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University of KwaZulu-Natal TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES Compiled and Edited by Kriben Pillay and Fiona Farquharson Foreword by Professor John Mubangizi October 2014CONTENTS Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... v Foreword: from the Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Head of the College of Law and Management Studies – John Mubangizi .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vii Preface: Kriben Pillay ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ix Editorial: Kriben Pillay and Fiona Farquharson ................................................................................................................................................................ xi Chapter 1: Theoretical approaches to teaching and learning A Piagetian-Bloomsian Approach to Teaching and Learning Economic Concepts – Vanessa Tang .............................. 1 Critical pedagogy for teaching Human Resource Management in the context of social change – Shaun Ruggunan and Dorothy Spiller ................................................................................................................................................................................... 17 Chapter 2: Creative pedagogy using simulations and software MSD – A simulation for understanding social complexity – Shamim Bodhanya and Cecile Gerwel Proches ................... 31 A Pedagogical Intervention Based on Agile Software Development Methodology – Sanjay Ranjeeth, Ashley Marimuthu and Manoj Maharaj .......................................................................................................................................... 42 Chapter 3: Teaching, learning and assessment The experience of using the ‘newsflash approach’ to democratise teaching, learning and assessment at a South African university – Betty Mubangizi and Frances O’Brien ............................................................................................................ 55 The use of Different Types of Multiple-Choice Questions in Electronic Assessment – Upasana Singh and Ruth de Villiers ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 65 Chapter 4: Enhancing student access and throughput Critical Reflections on Management Studies’ Access Initiative – Jabulani Zikhali and Koye Gerry Bokana ..................... 79 Chapter 5: Social regeneration through practitioner research and public leadership LED Postgraduate Education and Mindful Research: Deepening the Practitioner Research Paradigm – Kriben Pillay ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 95 Inculcating public leadership for citizen value – Betty Mubangizi and Francois Theron ................................................................ 107 The Contributors ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 119Chapter 1 Theoretical Approaches to Teaching and LearningTEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES A Piagetian-Bloomsian Approach to Teaching and Learning Economic Concepts 1 Vanessa Tang ABSTRACT The teaching and learning of economic concepts at undergraduate level can be a frustrating passage for both teachers and learners. Students often arrive with a fear of economics as well as weak cognitive skills. Over the years, I have implemented a number of changes in my teaching strategies, eventually adopting a Piagetian-Bloomsian approach. This involves the visual representation and communication of an individual’s knowledge structure, comprising single or multiple concepts which s/he has constructed. It takes the form of a matrix and is similar to mind mapping. This guided instructional technique is designed to foster students’ cognitive growth. Its effectiveness is validated by the results of a survey, which demonstrates that students find this approach useful and that there is a strong positive correlation between higher cognitive skills and this particular teaching approach. An improvement has also been recorded in examination scores over four teaching semesters. Keywords: Piaget, Bloom, cognitive mapping, teaching and learning strategies, economic concepts, undergraduate level INTRODUCTION It is common knowledge that a number of students arrive at university with educational and cognitive deficits. In the teaching and learning of economic concepts, the passage can be frustrating for both teachers and learners. Additionally, students often arrive with a fear of economics. This is because for many students economics is a completely new disciplinary field. The subject includes the application of mathematical methods to represent economic theories - and many students do not enjoy mathematics. Also, as in the study of mathematics, the ability to apply logical and rational reasoning is a vital ingredient in the study of economics. Over the years, I have had to resort to a number of changes in teaching methods and eventually adopted a Piagetian-Bloomsian approach to teaching and learning. At its core is the instructional applicability of Jean Piaget and Benjamin Bloom’s theories and educational principles in developing knowledge. Jean Piaget was a French-Swiss cognitive scientist, whose learning theory on cognitive and constructivist development has had a major influential impact on education. Whilst Piaget’s theory is geared towards knowledge acquisition for children however, his inspired insights on the nature of children and their cognitive growth are useful and can also be applied to adults in higher learning; for essentially what matters in cognitive growth “is 1 e a Th uthor gratefully acknowledges Richard Simson, Arnold Wentzel, Merle Holden and the anonymous referees for their kind suggestions and encouragement. 