Advanced Construction and Building Technology

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Publication 367 Advanced Construction and Building Technology for Society CIBW119CIC 2012 Author Index Author Index Abulfahem, Mohammad 1 Arshad, Muhammad Irfan 6 Avina Zavala, Marta Ester 17 Biljeek, Mona 23 Butt, Nasir Tabarruk 27 Georgescu, Bogdan 33 Grisales P., Alejandro 38 Jacob, Jan-Felix 46 Maharjan, Jenny 51 Pan, Wen 57 Rahaman, Musta zur 62 Saimaiti, Paerhati 67 Tsompanoglou, Nefeli 72 Uddin, Mohammad Jamal 78 Vlachousi, Melina Panagiota 84 Yang, Xufeng 90 Zhang, Tianyi 95 1CIBW119CIC 2012 Keyword Index Keyword Index adaptable kitchen 51 aging slope reduction 33 aging society 51, 62, 95 ambient assistive technology 51 application 67 architecture 62 assistant bed 95 assistive design 33 automation 6, 38, 46, 57, 72, 84 automation and robotics 90 automation in construction 17 building Construction 6 building production 1, 17 concrete building 84 concrete prefabrication 90 construction 84 construction industry innovation 17 construction Robotics 6 construction-simulation 78 construction-visualization 78 decubitus 95 demographic change 51, 90 demographic change design 62 design systems 27 domestic fabrication 23 economic impact 46 eciency 46 eciency. 38 elderly professionals 33 furniture 72 future perspective 6 guideline 67 guidelines 1 industrialization 1 integration 38 interactive architecture 67 1Mass customization limitation and guidelines in prefabricated construction Mohammad Fuad Abulfahem Department of Architecture, Building Realization and Robotics Lab, Technical University Munich, Germany Corresponding author (mohammadfuad.abulfahemtum.de) Purpose In the start of 20th century, most economies in the world were industrialized economies. This industrialization introduces the mass production concept along with other strategies like mass distribution, mass marketing and mass 1 media . Mass production covered most industries in our life and one of the newsiest industries which adopt mass pro- duction strategy is building construction industry. However, a combination of advances in information and technology (Robotics and advanced equipment ) is making the production increasingly possible to mass customize - to rapidly re- 2 spond to consumers with customized products at mass-production prices . Mass customization in prefabricated building construction industry is a new strong tool based on integrating organizational structure over the whole value chain corre- sponding with information flows between enterprises product, machinery, robots, customer and all complementary sub- 3 processes but in the other hand this mass customization should be controlled by some guidelines depending on some aspects like the type of building (wood, brick or concrete ), architectural aspect, location and climate where the products are targeted. Method By studying and analyzing the different types of prefabricated building construction methods (linear production, 2D production, 3D production ) which apply the principle of mass customization production the author pre- sents the degree of customization for each method, the type of relationship between the factory and the customer and the rules which control this relation. Results & Discussion After studying and analyzing those methods of prefabricated construction and the relationship between the customer and the factory, the author considers a set of general guidelines for building design should be adopted as standards in building mass production industry according to all the data and information acquired in this research and with the respect of architectural and civil engineering standards in construction along with the costumer needs, moreover the guideline will redraw the role of the architects in building production industry. Keywords: Industrialization, Mass Customization, prefabrication, building production, Mass production, guidelines. this strategy aim to product a large amounts of INTRODUCTION standardized products, including and especially on The industrial revolution(1750-1850) made a big 4 assembly lines , this concept had its maximum changes in the world economy, because it almost popularity in 1910 establishing the first moving as- effect all industries in every person life start from sembly line by Henry ford which reduced the pro- food and agriculture industry ends with transporta- duction time for model T cars from 728 hours to 1.5 tion, by innovating a new technologies and machines 5 hours . Some of the manufactures start to add more which enhancing the performance of productivity in value for their products by introducing the custom all of these fields, this improvements could be seen made products, this marketing strategy makes the clearly in manufacturing industry, before the revolu- customer to pay more for getting the product which tion, manufacturing was depending on tools and satisfying his exact needs but in the other hand it human labor and it was so slow and costly for both will cost more and not all of the customers will afford side the manufacture and the customer, after the it, from this point most of manufactures start to think revolution and the integration of new technology and more about the customer needs and step by step the machines the flow of work start to be faster because customers start to be a part of the production it start depending on machines, tools, and human progress then the mass production market moved labors in that order and of course the products toward new strategy which called mass customiza- efficiency was improved. After 1850 the market de- tion. is fast emerging as a popular business strategy mand for products start to increase and add more which aims to also cater to individual expressed pusher on the factories because of the increasing needs of end users at prices closely comparable to number of population specially in cities after the 6 mass produced items . This strategy covered most immigration of the people from superb to the cities of industries in the world economy and had a great this immigration is conceder as one of the result of feedback from the customers. One of the newest industrial revelation, so they started to adopt a new strategy which called "mass production" 1 industries which adopt mass customization tion and marketing are usually regarded as ‘ser- strategy is prefabricated building construction. vices’. To generate a housing development, these two aspects are again involved with housing materi- als and systems as the products and the design and construction of these homes as the services. When viewed as a ‘system’ for designing, producing and selling a product, "mass customization" is impossible without customizable products or communication services. In this case the services are where the customers can be interact with the factory to help them customize an end product. At the design stage the customer should determines the configuration of their home from choices given by the factory