Lecture notes Embedded Systems pdf

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18-649 Distributed Embedded Systems Prof. Philip Koopman Fall 2015 Lecture: Mon/Wed 12:30-2:20 PM Recitation: Friday 12:30-2:30 PM (includes required weekly meeting slots) © Copyright 2010-2015, Philip Koopman Required reading as posted at http://www.ece.cmu.edu/ece649 WAITLIST INFORMATION appears on later slidesInstructor Background  Prof. Phil Koopman • HH A-308 • ece649-staffece.cmu.edu  Research: • Embedded system security • Embedded system safety & dependability • Embedded real-time networking  Engineering experiences outside Carnegie Mellon • Expert witness on Toyota Unintended Acceleration cases • Embedded CPU designer for Harris Semiconductor • Embedded system architect for United Technologies (Otis, UT Automotive, Pratt & Whitney, Carrier, Norden, Sikorsky, …) • 140+ design reviews of industry embedded systems • Startup company that did embedded CPU design 2 • US Navy submarine officer18-649 Distributed Embedded Systems  Based on book, lecture notes, project, and industry reading  Course objectives detailed on web pages • System Engineering – Requirements, design, verification/validation, certification, management-lite • System Architecture – Modeling/Abstraction, Design Methodology, a little UML, Business Issues • Embedded Systems – Design Issues, scheduling, time, distributed implementations, performance • Embedded Networks – Protocols, real-time performance, CAN, FlexRay, embedded Internet • Critical Systems – Analysis, software safety, certification, ethics, testing, graceful degradation • Case Studies – Elevator as semester-long design project – Guest speakers and other discussions as available 3Pre-Requisite Knowledge  18-213 at CMU is STRICTLY REQUIRED (15-213, 15-513 are OK)  Java programming • Basic use of Unix and/or Windows systems and afs • Course project uses Java simulation harness • If you don’t know Java, learn it now You will need it. Soon. – “I’m not good at Java” is not an acceptable excuse for slacking in the project  Intro to embedded systems (18-348, 18-349, or experience) • Written medium-size C++ or Java programs. • General familiarity with development tools including compilers, linkers, Unix command line, version control tools (Git or other), scripting language (Perl, Python, or other), setting up spreadsheet calculations, ability to edit/create simple html. You will nee all these things here. • Familiar with basic embedded concepts such as interrupts, determining execution time, debugging, networks, counter/timers, mutexes, D/A, A/D • Some experience at working in teams, including breaking down tasks, tracking progress, and preparing team presentation (course project is done in teams of 4 students) • Intro-level probability theory 4Significant Course Project  Build a simulated elevator implemented as distributed system • Emphasis on good (but lightweight) process and high quality design – You will learn how to be better than many industry embedded SW designers • Java-based distributed simulation framework – Learning how to do simulations is just as important as hacking hardware – (You should already know how to hack hardware; not part of this course) • Elevators make a good example system – Real elevators are a lot more complex than they appear – Our elevator is based on real elevator experience from Otis and others  Project approach • Teams of 3 or 4. – Start with teams of 4 – If there are drops then leave teams of 3 undisturbed as much as possible. – Teams assigned next week; you can request specific team members • Weekly project phases to spread out work and reduce mortality rate • “Simple” running code at mid-term; more complex code at end of semester • Focus on industry-grade engineering process; not fancy technology 5Text: Better Embedded System Software  Each chapter is based on real systems • Real companies, real products, real mistakes • Often the reviews were to save failing projects • This is the stuff designers get wrong  Purchase via web • Best price is via “student discount” web page via Paypal – 50 with free shipping – See pointer on course web page • Amazon.com stocks at 89 • One copy will be on reserve in E&S library 6Policy Summary  See http://www.ece.cmu.edu/ece649 for official, detailed versions • Send all e-mail to the entire course staff: ece649-staffece.cmu.edu • Why? Because we might be off-line, sometimes for multiple days.  Grading: straight scale A ≥ 90; B ≥ 80; C ≥ 73; R 73 • No “curve” – 89.9 is a “B” … (but you only need 90.00 for a guaranteed “A”) TESTS: • 45 points for in-class tests (two tests, equally weighted); no final exam PROJECT: • 40 points for project phases (team grade) – Mid-term & Final projects MUST pass acceptance tests to pass the course • 8 points for in-class presentations (during semester and end of semester) ATTENDANCE: • 7 points attendance (weekly survey, meeting attendance, classroom attendance) – Attendance at all class events is mandatory – 3 free absence points (two or three days of absence based on attendance points) – Negative points can accumulate without limit 7 – Having someone else sign you in is cheating; don’t do thisAssignments, Etc.  Lectures are available on line at least the night before class • Handouts provided in classroom • Previous year lectures on line now; most won’t change too much  Required readings • Required reading is testable material; not 100% overlapped with lecture • Emphasis on book chapters based on experience from industry reviews • Papers representative of what working engineers read to stay current  Weekly project milestones • Project reports & materials due generally on Thursday night • Group status meetings held on Fridays during or near recitation interval • READ the project assignment BEFORE recitation. Ask questions  Tests • Were you paying attention in class? Did you actually do the reading? • One 8.5” x 11” notes page 2-sided – must be in your own handwriting • We’ll provide previous-year tests in time to study • If you have special needs (e.g., extra test time) TELL US THIS WEEK 8Late Penalties & Other Policies  Being on time counts in the real world; it counts here too • Being late for presentations & status meetings incurs penalty in proportion to lateness • Project late penalty: – Score multiplied by 0.9 if late up to 1 hour, else: 1 dayslate   grade MAX(score0.9 ,0.43)  Limited makeup policy: • Makeup exams only under very specific