2Theoretical approaches to teaching and learning not the age at which skills develop, but the sequence in which they develop and how they continue to evolve” (Burman, 2008:162). Echoing a similar viewpoint and influenced by Piaget’s ideas, is the work of Jerome Bruner and his influential book The Process of Education. Piaget’s assimilation-accommodation model of cognitive growth is insightful. His model allows us to reflect on the mental framework that cognitive development is an active process of acquisition and modification – a continuous process, step-by-step, of self-construction and discovery. For decades, a large number of works have used the Piagetian theory to emphasize discovery learning, as Sweller (2009:127) points out. What is the theoretical link between Piaget and Bloom? For Piaget, the mind of the learner exhibits cognitive dualism, but it is a duality of a particular type. For instance, at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), the learner is thrust into a situation where a novel concept is presented by the instructor. Piaget maintains that the learner has two cognitive characteristics. First the learner must assimilate that new concept into her current set of cognate processes which are also two-fold: understanding and acting on the now shifting experiential understanding. These cognate changes are “plans” as it were, and the learner knows that the external reality can confront these plans or desires. The second response (as part of the duality) is that the learner must reconcile or accommodate this new concept with the external world. To be fair, this explanation of the underlying theory confounds Piaget and Vygotsky (Gillen, 2000). The latter sees a fundamental need for an external facilitator in this dual process. Sandwiched in between the learner and the external reality is a conjunctural that an instructor helps the learner negotiate. This is where Bloom’s (1984) paper is explicit as to the role of the instructor or tutor, indicating that his roots are firmly in the Piaget camp via the influence of Vygotsky. Piaget’s and Bloom’s educational theories and realist-constructivist view see learners as “the manufacturers of their own development” (Flavell, 1996:200). This is what inspired and changed my teaching approach. Thus, Piaget’s and Bloom’s educational theories and realist-constructivist views construct learners as “the manufacturers of their own development” (Flavell, 1996:2000). This principle has inspired and changed my teaching approach, which now inhabits a connectionist framework. This paper takes a cognitive-constructivist approach to teaching and learning and proposes a teaching strategy that is designed to engage students and develop their analytical and creative skills as they identify, explore and link key concepts. The effectiveness of this teaching and learning approach is verified by the results of a survey. The overall results show that students find this teaching approach useful and there is also a strong positive correlation between higher cognitive skills and usefulness of the teaching approach. In addition, there has been an improvement in examination scores in four teaching semesters. The paper is divided into seven sections. The first section sets the background. The second section discusses the conceptual adapted framework of the Piagetian-Bloomsian approach. The third section describes the Piagetian-Bloomsian technique and then explores its potential usage as an instructional tool. The fourth section addresses the educational objectives of the Piagetian-Bloomsian approach and offers a practical discussion of its applications. The fifth section provides the empirical framework of this study. The sixth section highlights the hypotheses of the study and discusses the survey methodology and results. Concluding remarks are made in the last section. THEORETICAL BASE Good teaching involves getting students to use higher cognitive level processes (Biggs, 1989) and involves the creation of problem-solving scenarios for learners that follow on from one another, with some guidance and freedom (Piaget in Evans, 1973:53). To be able to discuss with others what one is learning, and learning-by-doing, translates into better understanding (Piaget, 1926). The theoretical considerations of the proposed Piagetian- 3TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES Bloomsian approach support and draw on the realist-constructivist views of both Piaget and Bloom. Visually, the approach is closely related to various graphical organizers that are used in a variety of disciplines. Most of these, such as mind mapping, are based on a cognitive approach. This section explores the conceptual framework of the Piagetian-Bloomsian approach. The theoretical base of Bloom (1984) is relatively easy to discern. While the analysis is mostly empirical, the categories that are set up to evaluate improved performance have an implicit link to the theory of learning. These categories are: firstly instruction in a class with a teacher and the occasional test; secondly the class now with formative testing and feedback from the instructor and peers, and finally the one-on-one tutoring approach. Abstracting from Piaget, this structure is directly from Vygotsky. Bloom’s contribution is to realize the final category is prohibitively expensive. His second category provides a “middle way” without losing too much learning by way of effect. Whether this compromise is entirely effective has yet to be established. Slavin (1987) suggests not. The study does have a short-term bias, however (Bloom, 1987). Berger (2004) is closer to the type of Piaget, Vygotsky and Bloom study that we are conducting here. A cognitive conceptual framework The term “cognitive” gives a broader and deeper theoretical perspective on the idea of how mapping techniques can improve the quality of teaching. Historically, the term “cognitive mapping” was first linked, supposedly, to the experimental investigations of Edward Tolman (1948). He referred to cognitive mapping as mental constructions of the spatial layout of the environment, indicating the location of different features of the environment and the paths linked to them. Others such as Jonassen, Beissner and Yacci (1993) have referred to cognitive mapping as two-dimensional or three dimensional diagrams that represent the structure and relationships between ideas. Piaget’s assimilation-accommodation model of cognitive growth can be used as a basis for cognitive maps and to the end, this active instructional strategy results in conceptual change, since economic concepts are now better and more accurately reasoned and represented – satisfying theoretical views regarding knowledge coherence. According to ongoing research in education, cognitive maps are useful tools for: • Problem solving (Buzan & Buzan, 1993); • Creative thinking (Buzan, 2000); • Representing, assessing, conveying, and acquiring structural knowledge (Jonassen, Beissner, & Yacci, 1993); and • Identifying, exploring, understanding and linking key concepts (White and Gunstone,1992; Novak & Canas, 2008). The