by using a selection catalogue to enable clients to easily choose from the many options. basically the cus- tomer can choose colors of the walls, materials Fig.1. Henry ford first moving assembly line for ford for which are used in the house ,kitchen ,toilets, lighting model T cars (1913) doors, windows and all other details which provided by the factory with full consulting service from the architects . After that all of these data transport to construction and civil engineers who will decide how many prefabricated building components (product) they going to need and what size of this components. In addition to that they provided a customer relationship management which aim to strengthen its continuous contact with its long-term customers, and warranty for their houses which 8 could reach up to 25 years . Fig.2. relationship between degree of customer adaption in production progress and the cost of the product . This paper studying and analyzing the different types of prefabricated building construction methods (line- 7 ar production, 2D production, 3D production ) which apply the principle of mass customization production the author presents the degree of customization for each method, the type of relationship between the factory and the customer and the rules which control this relation. PREFABRICATED BUILDING CONSTRUCTION METHODS There are three types of prefabricated building con- struction methods each one of them is specify for different kind of materials, these types are : 1. linear production ( brickwork ) . 2. 2D production ( wood and concrete work ) . 3. 3D production ( steel frame units ) . LINEAR AND 2D PRODUCTION : In this type to design, build and market a home requires consideration of both products and services. Fig.3. The customers with the architect in the design A building consists of many components, which can stage ( Baufritz factory ) be considered as ‘products’, while design, construc- 2 3D production : The basic tenants include: In this kind of building prefabrication production, 1.Just-In-Time Japan is taking the lead as the most the advanced 2.Jidoka and industrialized fabrication systems in the world . 3.Heijunka prefabrication companies like Toyota Home is the 4.Standard Work best example to describe mass customization in 3D 5.Kaizen 9 production . Fig.4. Toyota home logo Toyota’s innovation a new manufacturing process shortly after the Second World War. Many of Japan’s industrialists were impressed by America’s speed in which they could build aircraft and vehicles utilizing the Ford mass production model of automation, as- sembly line, and economies of scale. In starting a new with these processes, they could evaluate the short comings of the Ford model, with a new critical Fig.6. Toyota production system eye and develop their own process known as the “Toyota Production System” or TPS. This system has been highly praised and received awards around the the Heijunka principle is giving costumer the ability globe for its focus on people through mass customi- 10 to customize facilitates both customer predictability zation and utilization of economies of scope and and product variety, Toyota Home keeps inventory made an extension of conventional marital low and in constant supply. Toyota accomplishes this - information flows "Push production'' in to a new by manufacturing directly to customer order. Stand- concept based on current demands ''Pull production ard work allows for Toyota Home to keep a well- " this new concept aim to make the factory output to stocked supply of raw materials. The future owner of be pulled by the customers instead of pushing, so it a home will go to the Toyota home park where they will give the chance for the customers to have a may browse many of the options and select specif- complete synchronization between production ics. The Toyota home website allows patrons to vir- progress, materials suppliers and the customer 11 tually apply a variety claddings, colors, demands and needs . exterior /interior ornament in a customizable envi- ronment to suit their needs and tastes. All of these options are based on the same raw materials kept in stock so when the order is issued, they can be pulled off the shelves and go through the process of as- sembly to component to module to whole house erection on site. Not all of the elements that are compiled to make the Toyota Home modules and finally the completed structure are customized. From the decades of producing automobiles, Toyota un- Fig.5. how the push / pull production works . derstands the principles of utilizing standard compo- nents and systems make the drive towards efficiency much simpler. Each year a handful of car models are Several industries, other than the automotive sector, produced, many of which are modifications of the have been using this production model as a basis in previous year's production. A basic model with minor which to ground their own practice. Toyota Home modifications over several years allows Toyota to saw the housing industry as no exception to the understand the core structure of the automobile, and principles of TPS Toyota has taken 5 of its 14 thereby produce the part with greater effectiveness principles used in automat factoring and applied and reduced cost. Therefore, the modules are them to the prefabricated housing market . standardized with customization built into the config- uration and relationships between modules. The Toyota Home models: Vietrois, Smart Stage, and Espacio Mezzo are made unique by the modules 3 that make up the final house. There are 12 modules progress in the other hand the costumers can con- to a home, depending on the size requested by the trol only the visual aspects ( color and texture )of this owner. The modules themselves are built with a steel element . frame that can be easily adapted to the often-varying 2. At the design stag the architects should have the lengths of modules. Each of the modules’ steel main role, they will provide for the customers two frames is specifically designed for Japan’s seismic options, to choose one of the readymade modules activity. When the Toyota’s modules are locked to- which provided by the factory then add some chang- gether, the structural frames of the modules in tan- es by the customer to meet his own demands with dem create a rigid structure. The spaces inside the total support from the factory architects or ask the modules may be delineated by interior partition walls architects to make a new design for them and pro- or may be defined as needed. Standard work allows vide them with some their detailed information which the manufacturer and consumer to be extremely help the architects to come out with best design confident that the product they produce and receive which meet the customer specific needs. This design will be of the utmost practiced quality. Toyota’s confi- will be presented to the customer, get there feedback dence is expressed in offering a guarantee of up to and comments then modify it regarding these 12 60 years on the life of the prefabricated house . comments. the changes in the design should not have any conflict with architectural aspect and standard. 