Lecture notes Botany

basic botany lecture notes, lecture notes in general botany,agricultural botany lecture notes, lecture notes on economic botany pdf free download
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Introductionto Botany AlexeyShipunov December15,2016Shipunov,Alexey.IntroductiontoBotany.Lecturenotes.December15,2016ver- sion.172pp.URL:http://ashipunov.info/shipunov/school/biol_154/ Titlepage:PlantagomajorimagedrawnbyAlexeyShipunov. ThisbookwaspreparedatMinotStateUniversity(NorthDakota,USA)withthe helpofstudentsinBiology154andBiology310classes. ThisbookisdedicatedtothepublicdomainContents Foreword6 Glossary7 1IntroductiontotheIntroduction19 1.1Plants,Botany,andKingdoms.....................19 1.1.1Taxonomy............................20 1.1.2MethodsofTaxonomyandDiagnostics...........26 1.2StylesofLifeandBasicChemistry..................34 2Photosynthesis37 2.1DiscoveryofPhotosynthesis......................37 2.2LightStage...............................39 2.3EnzymaticStage............................41 2.4CPathway...............................45 4 3SymbiogenesisandthePlantCell48 3.1IntroductiontoCells..........................48 3.2MitochondriaandChloroplasts....................52 3.3Cellwall,Vacuoles,andPlasmodesmata...............54 3.4OtherPartsoftheCell.........................55 3.4.1ProteinSynthesis:fromtheNucleustotheRibosomes...55 3.4.2OtherVesicles.........................56 3.4.3CellularSkeleton........................56 4Multicellularity,theCellCycleandtheLifeCycle57 4.1MitosisandtheCellCycle.......................57 4.2SyngamyandMeiosis.........................59 4.2.1SexualProcessandtheSyngamy...............59 34.2.2Meiosis.............................62 4.3LifecycleoftheUnicellularEukaryote................63 4.4LifecycleoftheMulticellularEukaryote...............64 4.4.1GeneralLifeCycle.......................64 4.4.2Sporic,ZygoticandGameticLifeCycles...........67 4.4.3EvolutionofLifeCycles....................68 4.4.4LifeCycleofVegetabilia....................70 5Tissuesandorgans;HowthePlantisbuilt72 5.1Tissues.................................72 5.1.1EpidermisandParenchyma..................72 5.1.2SupportiveTissues:BuildingSkyscrapers..........73 5.1.3Meristems:theConstructionSites..............76 5.1.4VascularTissues........................76 5.1.5Periderm............................78 5.1.6AbsorptionTissues.......................79 5.1.7OtherTissues..........................80 5.2OrgansandOrganSystems......................80 5.3TheLeaf.................................82 5.3.1MorphologyoftheLeaf....................84 5.3.2AnatomyoftheLeaf......................92 5.3.3EcologicalFormsofPlants..................93 5.4TheStem................................96 5.4.1MorphologyoftheStem....................96 5.4.2AnatomyofthePrimaryStem.................98 5.5TheRoot................................101 5.5.1MorphologyoftheRoot....................101 5.5.2AnatomyoftheRoot......................102 5.5.3WaterandSugarTransportationinPlants..........105 6GrowingDiversityofPlants107 6.1Bryophyta:themosses.........................107 6.2Pteridophyta:theferns........................112 6.2.1Diversityofpteridophytes...................113 6.2.2Heterospory:Nextsteponland................116 7TheOriginofTreesandSeeds120 7.1SecondaryStem............................120 7.2BranchingShoot............................125 7.3ModifiedShoot.............................126 47.4LifeForms................................128 7.4.1DynamicApproach.......................129 7.4.2Raunkiaer’sApproach.....................131 7.4.3ArchitecturalModelsApproach................132 