aforementioned assumptions, that cognitive mapping can be helpful and can increase learning effectiveness, suggest that cognitive mapping techniques could play an important role in teaching. The sine qua non of most current cognitive maps is that of Bloom’s taxonomy. Usually put in a pyramid structure (although it need not be, see for instance, Sam Weinberg and Jack Schneider, 2010), the elements of any attempt to come to grips with a novel idea, helped by an instructor, must include knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. All of these elements include the four areas above. Bloom’s influence is clearly evident in these expressions of cognitive maps. A constructivist conceptual framework Universities are said to be among the most promising candidates for encouraging constructivist-learning environments (Jonassen, Mayes, and McAleese, 1993). Likewise, Piaget and Bloom recognize the importance 4Theoretical approaches to teaching and learning of students’ active participation. By implication, the educational principle is based on a hardly debatable psychological fact that; “intelligence proceeds from action” (Piaget, 1950:35). Cognitive mapping as a cognitive tool is constructivist because it actively engages learners in the creation of knowledge that reflects their comprehension and conception of the information (Kommers & Lanzing, 1997). In higher learning at UKZN, all courses, now termed modules, require a module template. These templates set out the goals and objectives of a course. In addition, the template also requires some framework for establishing how these goals or objectives are met. No matter what one’s assessment of this structure may be, it is easy to discern that the template structure has antecedents in the taxonomies of Bloom, which, we have argued above, have strong theoretical links to Piaget and Vygotsky. Thus at UKZN, we have the practical expression of well-established (but not without its detractors) educational and cognitive theory. Arising from this practical application of Bloom, it is thus of some interest to determine if the theoretical ideas, on which these practical ideas are based, can be tested in the classroom context at UKZN. Also, the taxonomy of Bloom is undergoing renewed interest, given that on-line instruction, using the so called Web 2.0 applications, is now commonplace. See, for example the Schoenfeld-Tacher, McConnell Graham (2001) study where computer-aided instruction, combined with Bloom’s taxonomy, provided measurable benefits to learners. THE PIAGETIAN-BLOOMSIAN APPROACH In this section, a description of the Piagetian-Bloomsian technique is provided and its potential use as an instructional tool is explored. What is the Piagetian-Bloomsian Technique? The Piagetian-Bloomsian instructional technique is designed to offer a conceptual change regarding knowledge coherence and to foster student’s cognitive growth. The technique is a visual-guided representation and communication of an individual’s knowledge structure – i.e. single or multiple concepts as constructed by the individual. It takes the form of a matrix and is similar to mind mapping. This technique is aimed at stimulating learners and creates a more effective teaching and learning environment. The matrix system of learning has five essential characteristics similar to mind mapping: 1. The main topic is identified. 2. The key themes relating to the main topic are then identified. 3. Colours are used to highlight the main topic and the key themes. 4. Key themes are explored / linked and can comprise key words, definitions, questions, codes, symbols, diagrams or tables. 5. Sub themes are explored/ linked and can comprise key words, definitions, questions, codes, symbols, diagrams or tables. For a visual distinction between the mind map and the Piagetian-Bloomsian approach, please see Figure 1 and Figure 2 in Appendix 1. Technically, it aims to visually provide a one-page recording of knowledge showing relationships or connections among multiple topics/concepts and also allowing one to draw conclusions. As a visual representation of ideas or knowledge, it can help learners to think, or to review a subject in a more structured, holistic sense. 5TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES Uses of the Piagetian-Bloomsian technique Learners need opportunities to discuss their tentative understanding with others and to build conceptual connections to their existing knowledge. Piaget (1926), Laurillard (1993), Jonassen et al. (1993) and Brown (1997) argue that the learner constructs knowledge through active participation both in arriving at, and articulating, their personal understandings of new ideas and concepts. Similarly, Bloom’s taxonomy and its learning expectations echo this viewpoint. As an instructional tool, the Piagetian-Bloomsian technique can be used by teachers in testing, reviewing and stimulating thoughts in a particular unit of a course. A recent paper in this regard is that of Lundquist and Hill (2009), who still find uses for Bloom’s methods in English language instruction. In this case, Bloom’s approach helps to align class test results with university standards and benchmarks. This reinforces our earlier impetus for examining Bloom, as UKZN’s quality control processes rise out of the underlying theory. The Piagetian-Bloomsian representation can be a useful structure/framework for testing, reviewing and stimulating thoughts in a particular unit of a course. It aims to create a way for the teacher and the learner to see interconnections and potential relationships between topics and concepts in the course, thus assisting users to see how best to present the connection between the concepts in the course. This allows learners to present their knowledge in a more logical and coherent form, with the freedom to discuss and confer with peers. When used correctly, this teaching approach can help to reduce the need for student memorization and can also accelerate meaningful cognitive development. Further, this Piagetian-Bloomsian technique can be used by the instructor as the basis for the organization of a lecture and to generate questions so as to stimulate “dormant” thoughts. I have often taught using this approach, but have generally found that this method of teaching works better for smaller groups. In my experience, making “skeleton” concept maps available in advance as lecture notes often leads to a better response