Lecture notes on Industrial Engineering

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Published Date:21-07-2017
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MCE 510: INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING – 3 Units- E Book Course Lecturer – Engr. Prof. Sam. B. ADEJUYIGBE Introduction to the Course This field pertains to the efficient use of machinery, labour, and raw materials in industrial production. It is particularly important from the viewpoint of costs and economics of production, safety of human operators, and the most advantageous deployment of automatic machinery Industrial engineering is the branch of engineering that is concerned with the efficient production of industrial goods as affected by elements such as plant and procedural design, the management of materials and energy, and the integration of workers within the overall system. It is the branch of engineering that deals with the creation and management of systems that integrate people and materials and energy in productive ways Industrial management applied science, engineering science, technology, engineering - the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems; "he had trouble deciding which branch of engineering to study" It is also defined as a branch of engineering dealing with the optimization of complex processes or systems. It is concerned with the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or processes. Its underlying concepts overlap considerably with certain business-oriented disciplines such as operations management, but the engineering side tends to emphasize extensive mathematical proficiency and usage of quantitative methods. Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may also be known as operations management, management science, operations research, systems engineering, or manufacturing engineering, usually depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user. Recruiters or educational establishments use the names to differentiate themselves from others. In health care, industrial engineers are more commonly known as health management engineers or health systems engineers. According to IIE official definition Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, materials, information, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use the basic factors of production people, machines, materials, information, and energy to make a product or to provide a service. They are the bridge between management goals and operational performance. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes. Although most industrial engineers work in manufacturing industries, they may also work in consulting services, healthcare, and communications. To solve organizational, production, and related problems most efficiently, industrial engineers carefully study the product and its requirements, use mathematical methods such as operations research to meet those requirements, and design manufacturing and information systems. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis and design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and ensure product quality. They also design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services. Industrial engineers determine which plant location has the best combination of raw materials availability, transportation facilities, and costs. Industrial engineers use computers for simulations and to control various activities and devices, such as assembly lines and robots. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related. The work of health and safety engineers is similar to that of industrial engineers in that it deals with the entire production process. Health and safety engineers promote worksite or product safety and health by applying knowledge of industrial processes, as well as mechanical, chemical, and psychological principles. They must be able to anticipate, recognize, and evaluate hazardous conditions as well as develop hazard control methods. They also must be familiar with the application of health and safety regulations. Teams and Coworkers Almost all jobs in engineering require some sort of interaction with coworkers. Whether they are working in a team situation, or just asking for advice, most engineers have to have the ability to communicate and work with other people. Engineers should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detail-oriented. They should be able to work as part of a team and to communicate well, both orally and in writing. Communication abilities are important because engineers often interact with specialists in a wide range of fields outside engineering. Tasks Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use the basic factors of production people, machines, materials, information, and energy to make a product or to provide a service. They are the bridge between management goals and operational performance. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes. Although most industrial engineers work in manufacturing industries, they may also work in consulting services, healthcare, and communications. To solve organizational, production, and related problems most efficiently, industrial engineers carefully study the product and its requirements, use mathematical methods such as operations research to meet those requirements, and design manufacturing and information systems. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis and design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and ensure product quality. They also design or improve systems for the physical distribution of Career Path Forecast According to the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, industrial engineers are expected to have employment growth of 20 percent over the projections decade, faster than the average for all occupations. As firms look for new ways to reduce costs and raise productivity, they increasingly will turn to industrial engineers to develop more efficient processes and reduce costs, delays, and waste. This should lead to job growth for these engineers, even in manufacturing industries with slowly growing or declining employment overall. Because their work is similar to that done in management occupations, many industrial engineers leave the occupation to become managers. Many openings will be created by the need to replace industrial engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Professional Organizations Professional organizations and associations provide a wide range of resources for planning and navigating a career in Nuclear Engineering. These groups can play a key role in your development and keep you abreast of what is happening in your industry. Associations promote the interests of their members and provide a network of contacts that can help you find jobs and move your career forward. They can offer a variety of services including job referral services, continuing education courses, insurance, travel benefits, periodicals, and meeting and conference opportunities. The following is a description of the Institute of Industrial Engineers. Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE)(www.iienet.org) IIE is the world’s largest professional society dedicated solely to the support of the industrial engineering profession and individuals involved with improving quality and productivity. Founded in 1948, IIE is an international, non-profit association that provides leadership for the application, education, training, research, and development of industrial engineering. With more than 15,000 members and 280 chapters worldwide, IIE’s primary mission is to meet the ever-changing needs of its membership, which includes undergraduate and graduate students, engineering practitioners and consultants in all industries, engineering managers, and engineers in education, research, and government. IIE is recognized internationally as: ƒ The leading provider of cutting-edge continuing education in industrial engineering. ƒ The acknowledged source of productivity improvement information via the Internet, publications, and live events, including an annual conference, topical conferences, and technical seminars. ƒ An invaluable source of member benefits that include a magazine, professional development programs, an online career center, networking communities, chapters, and affinity programs that save members time and money. ƒ The only association that supports the profession of industrial engineering and promotes an increased awareness of the value of industrial engineers. ƒ The only association that supports accredited industrial engineering programs through the ABET Inc. World leadership-whether for nations, states or individual companies-depends upon providing the highest quality in goods and services at costs that are affordable to the widest possible audience. Retaining world-class status requires relentless continuous improvement in all aspects of the business or governmental enterprise. Industrial engineers use a systems approach and focus on the processes for achieving quality, continuous improvement and cost effectiveness for all types of enterprises-manufacturers, healthcare service industries, non- profits and governments. The Profession Industrial engineers are involved in the creation of wealth and prosperity. This is achieved through designing and implementing better, more productive systems in both a manufacturing and a service environment. Industrial engineering is an interdisciplinary program by nature. Industrial engineers design, install, fabricate and integrate systems that include people, materials, information, equipment and energy necessary to accomplish the desired function. The main areas of employment are in manufacturing, service, consulting and healthcare. Industrial engineers often are responsible for productivity improvements, supply chain optimization, project management, feasibility studies for new technologies and applications, lean and just-in-time implementation, health care management and logistics, and systems integration and engineering. Whether it's shortening a rollercoaster line, streamlining an operating room, managing a worldwide supply chain, manufacturing and designing superior automobiles, or solving logistics problems, industrial engineers are at the forefront. Overview While the term originally applied to manufacturing, the use of "industrial" in "industrial engineering" can be somewhat misleading, since it has grown to encompass any methodical or quantitative approach to optimizing how a process, system, or organization operates. Some engineering universities and educational agencies around the world have changed the term "industrial" to the broader term "production", leading to the typical extensions noted above. In fact, the primary U.S. professional organization for Industrial Engineers, the Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE) has been considering changing its name to something broader (such as the Institute of Industrial & Systems Engineers), although the latest vote among membership deemed this unnecessary for the time being. The various topics of concern to industrial engineers include management science, financial engineering, engineering management, supply chain management, process engineering, operations research, systems engineering, ergonomics, cost and value engineering, quality engineering, facilities planning, and the engineering design process. Traditionally, a major aspect of industrial engineering was planning the layouts of factories and designing assembly lines and other manufacturing paradigms. And now, in so-called lean manufacturing systems, industrial engineers work to eliminate wastes of time, money, materials, energy, and other resources. Examples of where industrial engineering might be used include designing an assembly workstation, strategizing