7.5OriginoftheSeed...........................132 7.5.1SeedsStructureandGermination...............138 7.6Spermatophyta:seedplants......................139 8TheOriginofFlowering143 8.1UpgradedGymnosperms........................143 8.2TheFlowerandtheFruit........................148 8.2.1TheFlower...........................148 8.2.2TheInflorescence.......................156 8.2.3Pollination...........................157 8.2.4TheFruit............................161 8.3Threeplantfamiliesyouwantedtoknowbutweretooafraidtoask163 8.3.1Leguminosae,orFabaceae—legumefamily.........164 8.3.2Compositae,orAsteraceae—asterfamily...........165 8.3.3Gramineae,orPoaceae—grassfamily.............167 9PlantsandEarth169 9.1GeographyofVegetation........................169 9.2GeographyofVegetabilia.......................170 5Foreword Whileteachingbotanyforabouttwentyyears,Icametotheideaofre-structuring the“classical”courseintoamorelogicalsequenceofthemeswhichyouwillfind inthistextbook. ThereweretwomainideasthatIattemptedtoembedhere:onewastoput asmuchplant-relatedinformationaspossibleintoanevolutionarycontext,and theotherwastoexplaincomplicatedproblemswithsimplewordsandmetaphors. Thereareveryfewbotanybookswhicharetryingtodothesame.Amongthem, IwouldhighlyrecommendManetas,Ya.(2012)“AliceintheLandofPlants. BiologyofPlantsandtheirimportancetoPlanetEarth”. Oneextremelyimportantconcepttounderstand:plantsarenotanimalsOb- viously,thisphrasehasmanyimportantmeanings.Firstofall,sincewehumans areanimals,itismucheasierforustounderstandanimallifethanplantlife. Manytermsthatareassociatedwithanimallife(like“stomach”or“bloodpres- sure”)aregenerallywellknown,evenintuitively.Botanyrequireslearningavast amountofterms,andthatisstillnotenoughtounderstandplants,sobepre- paredtoworkhard. Thistextbookstartedfromstudents’lecturenotesbutnowitcontainsmuch moreinformation.Allfiguresareeitheroriginalormodifiedfromthosesources wherealicenseallowsit(e.g.,Wikimedia). 6Glossary K-strategypopulationgrowthwhenthereissmallnumberofoffspringwith highprobabilitytosurvive r-strategypopulationgrowthwhenthereishugenumberofoffspringwith lowprobabilitytosurvive absorptionzoneroot:zoneofroothairs acheneone-seededindehiscentdryfruitofCompositae,cypsella adventitiousrootsoriginatefromstem anatomyinvisible,internalstructurewhichneedstoolslikeascalpeland/or microscopetostudy anomaloussecondarygrowthwhentherearemultiple,shortlivedlayersof cambium apicalmeristemsRAM(see)andSAM(see) apogamyapomixis(see)whenanembryodevelopsfromunfertilizedgamete, parthenogenesis apomixismakingseedswithoutfertilization aposporyapomixis(see)whenanembryodevelopsfromthematernaldiploid tissue 7ataktostelevascularbundlesdispersed bipolarplantbodybothrootandshootsystemspresent botanythescientificstudyofplantsandplant-likeorganisms brachyblastsshortenedshootsofpines,larchesandsomeotherPinaceae conifers bractscalessterilebractsunderseedscalesinconifers budsembryonicshoots bulbshort,thickundergroundstorageshootwithprevalenceofleaftissues calciphytesplantsadaptedtoover-presenceofCaCO 3 Casparianstripspartofendodermiscellwallswhichpreventsapoplastic transport centralcellbiggestcellofembryosac,withtwo(orsometimesone)haploid nuclei cladophyllsleaf-like,flattenedshoots cleistogamousself-pollinatedflowerswhichdonotopen collenchymalivingsupportivetissue companioncellsnucleate“helpers”toanucleatesievetubecells complextissuestissueswithmorethanonetypeofcells compoundfruitfruitoriginatedfromthewholeinflorescence:infrutescence compoundleavesleaveswithtwoormorelevelofhierarchy contractilerootsrootswhichpullplantdeeperinsubstrate cormshort,thickundergroundstorageshootwithprevalenceofstemtissues 