and more meaningful cognitive processing. It gives the learners a preview of what they will be working on and also helps to ease the instruction. OBJECTIVES AND APPLICATION OF THE PIAGETIAN-BLOOMSIAN APPROACH In order to provide a sense of realism and to be able to gauge the achievement effects of this Piagetian-Bloomsian instructional approach, this paper uses Bloom’s classic taxonomy of educational objectives (started in 1948 and completed in 1956). The first part of this section of the paper begins by addressing the desired and reasonable educational objectives. The second part provides a description of how students can be introduced to this teaching method, in the process targeting the desired cognitive skills for the teaching of economics. Objectives Whilst the paper chooses to follow Bloom’s classic Taxonomy, it does acknowledge that the twenty-first century has brought us a revision (as illustrated in Figure 1 below) of Benjamin Bloom’s work on the taxonomy of the cognitive domain (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001). Technically, it is worthwhile pointing out that in the revised taxonomy, whilst the hierarchical systems have changed; their instructional objectives have remained essentially the same. For instance, Bloom’s “synthesis” essentially addresses the revised higher cognitive level of “creation”. The classic Bloom’s taxonomy remains useful and for the purpose of this paper, the de facto standard for the educational objectives of learners in economics courses. 6Theoretical approaches to teaching and learning Bloom’s taxonomy, presented in Figure 1 below, identified six educational levels arranged in hierarchy from the least to more complex cognitive objectives. Since the heart of this paper is not on the determination of educational objectives, I refer interested readers to Bloom (1956); Bruner (1960); Saunders and Walstad (1990); Clerici-Arias (1994) and Anderson and Krathwohl (2001). Classic to Revised Objectives Cognitive Levels • Knowledge  Higher Cognitive Remembering Level of Learning • Comprehension  Understanding • Application  Applying • Analysis  Analysing • Synthesis  Evaluating • Evaluation  Creating FIGURE 1: CLASSIC BLOOM’S AND REVISED BLOOM’S TAXONOMIES OF THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN. In educational objectives, when relating to Bloom’s taxonomy of the cognitive domain more explicitly, the first four levels target students’ recall of prior learning; translation of information based on prior learning; the selection and application of data to problem-solving followed by comparative and contrasting analysis. The two highest levels of learning objectives, namely synthesis and evaluation, are closely tied. The synthesis cognitive objective requires the integration of elements and parts, so as to form a whole. This much desired outcome addresses the construction, creativity and inventiveness of learners. On the other hand, the evaluation cognitive objective, placed on the highest cognitive hierarchy, is concerned with the learner’s ability to make a judgment, either quantitatively or qualitatively, based on their own or external criteria. This learning outcome is most challenging in Bloom’s levels of cognitive performance, since it requires competence beyond all the other categories and added logical value. Applications If one accepts that every “learning involves a restructuring of the student’s schemas, learner involvement becomes mandatory” (Webb, 1980:96). The Piagetian-Bloomsian teaching and learning promotes active student engagement (discussing, writing or drawing, asking and answering questions) in teaching and learning. This section of the paper provides an application of the Piagetian-Bloomsian technique in the context of the analysis of Demand and Supply theory. A classroom-lecture/tutorial discussion at first year undergraduate level on the subject of Demand and Supply concepts is the framework of this section of the paper. 7TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES For teachers applying the Piagetian-Bloomsian technique, it is best to start by identifying the main topic of a question/problem that students generally struggle with, which provides the context for their concept map. After the domain or related question/problem has been selected, the next stage is to identify the key concepts that apply to the domain, starting from the most general concepts and arranged hierarchically. Once the preliminary map is built, learners are then guided to seek linkages. In the context of the demand and supply theory of the application, one can refer to a constructed illustrative targeting framework (see Figure 1 in Appendix 2). As illustrated in Figure 1, the main topic and learning objectives as key themes are first identified and later probed. Students are asked to use this framework in discussing and recording their thoughts and notes. Contextualizing the key concept and identifying key themes are a first step. The discussion of each key theme takes the form of several questions; for example, in a discussion on the demand theory, students are required to use their environment to bring about what the law of demand means for each learner’s purchasing decisions. They are also expected to identify related key economic variables, to assess any possible relationships between the key variables and raise hypotheses. Students are encouraged to use both their knowledge of prior learning and their environment to raise questions and possible links so as to discuss each theme. For instance, a discussion on the basic “demand concept” could include and lead to questions such as: (1) what does a demand curve looks like and why? (2) Since demand can affect price, what is the impact of demand on price and why? (3) How sensitive are demanders in the market? And so on… There are many graphs in economics which are used to convey information graphically. Many students are uncomfortable with graphs and graphing, however. Understanding the basic parts of any graph makes reading and graphing easier. On the demand concept, a discussion of the graph would start by hypothesizing the relationship between identified variables. Learners then construct an abstract graph of the relationship. Thereafter, they use the graph to question and determine the steepness or slope of the curve, together with possible shifts and movements along the curve. In the process, exceptional cases are