3. The factory should provide for the customer all the support which he will need to select his options by affording a full details catalogs presented in very attractive way ( computer or physical version), this catalogs should have a variety of options for each elements and detail of the building which can be customized with the help of the factory architects. This step will save a lot of time for both sides ( customer and the factory ) . Fig.7. Module fabrication at Toyota Home factory in Japan. GRIDLINES AND CONCLUSION Mass customization covered most of industries in the world economy and had a great feedback from the customers, especially in prefabricated building construction industry, because of the integration of advanced information and technology in prefabricat- ed building construction industry (Robotics and ad- vanced equipment ). After studying the three types of Fig.8. Rendering of one of Toyota customizable prefabricated building construction methods and the home designs degree of customization for each method, the type of relationship between the factory and the customer and the rules which control this relation, the Author 4. After completing the design stag and starting with come out with some general guidelines to control production progress the factory should keep the this relation. these guidelines are :- customer updated in all production steps and keep 1. Each prefabricated building construction methods ready for and kind of modification from the customer, have its own elements like main structure, compo- also they should give him exact date of handover . nents and main frame or skeleton all of them related 5. With handing over the factory have to give quality to the main core of the building these elements are certificates and warranty To prove performance, designed, manufacture, examine and testing by quality and durability of the house and its architect, civil engineers, construction engineers and sub-systems to the customers. and providing for the mechanical engineers from factory itself to provide building regular inspection and long term highest level of quality and comfort for the product maintenance. ( building ) and maximum efficiency of load bearing, and climate resistance, these elements are the only things cannot be customized in the whole production 4 References 1,2. Tim Crayton, "The Design Implications of Mass Customization" 2001, Design Intelligence http://www.di.net/articles/archive/2054/. 3. Thomas Bock. Thomas Linner "Individualization of design variation in construction'', 2010, 27th Inter- national Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, pp. 597-604. 4. Hounshell, David A., '' From the American System to Mass Production'' 1984, 1800-1932. 5. Siems, T. F. Supply chain management: The science of better, faster, cheaper. Southwest Economy, March/April 2005 Issue 2. 6. R Balamuralikrishna, KA Rosentrater, M Rajai, Mass Customization and Its Curricular Implications,2006 , for Four-Year Degree Programs in Manufacturing Technologies. 7. Thomas bock .introduction history, recent develop- ment ,2011 , Module p03 ARC, Industrialized Cus- tomization in architecture . 8. Dr Masa Noguchi, The ‘Mass Custom Design’ Ap- proach to the Delivery of Quality Affordable Homes, 2003, http://www.masscustomhome.com/ 9. Thomas Bock. Thomas Linner "Individualization of design variation in construction'', 2010, 27th Inter- national Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, pp. 597. 10. Liker, Jeffrey K. The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the World’s Greatest Manufacturer. 2004, 11. Fuijimoto,T. The Evolution of a Manufacturing sys- tem at Toyota , 1999, oxford University Press , NewYork, oxford . 12. Fig1.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d 0/AssemblyLine.jpg Fig2.http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0- S016636150200060X-gr3.jpg Fig3. http://www.baufritz.com/en/your-home/design/ Fig4. http://www.toyotahome.co.jp/ Fig5. http://www.cvis.cz/eng/pictures/04_03.jpg Fig6.http://www.lean.org/Common/LexiconTerm.aspx?t ermid=353&height=550&width=700 Fig7.Ryan E. Smith, WITHOUT A HITCH: NEW DI- RECTIONS IN PREFABRICATED ARCHITECTURE Lean Architecture: Toyota Home Project, 2009 pp. 178-184 .Photo Credits: Katsumi Kasahara, AP Fig8. (www.toyota.com) 5 Automated Horizontal Building Construction – A new Paradigm Muhammad Irfan Arshad Department of Architecture, Building Realization and Robotics Lab, Technical University Munich, Germany Corresponding author (Irfan.arshadtum.de) Purpose Construction has always been a labour intensive industry, but the demographic changes, high-wage manpower and their shortage are the factors posing new challenges especially for the developed countries. This paper outlines the study for a construction project to meet the new challenges. The aim of the study and initial idea was to provide a con- struction solution for an urban environment while integrating certain design parameters, creating least disturbance to neighbours, applying modern construction engineering techniques and management to limit the structure erection time down to ten days. In most of the Japanese automated construction systems like Shimizu’s SMART and ABCS & Big Canopy of Obayashi, robotic trolleys/cranes are used for transportation and positioning of building elements. These sys- tems have vertical material transportation/delivery systems for high rise buildings, but there is nothing significant for rapid construction if the buildings are longer horizontally. Method Seven design parameters are analysed and available real world models are studied. These parameters are decentralized energy generation, in-situ farming, in-situ resource utiliza- tion, life-work integration, rapid construction, Ubiquitous-city design and on site & off site logistics. Although, it is found difficult to fully integrate these parameter in designing the building. An underground building construction is selected, and is emphasized to mainly integrate in-situ farming as one of the design criteria. Pre-fabricated customized elements, con- struction automation and robots are used to reduce the labour consumption and completion time. The past two decades have witnessed an intense/active search among researchers for suitable ways to introduce robotics into the construction 1 field . The future points to the application of IT to the construction robots for the overall processes of civil engineering 2 work from the planning and design stages to the maintenance management . Results & Discussion As a result of study, the concept of a new construction robot is presented which performs horizontally. It will receive the stack of build- ing elements from a suitable starting point and will move horizontally on the rails to reach at required location for place- ment. These rails