for various operational logistics, consulting as an efficiency expert, developing a new financial algorithm or loan system for a bank, streamlining operation and emergency room location or usage in a hospital, planning complex distribution schemes for materials or products (referred to as Supply Chain Management), and shortening lines (or queues) at a bank, hospital, or a theme park. Industrial engineers typically use computer simulation (especially discrete event simulation), along with extensive mathematical tools and modeling and computational methods for system analysis, evaluation, and optimization Systems Engineering Applied to Design of Industrial Business Systems and Organization. System There are many definitions of what a system is in the field of systems engineering. Below are a few authoritative definitions: • ANSI/EIA-632-1999: "An aggregation of end products and enabling products to achieve a given purpose." • IEEE Std 1220-1998: "A set or arrangement of elements and processes that are related and whose behavior satisfies customer/operational needs and provides for life cycle sustainment of the products." • ISO/IEC 15288:2008: "A combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes." • NASA Systems Engineering Handbook: "(1) The combination of elements that function together to produce the capability to meet a need. The elements include all hardware, software, equipment, facilities, personnel, processes, and procedures needed for this purpose. (2) The end product (which performs operational functions) and enabling products (which provide life-cycle support services to the operational end products) that make up a system." • INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook: "homogeneous entity that exhibits predefined behavior in the real world and is composed of heterogeneous parts that do not individually exhibit that behavior and an integrated configuration of components and/or subsystems." • INCOSE: "A system is a construct or collection of different elements that together produce results not obtainable by the elements alone. The elements, or parts, can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies, and documents; that is, all things required to produce systems-level results. The results include system level qualities, properties, characteristics, functions, behavior and performance. The value added by the system as a whole, beyond that contributed independently by the parts, is primarily created by the 33 relationship among the parts; that is, how they are interconnected." Concept of System Design We are already experiencing a complex society. So also the industrial set up is passing through complex changes in their day to day operations. As more people are becoming learned, the rules of thumb cannot be highly relied upon. Hence, the development of systems concept. System concept is a systematic approach to get the task accomplished for efficiently, affectively and economically for industries and large organisations, it also tells how to manage the jobs or how to analyse complex phenomena under different circumstances and environment, it is used to build the model of a system, and solve the business or human values problem. System engineering is concerned with information systems or non-physical systems whereas industrial engineering is concerned with both physical and non-physical systems. A system is the collection of interacting elements that operates to achieve a pre-determined objective. It optimizes some function of input and output. Examples of a system are: • A human body is a system that has various sub-systems like, blood circulation, nervous system, eating capability etc. • Industry can also be termed to be a system that has various sub-systems like production, sales, inventory. Etc. • Transportation is another system that has a subsystem like rail, road, and marine transportation A system is termed to be dynamic in nature, which can come as animate (school building and all students) or inanimate (thunder storm). In animate system example of the input is teaching, chalk, students, etc. the process unit includes lectures/or teachers, other staff and laboratories and equipment. The output is the graduates and the objective is to teach the students satisfactorily as many as possible in a given time. Classification of system A system may be classified into 3 major types thus; i. Mechanistic: is one that is fully mechanised although the choice of system composition remains in the hands of human beings, example are dial telephone, space rockets etc. ii. Quasi-Mechanistic: this is the process where human beings carry out some of the mechanical functions, example is a fighter plane. iii. Non-Mechanistic: it is possible that human elements act or take decisions and improve the system. Example is the production system. System Analysis In the system analysis you need to: i. Study the system; and ii. Construct the system. The procedure involves i. Define the objective; ii. Providing alternative-which can achieve the objective; iii. Model building – physical or mathematical iv. Criterion – evaluation of the interior specified v. Preference – wise alternatives – choose out of the various alternatives available vi. Verification – test your alternatives by experiments System Engineering It involves the analysis and synthesis of systems. It involve three major steps for designing complex and highly engineering equipment system thus; i. Define the problem – input and output and the requirement of the system must be specified ii. Solve the problem – identify the system, sub-system, susb-system interface and check the performance of the system. iii. Check the solution – this is to ascertain that the designed equipment sysemfuncions very well and fulfil its requirements Techniques in system analysis The technique used for solving problem in the system analysis depend on the mathematical equation arrived at when solving the problem. Some of the techniques are; i. Operation Research ii. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT); iii. Critical Path Method (CPM); and iv. Simulation v. System analysis has different scope from that of operations research in the conventional sense. It is a discipline with logic of its own; Similar in many respects to that of operations research, but also different in some fundamental aspects. vi. The production/industrial engineering fields has grown considerably in the direction of system analysis. A system may present a negative feedback as shown in the fig. 1 below Goal e = error Management Action Apparent Condition Fig 1: Negative feedback in management system System reliability System, even including managerial systems, can be considered to be two types thus; a) Series system: where there are two or more components operating in series. Component C Component C 1 2 A B Fig 2: A series system It has the following characteristics: i. If either of the two component fails, it is automatic that the system will fail; ii. Therefore, the effective reliability of the system between A and B therefore is = C C Eqn 1 C AB 1 2 Where C1 and C2 denotes the reliability of the two components or the system C = C C C Eqn 2 TOTAL 1 2 N b) Parallel Systems- where two or more components operate in parallel Component C 1 A B Component C 2 Fig 3: A parallel system It has the following characteristics; i. If either of the two components fails, the system will still continue to operate, although performance or efficiency will be reduced. ii. Therefore, the effective reliability of the system between A and B is; C = 1 – (1 – C ) (1 – C) Eqn 3 AB 1 2 Or more generally = 1 – (1 – C )(1 – C )(1 – C (1 – C) Eqn 4 C TOTAL 1 2 S N From the managerial point of view, the combined reliability of two control systems acting  in parallel is greater than that of either system, and it is however noted that the greater the  number of systems, the greater the total reliability. Systems Engineering Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed over the life cycle of the project. Issues such as logistics, the coordination of different teams, and automatic control of machinery become more difficult when dealing with large, complex projects. Systems engineering deals with work-processes and tools to handle such projects, and it overlaps with both technical and human-centered disciplines such as control engineering, industrial engineering, organizational studies, and project management. 1 The term systems engineering can be traced back to Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1940s. The need to identify and manipulate the properties of a system as a whole, which in complex engineering projects may greatly differ from the sum of the parts' properties, motivated the Department of Defense, NASA, and other industries to apply the discipline. When it was no longer possible to rely on design evolution to improve upon a system and the existing tools were not sufficient to meet growing demands, new methods began to be 3 developed that addressed the complexity directly. The evolution of systems engineering, which continues to this day, comprises the development and identification of new methods and modeling techniques. These methods aid in better comprehension of engineering systems as they grow more complex. Popular tools that are often used in the systems engineering context were developed during these times, including USL, UML, QFD, and IDEF0. Practical Example of Systems Engineering Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: spacecraft design, computer chip design, robotics, software integration, and bridge building. Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling and simulation, requirements analysis and scheduling to manage complexity. "The systems engineering method recognizes each system is an integrated whole even though composed of diverse, specialized structures and sub-functions. It further recognizes that any system has a number of objectives and that the balance between them may differ widely from system to system. The methods seek to optimize the overall system functions according to the weighted objectives and to achieve maximum compatibility of its parts." — Systems Engineering Tools by Harold Chestnut, 1965. Systems engineering signifies both an approach and, more recently, a discipline in engineering. The aim of education in systems engineering is to simply formalize the approach and in doing so, identify new methods and research opportunities similar to the way it occurs in other fields of engineering. As an approach, systems engineering is holistic and interdisciplinary in flavour. Origins and traditional scope The traditional scope of engineering embraces the design, development, production and operation of physical systems, and systems engineering, as originally conceived, falls within this scope. "Systems engineering", in this sense of the term, refers to the distinctive set of concepts, methodologies, organizational structures (and so on) that have been developed to meet the challenges of engineering functional physical systems of unprecedented complexity. The Apollo program is a leading example of a systems engineering project. Holistic view Systems engineering focuses on analyzing and eliciting customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem, the system lifecycle. Oliver et al. claim that the systems engineering process can be decomposed into • a Systems Engineering Technical Process, and • a Systems Engineering Management Process. Within Oliver's model, the goal of the Management Process is to organize the technical effort in the lifecycle, while the Technical Process includes assessing available information, defining effectiveness measures, to create a behavior model, create a structure model, perform trade-off analysis, and create sequential build & test plan. Depending on their