compared and hypothesized. For a discussion of the basic supply theory, interested readers can adopt a similar approach. In my experience, a mirror-image approach to teaching economics (applicable in this case) works well with students, since it simplifies their learning. Students are reminded to integrate the economic issues that have been raised; encouraged to attempt a comparative and contrasting analysis of the key economic concepts under study and to draw their own conclusions. In another classroom session, or, time permitting, at the end of the session, students’ answers can then be discussed. They are encouraged to critically appraise their efforts against a ‘sample format’ provided by the teacher. In the context of the application of this paper, an illustration of a potential sample format is provided for interested readers in Figure 1, Appendix 2. EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK The following section takes a look at the three measures used in this study to assess the validity and reliability of the proposed Piagetian-Bloomsian approach to the teaching and learning of economics: 1. Class Observations 2. Examination results and questions 3. Survey 8Theoretical approaches to teaching and learning Class observations The class observations used the first year undergraduate Economics 101 students at the University of KwaZulu- Natal (Pietermaritzburg campus) as the case study. The Economics 101 module is taught during the first semester. Over the years, with the gradual increase in the use of the Piagetian-Bloomsian teaching strategy, many students are at times opposed (judging by their behaviour), or else quite receptive to this teaching and learning approach. This is possibly due to the students’ previous educational backgrounds (especially learners who have spent most of their schooling learning by rote) or to the fact that this teaching approach requires much “effort”. Over the years, I have also found that in the initial stages of development, the process of application is much harder, especially among bigger teaching groups. There are a number of factors hindering its potential benefits. In my experience, the most important are students’ interest and attitude, followed by the increasing size of the classroom. At this juncture, it is important to mention that there has been a distinct increase in the intake of first year economic students. This has had a severe impact, as it stretches existing resources. Needless to say, the application of a Piagetian-Bloomsian teaching and learning approach is increasingly more demanding and challenging. Examination results and questions I first introduced the Piagetian-Bloomsian approach to teaching and learning in 2005. Between 2005 and 2006, students were introduced to this approach on an irregular basis, since the different aspects of the approach were not yet fully designed. It was only in 2007 and 2008 that I used the approach more extensively. In four teaching semesters, during the period 2005-2008, the examination scores for the case study (Economics 101) have steadily risen, with a distinct improvement from 2007, with a fifty four percent pass rate, to sixty six percent in 2008. As a matter of interest to readers, this Piagetian-Bloomsian approach was not applied in 2009, owing to a sabbatical break. The examination score was found to be relatively lower in 2009. It is worthwhile pointing out that in 2009, the new intake of learners in Economics 101 was the first group solely educated via outcomes-based educational methods. An alternative explanation is that the school system does not impart the necessary learning skills that ease the application of the Piagetian-Bloomsian approach. I have also noticed that the academic profile of students has declined, with larger numbers of weaker students becoming visible, especially after 2008. Whilst we do acknowledge the assistance of tutor support, the support structures (such as budget) and profile of tutors have also weakened. Nevertheless, the standard of examination papers has improved. For a comparison of a higher-order 2005 exam question, relative to the higher-order 2008 exam question, see Figure 2 below. It is worthwhile pointing out that in 2005, the pass rate was 48 percent and 66 percent in 2008. 2005 2008 Derive and explain the Perfect competition and Pure long-run equilibrium of a Monopoly represent two firm under monopolistic extreme market structures. competition and discuss How do the two market critically the concept of forms compare in terms of excess capacity. Be sure to use characteristics, efficiency, diagrams in your discussion. short-run and long-run equilibrium situations? Be sure to use diagrams to support your answer. FIGURE 2: EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 9TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES In the year of this survey, concern had been raised by the university regarding the low pass rates and low throughput rates. An unacceptable number of learners were taking much longer to finish a degree. Clearly, a fresh approach was needed to overcome students’ fear and indifference, as well as addressing the low pass rates and decreasing completion rates. The purpose of conducting a survey was to determine the usefulness and reliability of the Piagetian- Bloomsian teaching approach. In particular, the aim was to assess the correlations between higher cognitive skills and the usefulness of the lecture approach, as well as the relationship between overall intellectual development and usefulness of the lectures. Student feedback from the case study (First Year Economics 101) was collected through a survey administered during the last lecture in May 2008. A total of 205 students took the survey. The students were given an evaluation questionnaire and asked to anonymously evaluate the usefulness of the lectures, as well as the higher perceived cognitive skills acquired and the perceived increased intellectual development. The survey questions used a Likert-scale with values ranging from “agree”, “neutral” to “disagree”. The relationships between the survey questions were examined using the Spearman correlation analysis. EMPIRICAL SURVEY ASSESSMENT Hypotheses This study aims to test the following four hypotheses: • H0: There is no correlation between cognitive skills and usefulness of lectures; • H0: There is no correlation between two highest order cognitive skills; • H0: There