Lecture Note on Agricultural Research

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Lecture Note of Course on Agricultural Research, Research Ethics and Rural Development Programmes (PGS-505) Compiled by Dr. Vinaya Kumar, H. M. and Dr. A. R. Macwan Assistant Professor, Department of Extension Education, BACA, AAU, Anand Assistant Professor, Institute of Distance Education, AAu, Anand ANAND AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, ANAND, GUJARAT B. A. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, ANAND-388110 DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION EDUCATION COURSE CUM LECTURE OUT LINE Course Particulars 1. Course : M. Sc. (Ag.) 2. Course No : PGS 505 3. Course Title : Agricultural Research, Research Ethics and Rural Development Programmes 4. Credit Hours : 1 (1 + 0 ) nd 5. Semester : Even Semester (2 Semester) 6. Academic Year : 2016- 2017 7. Entry Level Qualification of Learners : B . S c. (Ag.) 8. Year of Standing : First Year M. Sc. (Ag.) 9. Course Teacher : Dr. Vinaya Kumar, H. M. and Dr. A.R. Macwan 10. Fundamental Objective: To provide Knowledge and Skills in agricultural research and research ethics and current development in agricultural research and rural development through different government programmes. 2 11. General objectives: The course intends to sensitize the scholars about the basic issues related with agricultural research, ethics in research as well as rural development. The scholars will be also educated about principles and philosophy of rural development and motivated towards practicing and promoting ethics in research and developmental endeavors. THEORY S. No. Lesson / Topic of Lecture Lecture Teaching Teaching Aids Duration Methods ( in Hours) UNIT – I 1. History of agriculture in brief; Ancient 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ agriculture, Historical stages of Discussion/ Power Point Presentation development of agriculture. Forum 2. Development of scientific agriculture in 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ world and India. Green revolution in Discussion/ Power Point Presentation India. Revolutions related to agriculture Forum and allied activities. 3. National Agricultural Research Systems 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ (NARS): ICAR- mandate, research Discussion/ Power Point Presentation institutions their mandate. Forum 4. 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ Regional Agricultural Research institutions of ICAR. State Agricultural Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Universities. Forum 5. Consultative Group on international 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum 6. International Agricultural Research 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ Centers (IARC) their mandate and Discussion/ Power Point Presentation achievements. Forum 7. Global agricultural research system: 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ need, scope, opportunities. Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum 8. Role promoting food security, reducing 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ poverty and protecting the environment; Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum 9. Partnership with NARS, role as a 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ partner in the global agricultural Discussion/ Power Point Presentation research system, strengthening Forum capacities at national and regional levels; 10. International fellowships for scientific 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ mobility. NAAS rating journals. Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum 3 UNIT – II 11. Research ethics: research integrity, 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ research safety in laboratories, welfare Discussion/ Power Point Presentation of animals used in research, computer Forum ethics and standards land problems in research ethics. UNIT – III 12. Definition, Meaning and Connotations 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ of Rural Development Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum 13. Rural Development Policies and 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ Strategies Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum 14. Rural Development Programmes -CDP 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ and IADP Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum 15. Drought Prone Area Programme and 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ Swarnajayanti Gram Swa Discussion/ Power Point Presentation rojagar Yojana Forum 16. Sampoorna Grameena Rojagar Yojana 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ and National Rural Employment Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Guaranty Act Forum 17. Panchayat Raj Institutions in 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ implementation of Rural Development Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Programmes Forum 18. NGOs/Voluntary Organizations in Rural 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ Development Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum 19. Evaluation of Rural Development 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ Policies and Programmes Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum 20. Constraints in implementation of Rural 1 Lecture cum Chalk Board/ Development Programmes Discussion/ Power Point Presentation Forum th RECOMMENDED REFERENCES IN COURSE CATALOGUE ( 4 Dean’s ICAR Syllabus) 1. Ableman, M. 2005. Fields of plenty: A farmer’s journey in search of real food and the people who produce it. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. 2. Agarwal, A. 2005. Environmentality: Technologies of government and the making of subjects. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. 4 3. Gadgil, M. and Guha, R. 1995. Ecology and equity. The use and abuse of nature in contemporary India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. 4. Jain, L.C., Krishnamurthy, B.V. and Tripathi,P.M. 1986. Grass without roots under Government Auspices. Sage Publications, New Delhi. 5. Punia M. S. Manual on international Research and Research ethics. CCS, Hayana Agricultural University, Hisar. 6. RAO, B.S.V., 2007, Rural Development strategies and Role of Institutions-Issues, Innovations and Initiatives Mittal Publishers, New Delhi. 7. Rivera, Roberto and David Borasky 2009. Research Ethics Training Curriculum, Family Health International. P.O. Box 13950 Research Triangle Park, NC27709. USA. 8. Singh, K., 1998, rural Development Principles, Policies and Management Sage Publications, New Delhi. 9. Singh, Kartar 2001. Rural Development – Principles, Policies and Management.Sage Publications, New Delhi. 10. Thompson, P. 1997. The spirit of the soil: Agriculture and environmental ethics. New York: Routledge Press. Scheme of Evaluation THEORY: Name of the Examination Marks Weightage of Marks Internal Examination 40 40 Semester Final Examination (External) 60 60 Total Marks: 100 100 Marks obtained for total 100 Marks will be converted to 10 Point Scale for obtaining Grade Point (GP), (6.0 =not satisfactory, 6.0 or 6.0=satisfactory) UNIT – I Chapter-1.1: History of agriculture in brief; Ancient agriculture, Historical stages of development of agriculture. There are grounds to believe that prehistoric man gave some attention to the cultivation of crops 10,000 to 12,000 years ago or possibly earlier. But improvement in the methods of growing food crops was doubtless very slow until about the time of Abraham about 2000 B.C. (4009 years ago). The investigations of ancient caves at Palestine indicate that plowing was practiced between th th 2500 to 3000 B. C. and ancient drawings depict Egyptian plowing scenes in the 14 and 15 centuries B.C. 1. The earliest authenticated writings discussing farming practice are those of Greeks more than 50 of whom gave some attention to agriculture in their manuscripts. 2. Among the most noted to pay considerable attention to farming was the poet Hesiod who set down some rules for crop production before 776 B.C. 3. Historian Xenophon (430 to 355 BC) mentions plowing under of green plants as a means of soil enrichment. 4. Mago from Carthage was a voluminous writer on agriculture who compiled 28 books on agriculture (These were translated into Greek and condensed into 20 volumes by Cassius Dionysius. When Carthage was conquered in 146 B.C. Mago’s books were taken back to Rome and were translated into Latin by order of the Roman senate. These books were read extensively by Roman writers.) ROMAN AGRICULTURE Agriculture was held in high esteem by the early Romans and Farm Work was the only manual labor deemed honorable for free men. Other manual labor was considered to be the job of only slaves. (Farming methods were very primitive. Gradually the land passed more and more into the large estates of influential men to be worked under by the slaves). Number of Romans wrote extensively about farming. Most important were: 1.Cato (234-139 B.C) was the earliest Roman agriculture writer. He drew much information from Greek literature.  Good ploughing is more important than even manuring. 6  But urged careful conservation of manure.  Gave directions for care of livestock and cultivation of soil. 2. Varrow (116-27 BC). Was a traveler soldier, farmer, statesman and a scholar? His writing on agriculture may be divided into 3 parts.  Cultivation of fruits, grains and legume.  Raising of large animals like cows, sheep, goats, pigs etc.  Raising of small animals, poultry, bees etc. Also wrote on the selection and operation of farm. 3. Columella ( First century AD). Wrote 13 short books and are more readable than those of Cato or Varrow His first 12 books cover every phase of agriculture. a. Selection of land and arrangement of buildings. b. Tillage, Soil improvement. c. Production of various field crops. d. The propagation of and care of fruit trees and of vines. e. Selection, breeding and general care of farm animals both small and big. f. Methods of treating diseases of animals. g. Management of poultry, bees and fish ponds. h. Duties of an overseer or manager. i. Receipt for wine making and preservation of fruits and vegetables/ j. Last book elaborates the discussion of the care of trees and wines. k. The tenth book is in verse. Among the practices advocated in these Roman books the following may be listed. 