application, although there are several models that are used in the industry, all of them aim to identify the relation between the various stages mentioned above and incorporate feedback. Examples of such models include the Waterfall model and the VEE model Interdisciplinary field System development often requires contribution from diverse technical disciplines. By providing a systems (holistic) view of the development effort, systems engineering helps mold all the technical contributors into a unified team effort, forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation and, in some cases, to termination and disposal. Managing complexity The need for systems engineering arose with the increase in complexity of systems and projects, in turn exponentially increasing the possibility of component friction, and therefore the reliability of the design. When speaking in this context, complexity incorporates not only engineering systems, but also the logical human organization of data. At the same time, a system can become more complex due to an increase in size as well as with an increase in the amount of data, variables, or the number of fields that are involved in the design. The International Space Station is an example of such a system. The International Space Station is an example of a largely complex system requiring Systems Engineering. The development of smarter control algorithms, microprocessor design, and analysis of environmental systems also come within the purview of systems engineering. Systems engineering encourages the use of tools and methods to better comprehend and manage complexity in systems. Some examples of these tools can be seen here: Taking an interdisciplinary approach to engineering systems is inherently complex since the behavior of and interaction among system components is not always immediately well defined or understood. Defining and characterizing such systems and subsystems and the interactions among them is one of the goals of systems engineering. In doing so, the gap that exists between informal requirements from users, operators, marketing organizations, and technical specifications is successfully bridged. Scope of System Engineering Management The scope of systems engineering activities One way to understand the motivation behind systems engineering is to see it as a method, or practice, to identify and improve common rules that exist within a wide variety of systems. Keeping this in mind, the principles of systems engineering — holism, emergent behavior, boundary, et al. — can be applied to any system, complex or otherwise, provided systems thinking is employed at all levels. Besides defense and aerospace, many information and technology based companies, software development firms, and industries in the field of electronics & communications require systems engineers as part of their team. Systems engineering encourages the use of modeling and simulation to validate assumptions or theories on systems and the interactions within them. Systems engineering tools are strategies, procedures, and techniques that aid in performing systems engineering on a project or product. The purpose of these tools vary from database management, graphical browsing, simulation, and reasoning, to document production, neutral import/export and more. The systems engineering process Depending on their application, tools are used for various stages of the systems engineering process: Using models Models play important and diverse roles in systems engineering. A model can be defined in several ways, including: • An abstraction of reality designed to answer specific questions about the real world • An imitation, analogue, or representation of a real world process or structure; or • A conceptual, mathematical, or physical tool to assist a decision maker. Together, these definitions are broad enough to encompass physical engineering models used in the verification of a system design, as well as schematic models like a functional flow block diagram and mathematical (i.e., quantitative) models used in the trade study process. 34 This section focuses on the last. The main reason for using mathematical models and diagrams in trade studies is to provide estimates of system effectiveness, performance or technical attributes, and cost from a set of known or estimable quantities. Typically, a collection of separate models is needed to provide all of these outcome variables. The heart of any mathematical model is a set of meaningful quantitative relationships among its inputs and outputs. These relationships can be as simple as adding up constituent quantities to obtain a total, or as complex as a set of differential equations describing the trajectory of a spacecraft in a gravitational field. Ideally, the relationships express causality, not just correlation. Tools for graphic representations Initially, when the primary purpose of a systems engineer is to comprehend a complex problem, graphic representations of a system are used to communicate a system's 35 functional and data requirements. Common graphical representations include: • Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) • VisSim • Data Flow Diagram (DFD) • N2 (N-Squared) Chart • IDEF0 Diagram • UML Use case diagram • UML Sequence diagram • USL Function Maps and Type Maps. • Enterprise Architecture frameworks, like TOGAF, MODAF, Zachman Frameworks etc. A graphical representation relates the various subsystems or parts of a system through functions, data, or interfaces. Any or each of the above methods are used in an industry based on its requirements. For instance, the N2 chart may be used where interfaces between systems is important. Part of the design phase is to create structural and behavioral models of the system. Once the requirements are understood, it is now the responsibility of a systems engineer to refine them, and to determine, along with other engineers, the best technology for