is no correlation between increased intellectual development and usefulness of lectures; • H0: There is no correlation between increased intellectual development and cognitive skills. We do this in the next section and find support to “not fail to reject these null hypotheses.” Methodology This study elects to use the Spearman’s rank correlation also known as Spearman’s ρ (denoted as Sρ in this study) to carry out the above hypothesis tests of this study. The Spearman’s correlation technique is appropriate, since we are dealing with non-parametric ordinal data and also the variables in this study are not normally distributed. The correlation tests aim at measuring the magnitude and direction (positive or negative) of the association between paired variables. The null and alternate hypotheses for the Spearman test are: H0: Sρ = 0 H1: Sρ ≠ 0 Mathematically, the Spearman Rank formula is: 6 Σ d² Sρ = 1 – n3 – n1 10Theoretical approaches to teaching and learning where: Sρ = Spearman rank correlation; d = the difference between the ranks of corresponding values; n = number of observations in each data set. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient will take on a value between -1 and +1 and with an adjustment which is distributed approximately as student’s t distribution with n − 2 degrees of freedom under each null hypothesis. All our variables are positively correlated as expected. Results The overall results show that seventy percent of students found this teaching method useful and the results also indicate that sixty-four percent believe that “at the end of this module, I have developed intellectually beyond the point I was at when I started studying this section of economics”. However, only forty-nine percent of students indicated that “as a result of attending lectures, I have learned to think in new ways” and fifty-two percent reported that they have “developed an ability to critically evaluate issues or problems in the field of economics.” The correlation results for the questions (Q) related to the variables under study (for example, evaluation) are shown in the upper correlation matrix below (Table 1) and further supported by the mean statistical results in Figure 1, Appendix 3. TABLE 1: CORRELATION MATRIX Spearman Rank Order Correlations (All P-Values 0.01) Q evaluation Q useful Q intellect Q synthesis Q evaluation 1 0.784 0.838 0.945 Q useful 1 0.911 0.785 Q intellect 1 0.821 Q synthesis 1 The statistical results are indicative of a positive correlation between both higher cognitive skills (synthesis and evaluation) and the usefulness of the lecture approach (n = 205, Sρ = 0.785 and n=205, Sρ =0.784). The findings therefore suggest that a cognitive-constructivist instructional approach may well be associated with the attainment of higher cognitive educational objectives. The P-Values are all at (low) levels. By the usual conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be extremely statistically significant. Thus we are able to put ourselves in the position of being able to “not fail to reject all the null hypotheses.” Additionally, the statistical results point towards a strong positive association between the two higher cognitive skills of evaluation and synthesis (n = 205, = Sρ 0.945). This study therefore provides robust empirical evidence that creative skills and critical skills are strongly and positively related. Lastly, the empirical estimates also indicate a strong positive relationship between increased intellectual development and the usefulness of the lecture approach (n = 205, Sρ = 0.911). The findings thus indicate a strong positive relationship between increased intellectual development and the two higher cognitive skills (n = 205, Sρ = 0.821 and n = 205, Sρ = 0.838). Increased intellectual development is thus significantly correlated with both the theoretically identified categories. This points to the usefulness of the Piagetian-Bloomsian teaching approach in enhancing cognitive skills. Overall, the above empirical findings confirm the usefulness, validity and reliability of this Piagetian- Bloomsian teaching strategy, with an acceptable measured effect size for social science research. 11TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES CONCLUSION This study has explored the effectiveness of a cognitive-constructivist approach to teaching and learning economic concepts. The empirical findings of this study suggest that: (1) creative skills are associated with critical skills; (2) the higher cognitive skills are correlated with the usefulness of the Piagetian-Bloomsian teaching and learning approach; (3) an increased intellectual development is significantly correlated with the Piagetian- Bloomsian teaching and learning approach and (4) an increase in intellectual development is associated with higher cognitive skills. It is well-known that there are a number of students arriving at university with educational deficits. In my experience, although not all students appreciate the Piagetian-Bloomsian teaching and learning approach, the method will evolve over time since we are dealing with an ever-changing heterogeneous group of students. However, I hope that the teaching and learning strategy presented here, along with the findings on its effectiveness will inspire others to interrogate its potential. Also, considering the challenges facing undergraduate studies in South African Universities, educators and educationalists should perhaps pay more attention to the need for constructivist learning and the value to be derived from Jean Piaget and Benjamin Bloom’s work. I hope that in sharing my views and providing a statistical analysis of teaching and learning in economics inspires us to find other approaches to teaching and learning. After all, for Jean Piaget, in conversations with Bringuier (1980:132), “education means making creators… You have to make inventors, innovators, not conformists” and Bloom’s taxonomy encourages this view of Piaget. 