1. Thorough tillage 2. Green manuring 3. Crop rotation 4. Use of lime 5. Application of manure 6. Growth of legumes for soil improvement (There is some reason to believe that many of the desirable practices listed were discussed by writers to a greater extent than they were actually utilized by most farmers). 7 Farming after the fall of Rome With the conquer of Italy by the Barbarians around 410 a long period without progress set in following the actual deposing of the Roman emperor by the Barbarian Odoacer in 476 A.D. Agriculture as well as other forms of civilization lost grounds for many years. In fact the knowledge accumulated would have been lost had it not been preserved by the monks. During the middle ages, the system of land ownership was not conducive to progress. The fields were divided into a number of small strips often an acre or less. Each tenant worked several such strips which were scattered over the field or farm. A 3-Years system of cropping was followed (a) A winter grain (b) A spring crop of oats, barley, peas, beans or a crop mixture (c) Year of fallow. Thus there was an extensive literature in Roman times which maintained a pre-eminent position until comparatively recently. The Roman literature was collected and condensed into one volume about the year 1240 by a senator Petrus de Crescent, whose book was one of the most popular treatises on agriculture of any time, and it passed through many editions. Many other agriculture th th books appeared in the 15 and 16 centuries notably in Italy and later in France. In some of these books are, found certain ingenious speculations that have been justified by later work. For Example: i) If you bring dung to the field it is to return to the soil something that has been taken away. ii) Every sort of plant without exception contains some kind of salt - when a plant is burnt it is reduced to a salty ash called alkali. iii) The farmers burn the unused straw of wheat in the field. In the ashes are found the salts that the straw took out of the field. If this is put back the field is improved. But for every speculation that has been confirmed will be found many that have not. The beginning of scientific agriculture must be sought later when men realized the necessity of carrying on experiments. Beginning of Scientific Agriculture The Search for the ‘Principle of Vegetation’ It was probably very early discovered that manures, composts, dead animal bodies and parts of animals such as blood all increased the fertility of the land and there by increased the plant 8 growth. Yet the early investigations consistently ignored this ancient wisdom when they sought for the ‘Principle of Vegetation’ to account for plant growth. 1. Francis Bacon (1561-1624) believed that water formed the ‘Principle nourishment of plants’. The soil only keeps the plants in position and protects them from excessive cold or heat. 2. Van Helmont (1577-1644) A physician and Chemist regarded water as the sole nutrient for plants. Experiment: Earthen vessel + 200 pounds oven dry soil + rainwater+ planted willow shoot weighing 5 lbs. After 5 years the plants weighed 169 lbs + 3 ounces. It received only rainwater or distilled water. The soil was covered with iron sheet to prevent the contamination from dust. The soil was dried and weighed 200 lbs less about 2 ounces. Therefore the plant arose from water alone. The experiment was simple and convincing and satisfied Robert Boyle who repeated it with squash and obtained similar results. Boyle further distilled the plant and concluded the products obtained. ‘Salt, Spirit, Earth and Oil’ may be produced from water. But two things were overlooked part played by air and the missing 2 ounces of soil. From a good experiment a conclusion was drawn that appeared to be absolutely sound but is in reality entirely wrong. 3. Glauber (1604-1668) a German Scientist set up the hypothesis that soil peter (KNO ) is the 3 principle of vegetation and not water. He found the earth cleared out from cattle sheds contained salt peter. He considered that this salt peter must have come from urine and excreta and must therefore be contained in the plants eaten by the animals. He also found that addition of salt peter to the soil produced enormous increase of crop. He connected these two observations and suggested that the salt petre is the principle of vegetation. 4. This view was supported by John Mayow, an English Chemist. He estimated the amount of nitre in soil at different times of the year and showed that it occurs in greatest quantity in spring when plants are just beginning to grow, but is not to be found in soil in which plants grow abundantly since the nitre is sucked by the plants. 5.The most accurate work was done by John Woodward around 1700. Setting out from the experiments of Van Helmont and Boyle but apparently knowing nothing of the work of Glauber and Mayow he grew Spearmint in Rain water, Water from Thames river Hyde park conduit (London) and Hyde park conduit + 1.1/2 oz garden mould. 