are the structural members of the building as well. The proposed robot can be used for horizontal on- site logistics in combination with robotic cranes to expedite the construction progress. This will set a new paradigm of horizontal building construction in the future, but at the moment still there is plenty of room for improvement pertaining to robotics and automation. Keywords: Building Construction, Automation, Construction Robotics, future perspective - research activities and the research results are intro- INTRODUCTION 4 duced . Socio-demographic changes are posing more chal- As a result, at least ten weather protected automated lenges in addition to common construction worker construction systems were developed in Japan till problems like health & safety issues and on-site haz- 1995 by different companies. Currently many single ards. Demographic change studies dealing with elder- task construction robots are also used in combination ly population growth reveal a relatively rapid increase with automated construction systems. These have the towards the ageing society. Young worker in devel- vertical material delivery system for building construc- oped countries are already not much interested in this tion. industry because of working conditions. It is expected This study deals with the horizontal building construc- that in the next half century the proportion of elderly 3. tion. The first phase is comprised of research on de- people will increase from 7% in 2000 to 16% in 2050 sign criteria to meet the modern day needs of building This situation demands for technological solutions construction in a city area. This includes the study of with the changing needs. seven design parameters and their applications. The In Japanese manufacturing industry, research and problems confronted to integrate these parameter in introduction of automation and robotization was start- building construction are analyzed. The result of this ed in 1950’s. In 1970’s they were enjoying fruits of procedure affected the overall concept, and opened their efforts and labor productivity and labor condi- the new direction to discuss. Finally a new approach tions were much improved. Following that of manu- is presented for horizontal building construction. facturing industry the research in construction indus- try was started around in 1980’s. The nationwide 6 RESEARCH GOAL TBM's real-time position state, the tunnel design and Construction of buildings in downtowns have more the construction progress. It aids project managers in 8 making critical decisions on a near real-time basis . issues like logistics problem in the busy day life, una- vailability of storage/laydown area, disturbance to There is already the concept of horizontal skyscraper and one realized example is of Vanke Center, a neighbors in a commercial area etc. These problems are catalyst to adapt a new approach of construction. mixed used building, completed in 2009 at Shenzhen, China. Its elevated structure also provides an en- With the technological advancement, it is already hanced function of protection from damage in the possible to reduce the construction time. The induc- tion of automation and robotics in construction is event of tsunami. changing the trend from construction to “production” of buildings. So a target of on-site building structure erection was limited down to ten days. The idea was to develop a construction solution for cities to imple- ment the rapid construction on site with a concept of thinking a building as a high-quality product or a ser- vice that needs to be delivered rather than as con- struction. It was to be considered that the finished building itself should be highly independent (in terms of energy, resources, food, work) with life work inte- gration at the same time. 6 Fig.2. Horizontal Skyscraper, The Vanke Center RELATED WORK Different automated systems are used for the hori- The architectural design, carried out by Steven Holl zontal infrastructure projects. Kawasaki Heavy Indus- Architects, uses the concept of a floating ground line tries developed an automated tunnel construction that results in a horizontal skyscraper over a maxim- system for the sea-bottom tunneling work. It is com- ized landscape. An architectural rendering of the posed of shield machine and automated segment building is shown in Fig.3. handling and assembly systems. Fig.3. Three-dimensional view showing the architect’s 7 rendering of the building (image created by Ying Gao) In USA, eVolo Magazine Skyscraper Competition 2011, the second place was awarded to Yoann Mescam, Paul-Eric Schirr-Bonnans, and Xavier Schirr-Bonnans from France for a dome-like horizon- Fig.1. vacuum carrier lifted segments from the flat car, 5 tal skyscraper that harvests solar energy, collects first use of vacuum erectors on Kawasaki TBMs rainwater, and preserves the existing urban fabric at ground level thanks to its large skylights and small This system is contributing to increasing productivity 9 footprint . and shortening construction period of time of tunnel construction work. The similar system was success- 4 fully applied to the construction of the Dover Tunnel . Correct positioning of TBMs is essential to avoid ac- cidents, driving these machines underground is not possible without proper positioning system. It may take up to few weeks to determine the exact position and alignment. Lately, an automation solution is de- veloped to this problem in Canada which integrates automation control mechanisms, innovative compu- ting algorithms, and wireless network technologies. A user friendly 3-D platform is provided to describe the Fig.4. dome-like horizontal skyscraper 7 In-situ farming STUDY AND LITERATURE REVIEW In-situ is a Latin phrase which translates literally to 'In The first step towards the research goal was to study 12 and analyze the design parameter with the real world position . This parameter encourages to make use of on-site available resources and harvesting the one’ examples. own farm at his location. Vertical farming is a good way to implement in cities. There are different options Decentralized energy generation for in-situ farming like aeroponics (process of growing To provide a decentralized energy generation, differ- ent practiced energy resources were studied along plant in air or mist environment without soil), wall system (mounting panels to the wall with required with related physical factors, technologies, disad- vantages, storage and the efficiency. Wind, waste, quantity of water supply) and hydroponics (growing plants using mineral nutrient solution). Different tech- sunlight, heat, kinetics and water are different energy resources at present in use. Wind power is one of the nologies had already implemented pertaining to these options like aerofarm, parabienta, plantlab/nuvege, renewable energy resources to make useful energy verticop and omega garden. First high intensity verti- by windmills, wind pumps or sails. It also has less environmental