8cortexexternallayerofprimarystemorroot cotyledonembryonicleaf cross-pollinationpollinationbetweengeneticallydifferentplants cuticleplastic-likeisolationlayer dehiscentfruitswhichopen diazotrophicbacteria:theydeoxidizeathmosphericnitrogenintoammonia dichotomousbranching:whenterminalbudalwaysdividesintwo doublefertilizationtheprocesswhentwobrothermalegametesfertilizetwo sistercells,eggcellandmothercellofendosperm 2 elongationzoneroot:zoneofexpandingcells embryosacfemalegametophyteoffloweringplants endodermistheinnermostlayerofcortex endophyticfungifungiwhichgrowinsideplantbody endospermhaploidnutritiontissueoriginatedfromfemalegametophyte 1 endospermtriploid(sometimesdiploid)nutritiontissueoriginatedfrom 2 secondfertilization epicotylfirstinternodeofthestem epidermiscomplexsurfacetissue eustelevascularbundlesinaring exodermistheoutermostlayerofcortex fiberslongandnarrowsclerenchymacells fibrousrootsystemnoprimaryrootvisible 9fiddleheadsspiraltopsofyoungfernleaves floralunits(FU)elementsofgenerativesystem,fructifications flowercompactgenerativeshootwithsterile,maleandfemalezones,specif- icallyinthatorder,otherflowertermsseeintheseparateglossaryinthe text frondsleavesofferns fruitripefloralunit(FU) fusiforminitialscambiumcellswhichmakevesselelements generalcharactersinleafdescription,characterswhichareapplicableonly totheleafasawhole generativeshootsystemallgenerativeshootstogether groundmeristemprimarymeristemwhichmakescortexandpith groundtissuesameasparenchyma(see)butonlyappliedfortissue halophytesplantsadaptedtoover-presenceofNaCl haustoriasuckerrootsofparasiticplants heartwoodnon-functionalpartofwood heliophytesplantsadaptedtofullsun hemiparasitesphotosyntheticplants,feedingpartlyonotherplants heterophyllysituationwhenoneplanthasmorethanoneleaftype heterosporicwithmaleandfemalespores homoiohydricplantsthatsavewater hydrophytesplantsgrowinginwaterandfrequentlyusingwaterforthesup- port 10hygrophytesterrestrialorpartlysubmergedplantsadaptedtotheexcesswa- ter hypocotylroot/stemtransitionalplace idioblastssolitarycellsdissimilarfromsurroundingcells indehiscentfruitswhichdonotopen indusiacoversofgroupsofsporangia(sori) inflorescenceisolatedgenerativeshoot integumentextracoverofmegasporangium intercalarymeristemswhichgrowintwodirections internodesspacesbetweennodes lateralmeristemcambium,meristemappearingsideways lateralveinssmallerveins,typicallybranchingoutofthemainvein(see) leaflateralphotosyntheticorganofshootwithrestrictedgrowth leafprimordiaembryonicleaves leafscarsmarksofleafpetioles leaftracesmarksofleafvascularbundles lenticels“openings”inbarkallowingforgasexchange leptosporangiasporangiawith1-celledwall mainveincentral,mostvisiblevascularbundleofleaf(midrib) marginalmeristemswhicharelocatedonmargins maturationzoneroot:oldestpartofroot 11megaphyllouswithleavesoriginatedfromjointbranches megasporangiafemalesporangia megasporefemalespore megasporophyllsmodifiedleaveswithattachedmegasporangia meristemssitesofcelldivision merositymultipleofflowerpartsnumbers mesophyllphotosyntheticparenchymaofleaf mesophytesplantsadaptedtotheaveragewater microsporesmalespores microsporgangiamalesporangia monilophytesallPteridophytaexceptlycophytes monopodialbranching:whenterminalbudcontinuestogroweveryyear morphologyvisible,externalstructure multiplefruitfruitoriginatedfrommanypistils mycoparasitesplantsfeedingonsoilfungi mycorrhizarootssymbioticwithfungi nodesplacewhereleavesareattached nucelluswallofmegasporangium ocreapartoftheleafwhichgoesupwardsalongthestem oppositeleafarrangement:twoleavespernode organunionofdifferenttissueswhichhavecommonfunction(s)andorigin 