Fi for Public Access Locations (McGraw-Hill, 2003). He has also been involved in the planning and deployment of high-density enterprise IEEE 802.11b/g/e/i systems and VoWi-Fi. He recently acted as an expert witness in a (successful) 11 billion lawsuit regarding a wireless air-to-ground xiiixiv ABOUT THE AUTHORS communication system for airplane-based telephony and information services. He has also done work on wireless networking applications of nanotechnology (quan- tumcascadelasersforfree-spaceoptics)andhasjustpublishedabookonthattopic with Wiley (2005). Mr. Minoli is the author of a number of books on information technology, tele- communications, and data communications. He has also written columns for Com- puterWorld, NetworkWorld, and Network Computing (1985–1995). He has spoken at 80 industry conferences and has taught at New York University (Information Technology Institute), Rutgers University, Stevens Institute of Technology, and Monmouth University (1984–2003). He was a technology analyst at-large for Gartner/DataPro (1985–2001). On their behalf, based on extensive hands-on work at financial firms and carriers, he tracked technologies and authored numerous CTO/CIO-level technical/architectural scans in the area of telephony and data communications systems, including topics on security, disaster recovery, IT outsourcing, network management, LANs, WANs (ATM and MPLS), wireless (LAN and public hotspot), VoIP, network design/economics, carrier networks (such as metro Ethernet and CWDM/DWDM), and e-commerce. Over the years hehasadvisedventurecapitalistsforinvestmentsof150millioninadozenhigh- tech companies. Dr. Kazem Sohraby is a professor of electrical engineering in the College of Engi- neering at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, where he also serves as profes- sor and head at the Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering. Prior to the University of Arkansas engagement, Dr. Sohraby was with Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, and AT&T Bell Labs. He has also served as directoroftheinterdisciplinaryacademic programontelecommunicationsmanage- ment at Stevens Institute of Technology, and before that as head of the Network Planning Department at Computer Sciences Corporation. At Bell Labs he played a key roleinthe research and developmentof high-tech communications, computing, network management, security, and other information technologies area. He spend most of his career at Bell Labs in the Advanced Communications Technol- ogies Center, the Mathematical Sciences Research Center (Mathematics of Net- works and Systems), and in forward-looking organizations working on future- generation switching and transmission technologies. In its golden age, Bell Labs was the world leader in research and development of new computing and communications technologies, and has created innumerous innovations in the advancement of communications and computer networking. Dr. Sohraby’s contri- butions at Bell Labs, demonstrated by over 20 patents filed on his behalf and many of his publications, represent an outstanding benchmark in computer and communications technologies leadership. Dr. Sohraby has generated numerous publications, including a book entitled Control and Performance in Packet, Circuit, and ATM Networks (Kluwer Publish- ers, 1995). He is a distinguished lecturer of the IEEE Communications Society and served as its president’s representative on the Committee on Communications and Information Policy (CCIP). He served on the Education Committee of the IEEEABOUT THE AUTHORS xv Communications Society, and is on the editorial boards of several publications. Dr. Sohraby received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering, has a graduate education in computer science, and received an M.B.A. degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Taieb Znati is professor in the Department of Computer Science, with a joint appointmentin the telecommunicationprogram (DIS) and in computer engineering (EE)at theUniversityofPittsburgh. Prof.Znati’sinterests include routing and con- gestion control in high-speed networks, multicasting, access protocols in local and metropolitan area networks, quality of service support in wired and wireless net- works,performanceanalysisofnetworkprotocols,multimediaapplications,distrib- uted systems, and agent-based internet applications. Recent work has focused on the design and analysis of network protocols for wired and wireless communica- tions,sensornetworks,networksecurity,agent-basedtechnologywithcollaborative environments, and middleware. He is coeditor of the book Wireless Sensor Net- works (Kluwer Publishers, 2004) and has published extensively on the topic. Prof. Znati earned a Ph.D. degree in computer science, September 1988, at Michigan State University. He also has a Master of Science degree in computer science from Purdue University, December 1981. In addition, he earned other aca- demic degrees in Europe. Currently, he is a professor in the Department of Com- puter Science, with a joint appointment in the telecommunication program (School of Library and Information Science), at the University of Pittsburgh. He recently took a leave from the university to serve as senior program director for networking research at the National Science Foundation. He is also the ITR coordinating com- mittee chair. In the late 1990s he was an associate professor in the Department of Computer Science, with a joint appointment in the telecommunication program (School of Library and Information Science) at the University of Pittsburgh. In the early 1990s he was an assistant professor at the same institution. During the 1980sheheldanumberofindustrypositions,includingthepositionofsystemman- ager for the management of VAX VMS-cluster daily operations at the Case Center forComputer-AidedDesignatMichiganStateUniversity.He alsoheldthe position of network coordinator, with responsibility for the development of networking plans for the College of Engineering at Michigan State University. Prof. Znati has chaired several conferences and workshops, including confer- ences and workshops on wireless sensor networks. He is on the editorial board ofseveralscientificjournalsinnetworkinganddistributedsystems.Heisfrequently invited to present lectures and tutorials and to participate in panels related to net- working and distributed multimedia topics in the United States and abroad.1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1 A sensor network is an infrastructure comprised of sensing (measuring), comput- ing, and communication elements that gives an administrator the ability to instru- ment, observe, and react to events and phenomena in a specified environment. The administrator typically is a civil, governmental, commercial, or industrial entity. The environment can be the physical world, a biological system, or an information technology (IT) framework. Network(ed) sensor systems are seen by observers as an important technology that will experience major deployment in the next few years for a plethora of applications, not the least being national security 1.1–1.3. Typical applications include, but are not limited to, data collection, monitoring, surveillance, and medical telemetry. In addition to sensing, one is often also interested in control and activation. There are four basic components in a sensor network: (1) an assembly of distrib- uted or localized sensors; (2) an interconnecting network (usually, but not always, wireless-based); (3) a central point of information clustering; and (4) a set of com- puting resources at the central point (or beyond) to handle data correlation, event trending,statusquerying,anddatamining.Inthiscontext,thesensingandcomputa- tionnodesareconsideredpartofthesensornetwork;infact,someofthecomputing 1 Although the terms networked sensors and network of sensors are perhaps grammatically more correct thanthetermsensornetwork,generallyinthisbookweemploythedefactonomenclaturesensornetwork. WirelessSensorNetworks:Technology,Protocols,andApplications, byKazemSohraby,DanielMinoli, and Taieb Znati Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1

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