impacts. Many Countries like USA, cal hydroponic system of its kind is installed at Paignton Zoo in England to feed the animals. Germany, India, UK, Spain, China, Italy, Canada, France and others are already using it for power gen- eration. Organic waste is a resource that needs to be tapped and not to be wasted into landfills or reduced to ash- es and dust in incinerators. The renewable energy produced from anaerobic digestion process can be seen as a good reason for many communities to start 10 transformation of our valuable resources . Electricity production and the usage in internal combustion en- gine are the common examples of biogas. Sunlight is another widely recognized renewable source of energy which is free of cost and clean en- ergy with negligible environmental impacts. It can be utilized for power production using different technolo- gies like photovoltaic panels (silicon/organic) and 13 Fig.6. Vertical hydroponic system to feed zoo animals artificial photosynthesis. Kinetics is another energy resource; human move- In-situ resource utilization ment can also be used to produce energy by piezoe- As per this parameter, it is preferred to use the on-site lectric effect. Commuters on the Tokyo station walk on available resources. The examples of in-situ resource a piezoelectric sheet which generates electricity when 11 utilization can be seen in the past like the people of pedestrian step on it . the mid-coast region of Perú have used totora (plant) to build their caballitos de totora, small rowed and 14 straddled fishing vessels, for at least 3,000 years . The Uru people, an indigenous people predating the Inca civilization, live on Lake Titicaca upon floating islands fashioned from this plant. The Uru people also use the totora plant to make boats (balsas) of the 15 bundled dried plant reeds . Fig.5. Energy generating floors at Tokyo Subway Station Water can also be used for power generation by us- ing water splitting, turbines or pumped hydro storage technologies. High rise building can produce power from rainwater as it falls from almost 200m in a 50 floor building. 8 16 Fig.7. Totora Reed Boat promotes walking, cycling, and use of public Cherrapunji, a sub-divisional town in the East Khasi transport. BedZED’s target is a 50% reduction in Hills district in the Indian state of Meghalaya is fa- fossil-fuel consumption by private car use over the mous for its living bridges. These people know the next 10 years compared with a conventional devel- techniques to grow the roots of ficus elastica (rubber opment. A “pedestrian first” policy with good lighting, tree) into large bridges, and they are practicing it from drop curbs for prams (strollers) and wheelchairs, and 22 hundreds of years. a road layout that keeps vehicles to walking speed . According to NASA, in-situ resource utilization will The concept of life-work integration is expressed in enable the affordable establishment of extraterrestrial the building project. Work area and residential area exploration and operations by minimizing the materi- are integrated into one building volume. Residents als carried from Earth and by developing advanced, are encouraged to work within the community. How- autonomous devices to optimize the benefits of avail- ever there are only small numbers of residents em- 17 able in-situ resources . Lunarcrete, also known as ployed within the community. "Mooncrete", an idea first proposed by Larry A. Beyer of the University of Pittsburgh in 1985, is a hypothet- Rapid construction ical aggregate building material, similar to concrete, Rapid construction is a concept to enhance efficiency formed from lunar regolith, that would cut the con- of construction process flow by time reduction to en- 18 struction costs of building on the Moon . There is an sure the successes of project delivery in a chronicle idea of lunar pad construction on moon using the time of contract and meets client satisfactions. Based lunarcrete. on the analysis, the rapid construction can be achieved through the basic principle which focusing 23 Life-Work integration on eliminating waste . It is a tendency and flexibility of having a choice for The builders of the Broad Group Corporation in china the employees in an organisation to have different established its next record of building 30-storey hotel options available to choose regarding working hours, Ark Hotel in just 15 days. They already had the record location and decision making, considering the needs of 15-storey hotel construction in the city of Changsha 24 and liabilities beyond work. This is something like in a little less than six days . juggling the five balls at once i.e; work, family, friends, 19 health, spirit (or self) . One of these balls (Work) is of rubber, but dropping a glass ball like family or heath can cause an irrecoverable damage. This parameter can be integrated not only in organi- sations but infrastructure as well to provide the facili- ties for the workers. Employers like Xerox offers flexible working hours, job sharing and flexible spending cost for child care. Beddington Zero Energy Development (BedZED) is an environmentally friendly housing development in Hackbridge, London, designed by the architect Bill 20 Dunster to support a more sustainable lifestyle . 24 Fig.9. Construction of Ark Hotel in China British developed the baily bridge during the World Fig.8. BedZED Community with a concept of sustainable War II for military, and used extensively by British and 21 lifestyle and life-work integration US forces. These are portable, prefabricated and no special tools required for construction. The bridges One of BedZED’s unique community considerations were strong enough to carry tanks. The design was is its take on transportation. A green transport plan modular and the modern baily bridges are still in use. 9 There are other products like Wenzlau military shel- inventory, and are therefore not a simple solution for ters, modular tentage system (MTS), MECC (mobile a company to adopt. The company must follow an expandable container system), air beam and air array of new methods to manage the consequences 28 frame are available in the market for fast deployment of the change . related to shelters. On site & off site logistics play an important role in the JIT philosophy. This philosophy was subsequently U-city design adapted by Toyota and other Japanese manufactur- The aim of U-city is to create a built environment ing organizations after its origination in Japan in where any citizen can get any services anywhere and 1950s. anytime through any ICT devices. Tremendous Pit stops is a good example to analyze how the many speeding in ICT development has brought the con- functions are performed to a racing vehicle in few ventional city in terms of intelligence, innovation and seconds like refueling, tires change, repairs and me- 25 evolution to E-city and then to U-city . Many cities chanical adjustments. The age of the modern pit stop around the world have constructed the