12orthostychyvirtuallinewhichgoestroughsimilarlylocatedleaves orthotropicgrowth:vertical ovuleseedplants:megasporangiumwithintegument oxylophytesplantsadaptedtoacidicsubstrates palisademesophyllmesophyllofelongated,tightlypackedcells parcellatereproducevegetativelywitheasilyrootedbodyparts parenchymatissueorcelltypeofspherical,roughlyconnectedlivingcells perforationsopenings pericarpmostoffruittissue pericycleparenchymalayerjustoutsideofvasculartissues peridermsecondarydermaltissue perispermnutritiontissueoriginatedfromnucellus(see) peristomemosses:attachmenttomosssporangium,helpstodistributespores petrophytesplantsadaptedtogrowonrockysubstrates phellemexternallayerofperiderm,cork phelloderminternallayerofperiderm phellogencorkcambium,lateralmeristemmakingperiderm phloemvasculartissuetransportingsugars phyllodeleaf-likepetioles phyllotaxisleafarrangement 13pistilcupule,additionalcoverofovules pitstructureconnectingtracheids pithcentrallayerofprimarystemorroot plagiotropicgrowth:horizontal plantsarenotanimals plantsallphotosyntheticorganisms 1 plantskingdomVegetabilia 2 pneumatophoresair-catchingheliotropicroots poikilohydricplantsthatdonotsavewater pollensacseedplants:microsporangium pollentubefungus-likecellwhichbringsspermatia(see)toegg pollinationtransferofmalegametophytes(pollengrains)frommicrosporan- gia(pollensacs)tomegasporangia(ovules)orcupules(pistils) pricklesmodified,pricklystemsurfacegrowths primarymeristemsintermediatetissueswhichstartoutofapicalmeristems andmakeprimarytissues primaryrootoriginatesfromembryoroot primarystemstemwithprimarytissuesonly primarytissuestissuesoriginatedfromRAMorSAM(optionallythroughin- termediatemeristems) procambiumintermediatemeristemdevelopingintocortex,pithandpro- cambium,primarymeristemwhichmakesvasculartissues protodermprimarymeristemwhichproduceepidermisorrhizodermis 14protonemamosses:embryonicthreadofcells protostelecentralxylemsurroundedwithphloem psammophytesplantsadaptedtogrowonsandysubstrates quiescentcentercorepartofrootapicalmeristem racemebasicmonopodiallybranchedinflorescence(ModelI) radialsection:cross-section RAMrootapicalmeristem rayinitialscambiumcellswhichmakerays raysstem:parenchymacellsarrangedforhorizontaltransport repetitivecharactersinleafdescription,characterswhichareapplicableto theleafpartsoneachlevelofhierarchy rheophyteswaterplantsadaptedtofastmovingwater rhizodermisrootepidermis,roothairs rhizoidcellsdeadcellsaccumulatingwaterapoplastically rhizomeundergroundhorizontalshoot ringporouswood:withlargevesselelementsmostlyinearlywood rootanaxialorganofplantwithgeotropicgrowth rootcapprotectsrootmeristem rootnodulesbulb-likestructureswhichcontainnitrogen-fixingbacteria rootpressurepressureforcemadesolelybyroots SAMstemapicalmeristem 15sapwoodfunctionalpartofwood schizocarpfruitswhichsegregateintosmallerindehiscentunits sciophytesplantsadaptedtoshade sclerenchymadeadsupportivetissue sclerophytesplantspreventingwaterloss,theyfrequentlyemployscleren- chyma secondary(lateral)rootsoriginatefromprimaryroot(see) secondaryvasculartissuessecondaryphloemandsecondaryxylem seedchimericstructurewithmother(seedcoat),daughter(embryo)anden- dospermgenotypes seedscalesmegasporophylls(see)ofconifers setamosses:stalkofthesporogon(see) sheathpartofleafwhichsurroundsthestem shootplantbodyunipolarbody:norootsystem,shootsonly sievetubecellslivingcellswhichtransportsugar simplefruitfruitoriginatedmostlyfromonepistil simpleleafleafwithonelevelofhierarchy simpletissuestissueswithuniformcells siphonogamyfertilizationwiththehelpofpollentube solenostelevascularbundlesin“hollow”cylinder soriclustersofsporangia spermatiaaflagellate,non-motilemalegametes 