conditions; read policy page • Assignments are available well in advance; no extensions if CMU is open. • If you have a presentation or it is a test day, catch one bus earlier than you normally do  No cheating • Penalty for first cheating offense is failure (“R” grade) for the entire course. No kidding. – Record of cheating could show up on background checks conducted by future employers • Reference to other groups or previous semester solutions is expressly forbidden • Keep your eyes on your own paper during tests • Tell the truth about what parts of the project you work on – If your partner cheats and you take credit for that work product, you are guilty of cheating • CMU general policy and details on course web also page apply. Read them  LOOK at the course web page AND the administrative page • http://www.ece.cmu.edu/ece649 9Classroom Protocol  Please arrive on time; lecture begins promptly • Please put extra handouts in pile by door for the few latecomers – Handouts on the web – students new to English should read night before • If you want to skip a guest speaker, leave before he/she starts • Attendance is mandatory. We will be taking attendance – Students have lost 1, or sometimes 2, letter grades due to poor attendance – If you have 15-20 plant trips scheduled, take a different course • No noisy food in the classroom (paper wrappers, rustling chip bags)  Questions are encouraged • If you don’t understand, ask (other students probably want to know too)  There is no way to cover everything • Embedded systems is a huge area; this course is really “survival skills for new embedded engineers” (assuming you already know intro stuff) • I’m electing to cover fundamentals rather than latest fad topics (little emphasis on internet toaster ovens in this course) • There is a “digging deeper” section for each lecture on the web site 10Other Notes  Additional policy notes (at the advice of university legal department): • All course material is copyrighted by the instructor • You specifically do not have permission to reprint, publish, upload, or distribute anything (course handouts, tests, notes, book chapters, project materials) • You do not have permission to record or stream any lecture • Fair Use permissions inherent in copyright law remain in effect, but do not permit the above  End of Semester travel nd • In-class presentations are mandatory (2 presentation last class week) • Final project hand-ins are during first week of final exams – You must be physically present for your team’s final demo – If you want to leave early for winter break it is YOUR responsibility to have all of your obligations fulfilled before you leave » This means successful demo before you leave campus » If you leave before demo or bail out on your team, expect a significant penalty – We do not reschedule presentations due to travel plans » You might be able to arrange a swap, but burden is entirely on you to figure it out 11More On Attendance  Attendance is mandatory (and attendance will be taken regularly) • If you plan to miss 13 lectures due to job hunting… take a different class – At least one student failed to graduate due to excessive skipping – Signing in for someone else is cheating and will be dealt with severely  Why do I take attendance? • Reading the handouts doesn’t necessarily give you the big picture – Even though the handouts are extensive, they don’t have everything – The “war stories” put things in perspective • You won’t ask clarifying questions if you’re not in class – And (more importantly) you won’t hear the questions other students ask • Some topics are difficult to structure fair test questions about – I’d rather measure exposure to some topics directly (attendance) rather than indirectly (requiring lots of memorization of fine points on slides) – This course is as much about changing how you think as it is about specific facts • Poor attendance correlates strongly with poor projects & poor tests – Taking attendance encourages the right learning outcome 12More On Cheating  In past semesters I have failed up to 10% of the class for cheating • Primarily due to copying project information from other groups • If I determine you are cheating you will fail the course. No exceptions. – This might mean you won’t graduate – This might mean it will be reported on future background checks – This might mean you won’t get a job/won’t be able to start a job  I will run the MOSS tool set on projects at the end of the semester • I compare your projects against many years of project hand-ins (code & other) • Some students think they can beat MOSS. I will know if you are doing that – Students are usually astonished when they get caught. – If you didn’t copy, you have nothing to worry about. (Yes, Really)  This is a US graduate program and US rules apply • We use the same project each year to give a much better learning experience • “I copied a starting point but worked hard after that” … is still cheating • “I just looked at some code without copying” … is still cheating • “I was just helping my friend” … is still cheating • “In my culture I have to help if someone asks” … is still cheating 1315WAIT LIST UPDATE  As of Thursday: __ enrolled; __ on waitlist • Can handle 64-72 based on TA availability and room size  If you want to be enrolled, come to lectures • To the degree the department permits it, I will announce and fill empty class spaces from students physically present in lecture  Usually takes two weeks for enrollment to settle down • Most years all grads & seniors eventually get in • Many semesters essentially all the drop/adds happened at the end of week 2 • But it all depends on how many students drop  If you decide to drop, please send e-mail to us • The Hub does not send out automatic notification • We have to manually check the enrollment list to see if someone dropped  This course is not wireless sensor networks / Android • It is, however, about giving you the engineering skills that you need to succeed in the embedded industry • If you plan to drop, please let me know today 161 Embedded System Foundations Distributed Embedded Systems Philip Koopman August 31, 2015SmolanSmall Computers Rule The Marketplace  Everything here has a computer – but where are the Pentiums? • And, they all want to be on a network 19 SmolanHow Many CPUs In A Car Seat?  Car seat photo from Convergence 2004 • Automotive electronics show 20

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