digital infra- arrived when changes were made to the sporting structure under “smart city” or “intelligent city” projects regulations for the 1994 season to allow fuelling dur- like Stockholm (Sweden), Philadelphia (USA) and ing the race. By the time refueling was banned again Songdo (Korea). at the end of 2009, a driver’s visit to the pits had be- Korea is striving to attain its ultimate vision of creating come breathtaking in its speed and efficiency. Such is a “ubiquitous” society. Many of local governments are the skill of mechanics that routine tyre stops can be 29 interested in becoming U-City, and New Songdo's U- over in under three seconds . City project, to be completed by 2014, is the biggest Cranes are typical to be used for on-site material such initiative among those underway at various loca- logistics. Japanese automated construction systems tions around the country and the world. are utilizing robotized cranes and vertical delivery system by making use of modularity and pervasive technologies in construction. RFID technologies are already in use in many industries for logistics and product tracking in a highly automated environment. Kiva Systems, Inc. uses game-changing automation technology for distribution centers that helps compa- nies simplify operations and reduce costs while in- creasing strategic flexibility. Using hundreds of auton- omous mobile robots and sophisticated control soft- ware, the Kiva Mobile-robotic Fulfillment System ena- bles extremely fast cycle times with reduced labor requirements, from receiving to picking to shipping. 26 Fig.10. Songdo u-City, South Korea The result is a building that is quick and low-cost to set up, inexpensive to operate and easy to change 30 As an IT leader, Japan took a lead and switched from anywhere in the world . Fast company magazine has rd e-Japan to “U-Japan Strategy”. Since 90’s after the announced Kiva system as world’s 23 most innova- 31 digital city of Kyoto, the U-City approach is adopted in tive company . Osaka City and continues to spread in the country. Currently, “Tokyo Ubiquitous Technology Project” is in progress, and a feasibility study experiment is being conducted in Ginza from February 1 to March 31, 2012. On site & off site logistics Production home building possesses characteristics similar to manufacturing processes, such as the con- struction of more or less similar houses repeatedly and a growing demand for mass customization of homes. As a result of these similarities, larger home- builders often attempt to view their production system 27 as an assembly line process . Just in time (JIT) is a 31 Fig.11. Kiva Systems production strategy that strives to improve a busi- ness return on investment by reducing in- The different offsite logistics options are rail, road, process inventory and associated carrying costs. JIT water and air transportations. The Boeing Pelican inventory systems expose hidden cost of keeping 10 concept of a huge plane would have a cargo capacity tact as much as possible. Low building footprint, easy of 1400 metric tons, and a range of 10,000 nautical subway access, better sound insulation and less miles with a main mode to fly 20-50 ft. over water. It design restrictions were advantages of constructing would also fly overland at an altitude as high as 6100 underground. m with a decreased range of about 6500 nautical On the other hand, generation of revenue beyond a 32 miles . public part was also important to attract the investors while conserving the old architecture of the historical CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT site by not introducing a new architectural typology. The site Munich “Marienhof” (near Marienplatz) was selected in the downtown. It is a free space since World War II, located directly behind the Munich City Hall. Here the Marienhof area had been completely destroyed and was not re-built in order to mitigate Munich’s hi-density. Fig.14. providing more public space on ground by con- structing underground Since Karlsplatz is the lowest subway station and its 34m below surface, so we assume that Marienplatz subway station is 24m below ground. The initial idea was of 6 storeys underground which may go up to Fig.12. Location of site in Munich City from Google Maps 20m deep. Interim Concept We started with an idea of simple pyramidal volume displaced from the ground to create a gap leading down into the subway station. After excavating down to subway lines, subway is then utilized to transport prefabricated modules into the site for erection. Fig.13. Location behind Marienplatz (city’s main square) Fig.15. Basic idea and stacking of the modules after off- from Google Maps site logistics through subway The location is surrounded by commercial area, and The two different options regarding energy harvesting many of the road around are only accessible by pe- were considered: Windows can double up as surfac- destrians. The area has tourism importance and peo- es to capture and harvest energy from sunlight ple come here for shopping. The park on this site was through solar window technology, and harvesting providing a good green public space to counteract the energy from the braking power of the busy subway city’s downtown area. So we decided to construct train lines below. something underground to keep its public space in- 11 Final Concept After the final concept inception of construction of Underground farming and commercial hub, the final space utilization was decided. The V-shaped air venti- lation and sunlight passage was modified into circular shape for better air circulation and visibility. Fig.16. Orientation of prefab. modules in a cascade manner to allow sunlight to pass through floors Fig.20. Site Plan Fig.17. Conceptual Sketches (Left) Hotel modules (Right) Isometric view from top Level- 1 Level- 2 Fig.18. Interim Idea about the utilization of space The construction of shops and hotel idea further de- veloped to underground farming and commercial hub. Hotel and Shops Pyramidal hotel structure separated from the shops lining the passageway down to the subway station. Findings: The hotel doesn’t benefit from the underground quality, people like nice view around Level- 3 Level- 4 Fig.21. Floor Plans Underground Farming and Commercial Hub First level is designed as an open market where in- - Possible to do mass farming in indoor door products can be sold. Second level has incorpo- controlled environment. rated restaurant and food serving facilities. Third floor - Position of the sight right above the sub- is comprised of special area for spa and healthcare way station makes it suitable as a fresh services-nutrition/cosmetics based on plants and food production hub. organic products. Botanical garden area gathers sev- eral types of plants and also a space for learning Fig.19. Idea Development botanical sciences on the level four underground. 