12Theoretical approaches to teaching and learning APPENDIX 1 Key word/ key image   Key word/ key image Key word/ key image     THEME THEME THEME Key word/ key image   MAIN TOPIC THEME THEME   Key word/ key image Key word/ key image FIGURE 1: THE MIND MAP APPROACH MAIN TOPIC Theme Theme Theme Theme Theme definitions & / definitions & / definitions & / definitions & / definitions & / key words & / key words & / key words & / key words & / key words & / symbols & / symbols & / symbols & / symbols & / symbols & / diagrams & / diagrams & / diagrams & / diagrams & / diagrams & / tables & / tables & / tables & / tables & / tables & / definitions & / definitions & / definitions & / definitions & / definitions & / key words & / key words & / key words & / key words & / key words & / symbols & / symbols & / symbols & / symbols & / symbols & / diagrams & / diagrams & / diagrams & / diagrams & / diagrams & / tables & / tables & / tables & / tables & / tables & / FIGURE 2: THE PIAGET-BLOOM APPROACH. 13TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES APPENDIX 2 Law Graph Movement (curve) Shift (curve) Equilibrium • P Q • Slope (-ve) • P • in. • Qd = Qs • P Q P P • Income. • Equilibrium price is • -ve • Taste/preferences. the price that equates • Population. quantity demanded • Expectations (future to quantity supplied. If prices). any disturbance from • Prices of other that price occurs excess D D related products demand or excess Q Q (complements and supply emerges. • • substitutes). Excess Supply • P Q • Slope (+ve) • P •  in. (surplus) • P Q P P • Prices of inputs. P • +ve S S • Technology. S • Number of firms. • Expectations (future prices). • Prices of related goods e (complements and Q Q substitutes). • • D Excess Demand (shortage) Q FIGURE 1: PIAGET-BLOOM APPLICATION – DEMAND AND SUPPLY. APPENDIX 3 3.4 Mean Mean ± SE 3.2 Mean ± SD 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 Qevaluation Quseful Qintellect Qsynthesis FIGURE 1: BOX & WHISKER PLOT. 14Theoretical approaches to teaching and learning Acknowledgement The author gratefully acknowledges Richard Simson, Arnold Wentzel, Merle Holden and the anonymous referees for their kind suggestions and encouragement. REFERENCES Anderson, LW & DR Krathwohl 2001. A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Berger, M 2004. The Functional Use of a Mathematical Sign. Educational Studies in Mathematics 55,1: 81-102. Biggs, JB 1989. Approaches to the Enhancement of Tertiary Education. Higher Education Research and Development 8,1: 7-25. Bloom, BS 1956. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. New York: Longmans Green. Bloom, BS 1984. The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring”, Educational Researcher, 13,6:4-16. Bringuier, JP 1980. Conversations with Jean Piaget. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Brown, A 1997. Designing for Learning: What are the Essential Features of an Effective On-line Course? Australian Journal of Educational Technology 13,2: 115-126. Bruner J 1960 e P Th rocess of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Burman, JT 2008. 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Designing Environments for Constructive Learning, NATO ASI Series, Series F: Computer and Systems Sciences, 105, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Jonassen, DH & B Grabowski 1993. Handbook of individual Differences, Learning, and instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: L Erlbaum & Associates. Jonassen, DH, T Mayes & R Mcaleese 1993. A Manifesto for a Constructivist Approach to Uses of Technology in Higher Education. In Duffy T. J Lowyck, D. Jonassen & T Welsh (Eds): Designing the Environments for Constructive Learning. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Kommers, P & J Lanzing 1997. Students’ Concept Mapping for Hyper-Media Design: Navigation through World Wide Web Space and Assessment. Journal of interactive Learning Research 8: 3-4. Laurillard, D 1993. Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Ee ff ctive Use of Educational Technology. London: Routledge. Lundquist, A M & J D Hill 2009. English Language Learning and Leadership: Putting It All Together. e P Th hi Delta Kappan 91,3: 38-43. Novak, JD & Canas AJ 2008. The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct Them. Technical Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01 Rev-01-2008. Florida Institute for Human and machine Cognition. Available at: http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.pdf Piaget, J. 1926. e L Th anguage and Thought of the Child. New York: Harcourt Brace. Piaget, j. 1950. Discours du directeur du bureau international d’education. Dans :treizieme conference internationale de l’instruction publique :proces-verbaux et recommandations. Geneve, bureau international d’education, 35-36. 15TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES Saunders, P & WB Walstad 1990. Principles of Economics Course: A Handbook for Instructors. New York: McGraw-Hill. Schoenfeld-Tacher, R, S Mcconnell & M Graham 2001. Do No Harm: A Comparison of the Effects of On-Line vs Traditional Delivery Media on a Science Course. Journal of Science Education and Technology 10, 3: 257-265. Slavin, RE 1987. Mastery Learning Reconsidered. Review of Educational Research 57,2: 175-213. Sweller, J 2009. What Human Cognitive Architecture Tells Us About Constructivism. In Tobias S & T M Duffy (Eds): Constructivist Instruction Success or Failure. New York: Routledge. Tolman, EC 1948. Cognitive Mapping in Rats and Men. Psychological Review 55: 189-208. Webb, PK 1980. Piaget: Implications for Teaching. Theory into Practice 19, 2: 93-97. White, R & R Gunstone 1992. Probing Understanding. New York: The Falmer Press. Wineburg, S & J Schneider 2010. Was Bloom’s Taxonomy Pointed in the Wrong Direction? e P Th hi Delta Kappan 91,4: 56-61. 16Theoretical approaches to teaching and learning Critical pedagogy for teaching HRM in the context of social change Shaun Ruggunan and Dorothy Spiller ABSTRACT This paper considers the imperatives of human resource management (HRM) studies in the context of contemporary South Africa. The authors draw on critical management studies (CMS) together with the principles of emancipatory education to inform their argument for a critical and relevant HRM curriculum and associated teaching and learning approaches. The authors propose that the content and processes of HRM education should prepare students for critical participation in the workplace and contemporary South African society. The discussion outlines the rationale for the study, the specific prompts for its initiation, the theoretical framework of CMS and Freire’s concept of emancipatory education. Keywords: Critical management studies, emancipatory education, human resource management, criticality, ethics INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE The rationale for