9 All these plants had abundance of water and therefore should have made equal growth. The amount of growth, however, increased with the impurity of water. He concluded that vegetables are not formed of water but of certain terrestrial matter. Peter Descresenzi (1230-1307 A.D.) collected many literature related to Agronomy in his book “Opus Ruralium Kamo Daram” for the first time. That is why he is called the Father of Agronomy. Soil Particles as the Principle For many years no such outstanding work as that of Glauber and Woodward was carried out. Advances were however being made in agricultural practice. One of the most important was the introduction of the seed drill and the horse hoe by Jethro Tull,(1674-1741) an oxford man of a strongly practical turn of mind. He wrote a book “Horse Hoeing Husbandry”. According to him 1. The minute particles of soil loosened by the action of moisture constituted the food of plants. 2. The pressure caused by the swelling of the growing roots forced these particles into the “Lacteal (conducting) mouths of the roots” where they entered the circulatory system. 3. All plants lived on these particles i.e. on the same kind of food. 4. Plants take in anything that comes their way, good or bad. 5. Rotation of crops is not a necessity but a convenience 6. Any soil will nourish any plant if temperature and water supply is properly regulated. 7. Hoeing increased the surface of the soil and also enabled the soil better to absorb the nutritious vapors condensed from the air. 8. Dung acted in the same way but was more costly and less efficient. The words weed and zero tillage were also used first by him. Humus Theory Scientists like Kulbel and Boer have believed that there is some living juice in humus which is used by the plants. SEARCH FOR PLANT NUTRIENTS The Edinburgh Society established in 1775 induced Francis Home to try chemistry in settling principles of agriculture. Homemade pot experiments to ascertain the effect of various substances on plant growth. It was clear that plant food was not one thing only but several. He 10 enumerated six: air, water, earth, salts of different kinds, oil and fire. The work of Home indicated that two methods to be followed in studying the plant growth are: Pot culture and Pot analysis. Joseph Priestly (1775): showed that the plants (mint) purify the air whereas breathing of animals make it impure. But he had not discovered oxygen. But when he discovered oxygen he failed to confirm his earlier results because he overlooked the importance of light. It was Jan Ingen-Housz (1779) a Dutch scientist who showed that purification goes on in light only while vitiation of air takes place during darkness. Senebier at Geneva also obtained similar results. He also studied the effect of air on plants and argued that the increased weight of willow tree in van Helmonts experiment came from the fixed air. A new method was wanted for further progress or before the new idea introduced by Senebier could be development. In 1804 Theodore de Saussure introduced the quantitative experimental method which formed the basis of subsequent work of Boussingault, Liebig, Lawes and Gilbert and indeed still remains our safest method of investigation. He was thus able to demonstrate the central facts of respiration – the absorption of Oxygen and evolution of CO and decomposition 2 of CO and evolution of O in light. He therefore showed that. 2 2 a. Air was the main source of Carbon to plants. b. Soil furnished only a very small part of the plant food but it is indispensable. c. Soil supplies nitrogen and not the air d. Root exerts certain action on the absorption of mineral matter. Water can be taken by the plants without the dissolved salts in it and thus increases the concentration of salts in soil water. Different salts are also absorbed to a different extent The composition of the plant ash varies depending upon the nature of the soil and age of the plants. A plant grown in water from seed contains no more ash than the seed itself. Thus he dispelled the idea of ash from water. 11 Arthur Young (1741-1820) conducted pot culture experiments to increase the yield of crops by applying several materials like poultry dung, nitre, gun powder, etc. He published his work in 46 volumesas ‘Annals of Agriculture” Till 1834 experiments were being conducted either in the Laboratory or in small pots. During this year J.B. Boussingault began a series of field experiments on his farm at Bechelbronn in Alsace, France. These were the first of their kind. To Boussingault goes the honour of introducing the method by which the new agriculture science was to be developed. He is therefore referred to as the Father of Field Plot Method of Experimentation. He reintroduced the quantitative method of de Saussure, weighed and analyzed the manures used and the crop obtained at the end of the rotation, drew up a balance sheet showing how far the manures had satisfied the needs of the crop and how far other sources of supply- air, rain and soil had been drawn upon. Boussingault’s work covered the whole range of agriculture and dealt with the composition of crops at different stages of their growth