12 Fig.22. Cross-sectional view Area Distribution: 1- Pedestrian corridor: designed for entrance but also as a passage integrated into the open market area. 2- Open market area: it contains the designated spaces and facilities for the market sellers. 3- Restaurant area. 4- Indoor farming: is developed on 3 levels of the building and interconnected by elevators in order to transport the products via subway to customers. 5- Spa ad healthcare area. It has been further analyzed that: revealed a technology which can be borrowed for  Different space utilization steps towards the life construction. Inspired by the rail construction and work integration specially for the workers of farm- maintenance machinery like rail loader, rail sleeper ing. change machines and especially from track laying  Power plastics developed by Konarka by using machines which automatically pick the rail sleepers OPV technology can be used for the energy gen- and place on site accurately, a new concept of on-site eration. horizontal logistics is proposed.  Aerofarm technology is feasible for urban farming or vertical farming.  ABB is global leader in power and automation. Currently they are developing a project in War- saw, Poland, in which they are using Transform- ers, Rectifiers, Switchgears, their SCADA system and an Energy Storage System. Gavin Hudson of ABB writes that the energy that will be recovered from a single, decelerating Polish metro car is enough to power a 60-watt light bulb for more 33 than a week . The same technology can be used at our site as it is closed to Marienplatz subway station. Fig.23. CPG500 Track-laying Machine Set for High- 34 speed Railway CONSTRUCTION As the site is located in a congested city area, so it Working on the same principle the proposed robot will was found difficult to simply perform the on-site logis- collect the stack of building elements, and will move tics of the building modules with the tower cranes. It horizontally to the destination for automatically plac- was really important to create minimum disturbance ing of elements like roof panels. It will move on the to the commercial hub all around with many tourist. rails which also act as the structural members of the Even if the modules are transported from subway, it building. required bigger tower cranes with high capacity. Nor- At this stage the design is proposed for the horizontal mally, the heavy vehicles are not allowed to enter into on-site transportation of roof panels which will be that area. So it was thought to adapt a completely placed on the structural members of the building. different approach. These panels are divided into three standardized It was decided to use small sized prefabricated ele- sizes to fit on all locations despite of different curves ments which could be transported easily on site. The and round shapes. study of on-site logistic methods in other industries 13 (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig.24. Construction sequence Fig.26. Final assembly First the columns and beams are erected in a con- ventional way. Then the structural members (rails) with dual function are installed to run the robot. These rails are permanent structural members to the build- ing. Panels are produced in 3typo-dimensions: 1- 3.25 x 4.25 x 6 (m) 2- 2.05 x 3.25 x 6 (m) 3- 1.10 x 2.05 x 6 (m) These panels can be installed as a standardized module in the building. Fig.26.Different typologies of buildings with the same 3 component types Fig.27.Proposed horizontal on-site logistic robot carrying panels Fig.25. Panels standard dimensions- Typology design by Fig.28. Empty robot the variations of the same 3 panels types 14 6. ArchDaily, http://www.archdaily.com/74396 /horizontal-skyscraper-steven-holl-matthias- wolff/steven-holl-vanke-center-16/ 7. Fu, X., Gao, Y., Xiao, C., Tian, C., Chen, X., Yang, X., Wu, B., and Tang, H. “Horizontal Skyscraper: In- novative Structural Design of Shenzhen VANKE Center”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2012, 138(6), pp. 663–668. 8. Xuesong Shen, Ming Lu, Siri Fernando, Simaan M. AbouRizk, “Tunnel boring machine positioning auto- mation in tunnel construction”, Gerontechnology Fig.29. Robot arm fixing the panels 2012; 11(2):384 9. Dexigner, Winners of the 2011 Skyscraper Competi- The panels are designed with grooves at the required tion, http://www.dexigner.com/news/22459, 2012 location to act as malfunction. So that those can easi- 10. Malakahmad, A.; Ahmad Basri, N.E.; Zain, S.M.; ly be placed at right position, and make it easy for "Production of renewable energy by transformation robot arm to screw it. of kitchen waste to biogas, case study of Malaysia," The robots can be moved from one floor to another Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications after the completion of each floor through a vertical (ISBEIA), 2011 IEEE Symposium, 25-28 Sept. 2011, mast attached with the structural members of the pp.219-223 building. 11. Julian Ryall, “Japan harnesses energy from foot- steps”, Fig.5, The Telegraph, UK, www.telegraph.co. uk/earth/energy/3721841/Japan-harnesses-energy- DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS from-footsteps.html ,12 Dec 2008 The proposed robot will provide the fast on-site logis- 12. Collins Latin Dictionary & Grammar tics and higher mobility in elements transport and 13. Fig.6, http://pocketgrow.com/blog/lifestyles-cultures/ handling. Same like rail road construction; it will es- hydroponics-feeding-zoo-animals/ tablish a new paradigm of horizontal construction with 14. Wikipedia, “Totora (plant)”, http://en.wikipedia.org/ better usage in congested areas where tower cranes wiki/Totora_%28plant%29, 2012 are not possible. There is a need to standardize the 15. Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Lake Titicaca. Re- prefabricated building elements and robot oriented trieved 2007-JUL-12. design to maximize the use of robot to make it eco- 16. Fig.7, Totora reed boat, Photographer: Josh Hill, nomical. It still has room for improvement, but at this http://www.silentlandscapes.com/totora-reed-boat, stage, its prototype can be developed to make it a 2012 part of an automated construction system. 17. NASA, “Ames Technology Capabilities and Facili- Japan is already having demographic change issues, ties”, http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/re search/ and has started using automated construction sites technology-onepagers/in-itu_resource_Utiliza14. from last two decades. A dramatic change in this html , retrieved on 2012. regard is anticipated especially in developing coun- 18. "UND Engineers would like to follow the Lunarcrete tries. All this situation predict the more use of perva- Road". Grand Forks Herald (North Dakota) Newspa- per. 1988-02-28 sive technologies and robotics in construction. 19. Una Byrne, “Work-life balance”, Business Informa tion Review 2005, SAGE Publications, Vol. 22(1): References 53–59 1. S.M.S. Elatter: Automation and Robotics in con- 20. Wikipedia, “BedZED” struction: Opportunities and Challenges, Emirates http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BedZED , 2012 Journal for Engineering Research, 2008, pp. 21-26. 