What is logic gates in Digital electronics

how are digital logic gates constructed and how do digital logic gates work. how many gates in digital electronics. what are gates digital electronics
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Dr.FlynnHanks,United States,Teacher
Published Date:26-07-2017
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CIRCUITS AND 6.002 ELECTRONICS Inside the Digital Gate Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5Review The Digital Abstraction z Discretize value 0, 1 z Static discipline meet voltage thresholds sender receiver V OH V IH forbidden V region IL V OL Specifies how gates must be designed Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5Review Combinational gate abstraction outputs function of input alone satisfies static discipline A B C A C 00 1 B 01 1 NAND 10 1 1 1 0 Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5For example: Demo a digital circuit A ⋅ A B B D C =()⋅()⋅ D C A B 3 gates here „ A Pentium III class microprocessor is a circuit with over 4 million gates „ The RAW chip (http://www.cag.lcs.mit.edu/raw) being built at the Lab for Computer Science at MIT has about 3 million gates. Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5How to build a digital gate Analogy taps B A C if A=ON AND B=ON C has H 0 2 else C has no H 0 2 Use this insight to build an AND gate. Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 like power supply (like switches)How to build a digital gate OR gate A C B Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5Electrical Analogy C B A + V – Bulb C is ON if A AND B are ON, else C is off Key: “switch” device Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5Electrical Analogy equivalent ckt Key: “switch” device in C= 0 in out control C in out = C 1 out 3-Terminal device if C = 0 short circuit between in and out else open circuit between in and out For mechanical switch, control mechanical pressure Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5Consider V S R R L L + V V OUT S V – OUT IN C C V= “1” S OUT V S V OUT Truth table for C=0 V C OUT 01 V S 10 V OUT C=1 Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5What about? Truth table for V S c c V V 2 1 O OUT 00 1 c 1 01 1 c 2 10 1 11 0 V Truth table for S V OUT c c V 2 1 O 00 1 c c 1 2 01 0 10 0 11 0 Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5What about? can also build compound gates V S D C A D=(A⋅ B)+ C B Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5The MOSFET Device Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor drain D G ≡ gate S source 3 terminal lumped element behaves like a switch : control terminal G D,S : behave in a symmetric manner (for our needs) Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5The MOSFET Device Understand its operation by viewing it as a two-port element — + i DS D i G G v DS + v GS S – – D D i DS G G on off v V S v≥ V S GS T GS T V≈1V typically T “Switch” model (S model) of the MOSFET Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 Check out the textbook for its internal structure.Demo Check the MOS device on a scope. i DS + v DS + v GS – – i DS v≥ V GS T v V GS T v DS i v vs DS DS Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5A MOSFET Inverter V = 5V S R L v OUT B IN A A B Note the power of abstraction. The abstract inverter gate representation hides the internal details such as power R GND supply connections, , , etc. L (When we build digital circuits, the and are common across all gates) Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5Example v OUT 5V v v IN OUT v IN 0V V =1V T 5V The T1000 model laptop desires gates that satisfy the static discipline with voltage thresholds. Does out inverter qualify? V = 0.5V V = 0.9V OL IL V = 4.5V V = 4.1V OH IH receiver sender 5 5 1: 1 4.5 V 4.1 OH V IH V 0.9 IL 0.5 V OL 0: 0 0 0 Our inverter satisfies this. Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5E.g.: Does our inverter satisfy the static discipline for these thresholds: V = 0.2V V = 0.5V OL IL yes V V = 4.8V = 4.5V OH IH x V = 0.5V V = 1.5V OL IL no V V = 4.5V = 3.5V OH IH Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5Switch resistor (SR) model of MOSFET …more accurate MOS model D D D G R ON G G S S v≥ V S v V GS T GS T e.g. R= 5KΩ ON Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5SR Model of MOSFET D D D G R ON G G S S v≥ V S v V GS T GS T MOSFET MOSFET S model SR model v≥ V GS T v≥ V GS T 1 i i DS DS R ON v V v V GS T GS T v v DS DS Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5Using the SR model V S R R L L + v V OUT S v – OUT IN C C V= “1” S OUT V Truth table for S R L v OUT V C OUT R ON 01 C=0 10 V S R Choose R , R , V such that: L L ON S v OUT V R S ON v=≤ V C=1 R ON OUT OL R+ R ON L v≥ V GS T Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on DD Month YYYY. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5

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