with soils and with problems in animal nutrition. Unfortunately the classic farm of Bechelbronn did not remain a centre of agricultural research and the experiments came to an end after the war of 1870. For some years no important discoveries were being made, no controversies were going on and no great amount of interest was taken in the subject but all this changed in 1840 when Liebig’s famous report to the British Association published as ‘Chemistry in its application to agriculture and physiology’ came like thunder bolt upon the world of science. With his sarcasm he ridiculed the plant physiologists of his day for their continued adhesion to the wrong notion that plants derive their C from soil and not from CO of the air. 2 “All explanations of chemists must remain without fruit and useless because even to the great leader of physiology carbonic acid, ammonia, acids and bases are sounds without meaning, words without sense, terms of unknown language which awake no thoughts and no associations”. Liebig’s ridicule did what neither de Sausser nor Boussingault’s logic had done. It finally killed the humus theory. It was considered that. a. CO in the air was considered to be the sole source of Carbon to plants. 2 b. H and O came from water and N from ammonia. 2 2 2 c. Certain mineral substances were essential for plant growth. d. Alkalis were needed to neutralize acid, made by plants in their vital process. e. Phosphate was necessary for seed formation. f. Potassium silicate for development of grasses and cereals. 12 The evidence lay in the composition of ash: plants may absorb anything but they excreted from their roots whatever was non-essential. The fact that a substance being present was therefore sufficient proof of its necessity. Liebig stated that nitrogen is taken up as ammonia which may come from the soil, from added manure or from the air. When sufficient crop analysis is made it will be possible to draw up tables showing the farmer precisely what he must add in a particular case. An artificial manure known as Liebig’s Patent manure was made up on these lines and placed on the market. As time went by Liebig developed his thesis and gave it a quantitative form. “The crops on a field diminish or increase in exact proportion to the diminution or increase of the mineral substances conveyed to it in manure”. He further adds what after words become known as the Law of the minimum. Law of the minimum “By the deficiency or absence of one necessary constituent, all the others being present’ the soil is rendered barren for all those crops to the life of which that one constituent is indispensable” These and other amplifications of the ideas gave rise to controversies. So much did Lie big insist on the necessity for alkalis and phosphates and so impressed he was for big the gain in N in meadow that he began to record atmosphere as the source of N to plants. Based on plant analysis he said turnip crop requires smallest quantity of P for their development. These and other practical deductions were tested by Lawes and Gilbert and showed that they are erroneous. Further when the patent manure was tried in practice it failed. There was nothing wrong in the theory in which it was based and the manure was sound. It contained compounds of N, P and K but he fused with lime and Calcium Phosphate so the nutrients were made insoluble. Meanwhile the great field experiments at Rothamsted were started by Sir John Bennet Lawes and Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert during 1843. These experiments were conducted on the same site even today and many valuable informations have accumulated. This is the oldest Experimental Station in the world. It is situated at the village Harpendon about 24 miles from London. In 1842 Lawes patented a process of treating rock phosphate to produce super phosphate and thus initiate the synthetic fertilizer industry. 13 By 1855 (By 12 Years) the following points were established. 1. Crops require phosphates and salts of alkalis but the composition of the ash does not afford reliable information as to the amounts of each constituent needed e.g. turnips require large amounts of phosphates although little is present in their ash. 2. Non-leguminous crop require a supply of some N-compounds, Nitrate and ammonium salts being almost equally good. Without an adequate supply of N, no increases of growth are obtained, even when ash constituents are added. The amount of N obtainable from atmosphere is insufficient for the needs of crops. Leguminous crops behave abnormally. 3. Soil fertility may be maintained for some years at least by means of artificial manures. 4. The beneficial effect of following lies in the increase brought about in the available nitrogenous compounds in the soil. The list of nutrients required started by Liebig included C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Silicon. The water culture work of Knop and other physiologists put down a similar list with the modification that Fe was added and Si was deleted. However controversies continued in 2 directions. 