21. Fig.8. by Tom Chance in public domain at Wikipedia 2. Shigeo Kitahara, Yoshida Takashi: Deployment of Commons, 2007. Construction Robots applying the Information Tech- 22. Kate Andrews, ”BEDZED: Beddington Zero Ener nology and Network System, ISARC 2006, pp.19-23. gy Development in London”, Inhabitate (Architec- 3. Cohen, J.E., “Human Population: The Next Half ture),2008, http://inhabitat.com/bedzed-beddington- Century”, Science, Vol. 302(5648), 2003, pp. 1172- zero-energy-development-london/ 1175. 23. Muhamad Azani Yahya & Mohamad Ibrahim 4. Yukio Hasegawa: “A New Wave of Construction Mohamad, “Review on lean principles for rapid con- Automation and Robotics in japan”, Proceedings of struction” Jurnal Teknologi, 54 (Sains & the 17th ISARC, 2000, Keynote 2. Kejuruteraan) Jan. 2011: 1–11 5. TunnelTalk Research, 24. “A Chinese Miracle. 30-storey hotel in 15 days”, The http://www.tunneltalk.com/First- use-in-tunnelling-of- Fab Web, 2012, http://thefabweb.com/16814/a- a-vacuum-segment-erector.php, 2012. chinese-miracle-30-storey-hotel-in-15-days /. UEyiFY3ia6M 15 25. Ho Lee, Sang and Hoon Han, Jung and Taik Leem, Yoon and Yigitcanlar, Tan, “Towards ubiquitous city : concept, planning, and experiences in the Republic of Korea”. In: Yigitcanlar, Tan and Velibeyoglu, Koray and Baum, Scott, (eds.) Knowledge-Based Urban Development : Planning and Applications in the Information Era. IGI Global, Information Science Reference, Hershey, Pa., 2008, pp. 148-169. 26. Innovation Frontline, “Songdo u-City: Global IT Innovation Hub”, http://techipm-innovationfront- line.blogspot.com/2009/12/songdo-u-city-global-it- innovation-hub.html , 2009 27. Bashford, H., Walsh, K., and Sawhney, A., ”Produc- tion System Loading–Cycle Time Relationship in Residential Construction.” J. Constr. Eng. 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Fig.23. http://www.csrcj.com/en/en_product_detail- 206-83 .html 16 Feasibility of new technologies in construction applied in new developed countries Marta Ester Aviña Zavala Department of Architecture, Building Realization and Robotics Lab, Technical University Munich, Germany Corresponding author (martaavinamytum.de) Purpose Nowadays, the prefabrication and automation construction industry in developed countries has improved the 1 quality of the construction industry in terms of working (employees) and living (Housing). This industry has focused in wealthy countries such as Germany, Japan, Korea or the USA “industrialized Countries (IC)”, countries that had develop 2 their own technologies. On the other hand Newly Industrialized Countries (NIC) could make a wreak trough into even more aspects of the socio-cultural-economic environment. The proposed research aims to study the feasibility of the introduction of those new technologies from IC to NIC, as well as identifying the necessary conditions to reproduce those scenarios with local conditions. Therefore with that background it would be possible to establish a possible direction for its evolution Method There is a lot of literature and research concerning economic, social and political differences be- 2 tween IC and NIC , there are some studies about the evolution of the industry in general, but there is limited information about the transference of technology in the construction industry. With the statistic data from companies and countries it will be possible to set a path for the future of local developments in NIC. An analysis on existing Companies and sys- tems, and their product development, production technology, modularization, mass customization, will draw the aimed results. Results & Discussion The change in the construction industry in NIC is certainly going to happen. In order to improve the industry, and not only to copy, it must be tropicalizing. The conditions regarding economy, environment, society and culture are mandatory milestones in order to adapt the technology to local requirements. An example of today’s situation is the massive construction in suburban areas in Latin America Building Production, Automation in Construction, Construction industry Innovation, Mass Customization, Keywords: Prefabrication Industry in construction. oping countries (even the advanced ones) there are INTRODUCTION not strict laws or regulations for this propose. Sala- The automation of contraction could be a factor to ries are really low, and a big amount of people is change developing countries in order to generate a working without having social security privileges, better industry, to lead better life quality and to im- causing a big impact on the development of the in- prove the human development. The construction as dustry, the society and finally the country. In addition an industry is dangerous and not normally regulated to this, the workers of this industry could barely af- this scenario is especially worst in NIC. The housing ford construction as the ones they produce, due to situation in these countries is a major deterrent to the high rates of the real state. In contrast with this the general develop of cities, society and produces situation the industry of manufacturing and fabrica- problems in national level. Examples as the Favelas tion is growing and the conditions and safety of their in Brazil, the shanty towns in south Africa, marginal workers is improving, they are getting better job barrios spread all over Latin America and Slums all quality, better salaries and they have to increasingly over the world, are breeding places for vandalism, specialize. drug abuse, crime and general violence, factors that The automation in construction is improving the life reduces the possibility of development and a better of workers, owners and neighbors already in Japan, quality of life. Korea, and Even Germany. The developing countries Approximately 1 billion of people live in urban areas should follow this kind of industry, but with the ap- of the NIC, and this number is expected to rise up to propriate measures to tropicalize the final products, 2 billion in the next 20 years, since the urban popula- according with characteristics such as weather con- tion is growing more than ever, especially in less 4 ditions, natural resources, price, social needs etc developed countries . The conditions of those coun- tries are changing faster than ever because of the GLOBAL ECONOMICAL CONDITIONS global economy, affecting the habitant, the cities and The NIC could have several definitions depending of the environment. the organization or institution that defines it. Accord- Worldwide the construction industry is one of the ing to the World Back (WB) the development index of most dangerous, with the high rate of fatalities and 3 this classification is also related with the gross na- injuries in work . The most developed countries have tional income, or product per capita. The WB has a bunch of laws to keep workers save, but in devel- 17

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