this paper emerged from debates on the purpose of higher education and, specifically, the purpose of business education within the context of the current global financial crisis. Over the past two decades, the debate about the purposes of university education has intensified (Barnett, 2005). Multiple stakeholders contend vociferously for particular priorities in university education and for certain agendas. Contributors to the discussion include governments, employers, university leaders, academics, and students. Contestation about the goals of university education has been fuelled by significant changes in the sector, such as mass higher education, internationalisation, technological developments, a reduction in government financial support and associated rises in student fees. Additionally, the rapidity of change in contemporary society has compelled the higher education sector to try and redefine and articulate its usefulness and purpose. The pressure to demonstrate relevance is exacerbated in professional disciplines such as management, because of its immediate and direct relationship to employers and future work opportunities. The literature on the role of business education debates the purpose and practice of business education (Fenwick, 2005; Hault and Perret, 2011; Islam, 2012; Moosmayer, 2011; Pellisery, 2013; Spicer et al. 2009), yet South African academia’s participation in the literature and debates remains largely absent. The Global Foundation for Management Education (GFME) published a series of essays in 2010, attempting to engage with the role of management education within the context of the global financial crisis. Scholarly reflections on the global financial crisis (Das, 2011; Davies, 2010; Stiglitz, 2010) suggest that perhaps a new and more critical approach towards business education is required. As Adler et al. (2007:1) contended, critical management studies have profound consequences for changing management practices. At its core, CMS do not focus on the … personal failures of 17TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE COLLEGE OF LAW AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES: SHARED APPROACHES, LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICES managers nor the poor management of specific firms, but the social injustice and environmental destructiveness of the broader social and economic systems that these managers and firms serve and reproduce. Instead, CMS encourages a management studies education that is concerned with social justice; equitable and fair human resources practices; the environment and the consequences of unethical business practices. Adam Jones, writing in the Guardian in 2009, asked, “Are business schools responsible for the financial crisis?” Whilst such a question may be blunt, and clearly the answer to such a question needs to be nuanced, it does raise the spectre of what exactly is happening in business education at universities. Are the courses on social corporate responsibility and ethics in business merely peripheral ‘add-ons’ to mainstream business curricula? More so, where are the components for a more critical perspective in business curricula? What does a critical business studies education entail, and what does this mean for the business studies academic? South Africa is not viewed as having a critical management studies tradition or movement. This paper is an attempt to spearhead the debate on the role of CMS in the classroom. Our objectives are as follows: • To understand how CMS and emancipatory education can inform a critical approach to teaching and learning in human resources management education at a tertiary level; and • To explore how this may operate in practice. The authors reflect on these objectives in the context of HRM education in contemporary South Africa. The paper proposes that HRM educators must prepare students for critical participation in a volatile and dynamic workplace that is beset by challenges inherited from the Apartheid era and the uncertainties and tensions attendant on the new democracy. The term critical participation was chosen deliberately to emphasise the need to develop practitioners who are not simply agents of business, but who are equipped to interrogate the social, political, and ethical values that underlie business practices and discourses. Corresponding to this goal, the paper argues for an HRM curriculum and teaching and learning approaches that help to nurture the attributes of reflection, discernment, critique, and evaluation. In the ensuing discussion, these questions about the content and processes of HRM education are considered in an exploratory manner. The exploration is located in the ideas of CMS and emancipatory education, and the specific personal and political prompts for the study are identified. Supported by the framework of CMS and emancipatory education, the paper outlines a proposal for reconceptualising the curriculum, teaching and learning approaches, and assessment strategies in HRM education. The vision and strategies that are proposed are seen as the first stage of an extended project that aims to review current HRM education design and approaches, and offer approaches that will hopefully equip students for critical participation in the workplace. This paper begins with the personal narrative of one of the authors (Shaun Ruggunan), who is currently lecturing in HRM at the School of Management, Information Technology and Public Governance, which is located in the College of Law and Management Studies of UKZN. The paper outlines the contextual drivers that prompted initial stocktaking of the teaching and learning space that he was occupying and in which he was inducting students into the profession of HRM. In particular, he was concerned that students were being prepared in ways that did not equip them to contest business and organisational norms and their attendant hierarchies and inequities. From this recognition, the research idea to evaluate the critical component of the teaching of HRM at UKZN evolved. In the next stage of this paper, the authors locate themselves in relation to ideas from, and debates within the CMS literature. Informed by the educational theories of Freire, the authors articulate the criteria they will use to take stock of the current teaching of HRM at UKZN, and suggest alternatives. The paper concludes with a 18

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