1. Farmers believed that chemical manure can only stimulate the crop growth and cannot replace organic manures and they will ultimately exhaust the ground. 2. But the results of experiments at Rothamsted have shown this to be untrue. Even after more than 100 years the chemical manure continued to produce good crops, though the growth of crops might have been affected due to side effect. In France Georges Ville (During 1867 and 1874-75) pleaded that artificial manures are more remunerative than dung and the addition was the only way of maintaining soil fertility. He considered that one of the four elements viz., lime, N, P, and K is more wanted and hence he called that “dominant”. He obtained following results. 14 Wheat yield/ acre 1. Normal manure 43 2. Manure without lime 41 3. Manure without potash 31 4. Manure without phosphorus 26 5. Manure without Nitrogen 14 6. Soil without manure 12 1. Production of various fields crops 2. It was a mystery how leguminous plants obtained nitrogen from. Liebig believed that plants take N as NH and not as nitrates. But the French Scientists 4 established the importance of NO to the plants and nitrification to soil fertility. 3 Soil Bacteriology During 1860s and 1870s it was shown that the process of decomposition of organic matter and conversion of NH4 to NO3 was not chemical as supposed by Liebig but is microbiological 1. Schloesing and Montz, Bacteriologists showed that formation NO in sewage water could be 3 stopped by addition of cholorform and adding little turbid extract of dry soil. So they said that nitrification was due to microbes. 2. Warrington: Working in Rothamsted soils applied this to soils and showed that nitrification in the soil could be stopped by the addition of chloroform or carbon disulphide and started by the addition of trace of soil. He showed that there are two stages and two sets of organisms. First NH to NO and then to NO . But he could not isolate the organisms. 3 2 3 3. Winogradsky isolated these organisms and found that they are bacteria. He isolated them on silica gel plates free from organic matter. Thus the problem of nitrogen nutrition of non-leguminous plants was solved. But the behavior of leguminous plants still baffled the scientists. 15 a) Berthelot had shown by experimentation that certain micro-organisms in the soil can assimilate gaseous nitrogen. b) Hellriegel and Wilfarth supposed that the bacteria in the nodules of leguminous plants assimilated gaseous N and handed over part of it to the plant. c) The organism was isolated by M.W.Beijerinck who called Bacillus radicicola. But now it is known as Rhizobium. Thus the controversy and problem of leguminous crops ended. In 1857 Michigan State University was established to provide agricultural education at College level th Systematic selection of cereal varieties according to predicted yield was commenced in the 18 century. The discovery of Laws of Heredity and the ways to cause mutations by Gregory Johann Mendel in 1866 led to modern plant breeding. In 1876 Charles Darwin published the results of experiments on cross and self-fertilization in plants. Thomas Malthus in 1898 proposed Malthusian Theory.- Humans would run out of food for everyone in spite of advance in agriculture due to limited land and yield potential of crops ( ie food may not be sufficient in future for the growing population at this current rate of growth in agriculture) Blackman in 1905 proposed theory of “Optima and Limiting factors”- When a process is conditioned as to its rapidity by a number of separate factors, the rate of the process is limtited by the pace of the slowest factor. Mitscherlich in 1909 proposed the theory of “Law of Diminishing Returns” – Increase in growth with each successive addition of the limiting element is progressively smaller and the response is curvilinear. Wilcox in 1929 proposed “Inverse Yield Law”. – Growth or the yielding ability of any plant is inversely proportional to the mean N content in the dry matter. Since 1920 the application of genetics to developed new strains of plants and animals, brought major changes in agriculture. 16 Agri Engineering was mainly concerned with improving farm machinery and implements originally improvised by farmers. Mechanization took hold in Western Europe and the newly settled countries only after 1850.Robert Ransome patented a cast iron share in 1785 and self- sharpening share in 1803. An efficient seed drill was devised in 1830s. First successful tractor was built in US in 1892. And DDT was synthesized by Dr Paul Muller in 1874. Chapter-1.2: Development of scientific agriculture in world and India. Green revolution in India. Revolutions related to agriculture and allied activities. It began in India when sugarcane, cotton and tobacco were grown for export purpose. 