16spinesreduced,pricklyleaves spiralleafarrangement,oralternateleafarrangement:oneleafpernode spongymesophyllmesophyllofround,roughlypackedcells sporogonmosssporophyte steleconfigurationofvasculartissuesinstemorroot stemaxialorganofshoot stipulessmallattachmentstotheleaf;typically,locatednearthebaseofpeti- ole stolonabovegroundhorizontalshoot stomata(stoma)poreswhichopenedandclosedbyguardcells succulentsplantsaccumulatewater sympodialbranching:whenterminalbuddegradeseveryyear synangiaadnatesporangia tangentialsectionwhenplaneistangenttosurface taprootsystemprimaryrootwelldeveloped tendrilsorganmodificationsusingforclimbing terminalcharactersinleafdescription,characterswhichareapplicableonly totheleafterminals(leaflets) thallusflat,non-differentiatedbody thornspricklyshoots thyrsusbasicsympodiallybranchedinflorescence(ModelII) 17tissueunionofcellswhichhavecommonorigin,functionandsimilarmor- phology trachearyelementswater-transportingdeadcells tracheidstrachearyelementswithoutperforations(openings) transversesection:longitudinal tuberenlargedportionofrhizome tyloses“stoppers”fortrachearyelementsmadebyparenchymacells,vessel element“stoppers” vascularbundles“chords”madeofxylem(inner)andphloem(outer)layers vascularcylinder“hollow”cylindermadeofxylem(inner)andphloem(outer) layers vascularplantsPteridophyta+Spermatophyta vasculartissuestissueswhichtransportliquids velamenabsorptiontissuemadeofdeadcells vesselmemberstrachearyelementswithpreforations(openings) woodsecondaryxylem,stem:everythingdeeperthanvascularcambium xerophytesplantsadaptedtothescarcewater xylemvasculartissuetransportingwater 18Chapter1 Introductiontothe Introduction 1.1Plants,Botany,andKingdoms Botanyisthescientificstudyofplantsandplant-likeorganisms.Ithelpsusun- derstandwhyplantsaresovitallyimportanttotheworld.Plantsstartthemajor- ityoffoodandenergychains,theyprovideuswithoxygen,foodandmedicine. Plantscanbedividedintotwogroups:plantsandplants.Plantscontain 121 allphotosyntheticorganismswhichuselight,HO,andCOtomakeorganic 22 compoundsandO.Plantsaredefinedecologically(basedontheirroleinna- 21 ture). SomeplantscanbebacteriaorevenanimalsOneexampleofthisagreenslug, 1 Elysiachlorotica(seeFig.1.1).Greenslugscollectchloroplastsfromalgaeand usethemfortheirentirelifeasfoodproducers.Therefore,greenslugsareboth animalsandplants. 1 PlantsareallorganismsfromVegetabiliakingdom.Normally,plantsare 22 greenorganismswithastemandleaves.Wecandefinethemalsoasmulti- tissued,terrestrial,andprimarilyphotosyntheticeukaryotes.Thisdefini- tionistaxonomical(basedonevolution). Itispossiblefortheorganismtobeplantbutnotplant(seeFig.1.2).Those 21 whofallintothatcategory,arefullyparasiticplants(mycoparasiteslikePterospora, 19Figure1.1.GreenslugElysiachloroticacaprureschloroplastsfromthealgaVaucheria litorea. rootparasiteslikeHydnora,stemparasiteslikeCuscuta,andinternalparasites likePilostyles)whichdonotpracticephotosynthesisbuthavetissues,terrestrial lifestyleandoriginatedfromphotosyntheticancestors. Plantsmaybeunderstoodonseverallevelsoforganization:(fromtoptobottom) (a)ecosystemsortaxa,(b)populations,(c)organisms,(d)organs,(e)tissues,(f) cells,(g)organelles,and(h)molecules(Fig.1.3). Botanyisconsideredtobea“slicescience”becauseitcoversmultiplelevelsof organization. 1.1.1Taxonomy Taxonomy,systematicsandclassificationaretermswithsimilarmeanings; theyareallabouttheoverwhelmingdiversityoflivingorganisms,forthereare morethan2,000,000species(and300,000ofthembelongtoplants).Phyloge- 2 neticsisamorefashionableterm;itemphasizestheevolutionaryhistory(phy- logeny)oftaxonomicgroups(taxa). 20

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