1970 – Joint department of Agriculture, revenue and commerce were established 1877 and 1978 – Famine 1880 – Famine Commission appointed and recommended for separate DOA and DOA was established th th It got the momentum in the 19 century. Indian land tax was levied in the middle of the 19 century. In 1887, 1878, 1889, 1892, 1897, 1900 population decreased due to continuous famines. Due ot these famines Britishers started various development programmes like railways, telegraph and postal departments (1848-1856 during Lord Dalhousie) He constructed “Upper Bari Doab Canal” in Punjab; laid roads and established PWD. Improvement of Agriculture started in his period. Lord Curzon’s period (1898-1905) the “Great Canal System” of Western Punjab was constructed. During his period Imperial Agricultural Research Institute was started at Pusa, Samstipur district in Bihar in 1903. His period is called as golden period in Agriculture. During his period Department of Agriculture and Agricultural Colleges for provinces were started at Coimbatore, Poona, Kanpur, Nagpur, Lylipur in 1906. Sugarcane Breeding Institute established in 1912 at Coimbatore. Due to earthquake IARI was shifted to New Delhi in 1936. In 1926 Royal Commission on Agriculture was setup and was responsible for giving recommendation to dug canal, lay roads etc. Based on the recommendation of Royal Commission, ICAR-Imperial Council of Agricultural Research was started in 1929 with objective to conduct Agriculture Research. Later it was named as Indian Council of Agriculture after Independence. State Agriculture Universities were started after 1960s. ICAR had also started research institutes of its own in different centers in India for various crops. 1942- Department of Food was created to cope up with the difficult food situation 1945- Indian Meteorological Department was established for weather services for agriculture 1950- Planning commission was set up 1951- First V year plan implemented 18 After 1947, ICAR totally adapted to Land Grant Colleges. In 1962 a Land Grant College was started at Pantnagar (UP). It is the first University with 16,000 acres. 1965-67- Green Revolution due to introduction of HYV in wheat, rice, use of fertilizers, construction of dams and use of pesticides. Important events in the history of Agriculture Period Event 10,000B.C. -Hunting,gathering 8700 B.C. -Domestication of sheep 7700 B.C. -Domestication if goat 7500 B.C. -Cultivation of crops (Wheat and barley) 6000 B.C. -Domestication of cattle and pigs 4400 B.C. -Cultivation of maize 3500 B.C. -cultivation of potato 3400 B.C. -Wheel was invented 3000 B.C. -Bronze was used to make tools 2900 B.C. -Plough was invented. Irrigated farming started. 2700 B.C. -Silk moth domesticated in China 2300 B.C. -Cultivation of chickpea, pear, sarson and cotton 2200 B.C. -Domesticated of fowl, buffalo, and elephant. Cultivation of rice 1800 B.C. -Cultivation of finger millet (Ragi) 1725 B.C. -Cultivation of sorghum 1700 B.C -Taming if horses 19 1500 B.C. -Cultivation of sugarcane. Irrigation from wells. 1400 B.C. -Use if iron 15 Century -Cultivation of Sweet orange, sour orange, wild brinjal, A.D. pomegranate 16 Century -Introduction of several crops into India by Portuguese. They A.D. are potato, sweet potato, arrow root, cassava, tomato chilies, pumpkin, papaya, pineapple, guava, custard apple, groundnut, cashewnut, tobacco, American cotton, rubber. Some of the ancient literature that explain about the agriculture are 1. Brahat Samhita (500 AD) by Varahamihira 2. Agnipurana (500-700 AD) 3. Krishi Sangraha of Parashara (500-1000 AD) 4. Shukraniti 5. Upavana-vinod (1220-1330) 6. Artha-shastra (Koutilya) 7. Krishi sukti by Kashyapa 8. Vishava vallabha by Chakrapani 9. Mahabharata 10. Rigveda 11. Atharva Veda. 20 Agriculture in Ancient India Land and Soil Agriculturists in ancient India were quite conscious of the soil and its relation to the production of a specific crop of economic importance. The vast knowledge acquired by experience has been handed over from generation to generation. The information is very intelligently and ably moulded in the form of maxims, proverbs etc. Soil: According to fertility, soil is mainly divided into Urvara (fertile) and Anurvara (sterile). Further, Urvara mruttike is divided into different kinds according to their peculiar fitness for cultivation of different kinds of crops. Yavya (barley), til (sesamun), vrihi (rice) etc. Anurvara mruttike: Usara (salt ground) and maru (desert).The exact chemical composition of different kinds of soils might not have been known but by observations the ancient Indians had gathered knowledge eg.  Clayey soils are suitable for jute, potato, thrives well if cultivated by the side of a bamboo grove.  Lands that are beaten by foam ie river banks are suitable for pumpkin, gourd etc lands frequently overflown with water for long pepper, grapes and sugarcane In Krishi Sukti: a comprehensive book on agriculture (attributed to Kasyapa) classified the land into a. Wet lands for paddy fields named shuli bhumi, Jala Bhumi or Sasya Bhumi b. Dry lands called Adhaka Bhumi In Upavana Vinod: The land is described as of 3 kinds ie arid, wet and moderate. Each of these is divided further depending upon the. Colour: Black, pale, dark red, white and yellow. Taste: Sweet, sour, salt, pungent, bitter, astringent. It was specified which type of crop or tree was suitable to which type of soil. Citron, Punnaga, Champaka, Amra, pomegranate grown on moderate land which is neither too wet nor too dry.

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