a job. At this point starting with a trade study, systems engineering encourages the use of weighted choices to determine the best option. A decision matrix, or Pugh method, is one way (QFD is another) to make this choice while considering all criteria that are important. The trade study in turn informs the design which again affects the graphic representations of the system (without changing the requirements). In an SE process, this stage represents the iterative step that is carried out until a feasible solution is found. A decision matrix is often populated using techniques such as statistical analysis, reliability analysis, system dynamics (feedback control), and optimization methods. At times a systems engineer must assess the existence of feasible solutions, and rarely will customer inputs arrive at only one. Some customer requirements will produce no feasible solution. Constraints must be traded to find one or more feasible solutions. The customers' wants become the most valuable input to such a trade and cannot be assumed. Those wants/desires may only be discovered by the customer once the customer finds that he has over constrained the problem. Most commonly, many feasible solutions can be found, and a sufficient set of constraints must be defined to produce an optimal solution. This situation is at times advantageous because one can present an opportunity to improve the design towards one or many ends, such as cost or schedule. Various modeling methods can be used to solve the problem including constraints and a cost function. Systems Modeling Language (SysML), a modeling language used for systems engineering applications, supports the specification, analysis, design, verification and validation of a broad range of complex systems. Universal Systems Language (USL) is a systems oriented object modeling language with executable (computer independent) semantics for defining complex systems, including software. Related fields and sub-fields Many related fields may be considered tightly coupled to systems engineering. These areas have contributed to the development of systems engineering as a distinct entity. Cognitive systems engineering Cognitive systems engineering (CSE) is a specific approach to the description and analysis of human-machine systems or sociotechnical systems. The three main themes of CSE are how humans cope with complexity, how work is accomplished by the use of artifacts, and how human-machine systems and socio-technical systems can be described as joint cognitive systems. CSE has since its beginning become a recognised scientific discipline, sometimes also referred to as cognitive engineering. The concept of a Joint Cognitive System (JCS) has in particular become widely used as a way of understanding how complex socio-technical systems can be described with varying degrees of resolution. 3940 The more than 20 years of experience with CSE has been described extensively. Configuration Management Like systems engineering, configuration management as practiced in the defense and aerospace industry is a broad systems-level practice. The field parallels the taskings of systems engineering; where systems engineering deals with requirements development, allocation to development items and verification, Configuration Management deals with requirements capture, traceability to the development item, and audit of development item to ensure that it has achieved the desired functionality that systems engineering and/or Test and Verification Engineering have proven out through objective testing. Control engineering Control engineering and its design and implementation of control systems, used extensively in nearly every industry, is a large sub-field of systems engineering. The cruise control on an automobile and the guidance system for a ballistic missile are two examples. Control systems theory is an active field of applied mathematics involving the investigation of solution spaces and the development of new methods for the analysis of the control process. Industrial engineering Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering that concerns the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, material and process. Industrial engineering draws upon the principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis, as well as mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. Interface design Interface design and its specification are concerned with assuring that the pieces of a system connect and inter-operate with other parts of the system and with external systems as necessary. Interface design also includes assuring that system interfaces be able to accept new features, including mechanical, electrical and logical interfaces, including reserved wires, plug-space, command codes and bits in communication protocols. This is known as extensibility. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) or Human- Machine Interface (HMI) is another aspect of interface design, and is a critical aspect of modern systems engineering. Systems engineering principles are applied in the design of network protocols for local-area networks and wide-area networks. Mechatronic engineering Mechatronic engineering, like Systems engineering, is a multidisciplinary field of engineering that uses dynamical systems modeling to express tangible constructs. In that regard it is almost indistinguishable from Systems Engineering, but what sets it apart is the focus on smaller details rather than larger generalizations and relationships. As such, both fields are distinguished by the scope of their projects rather than the methodology of their practice. Operations research Operations research supports systems engineering. The tools of operations research are used in systems analysis, decision making, and trade studies. Several schools teach SE citation needed courses within the operations research or industrial engineering department , highlighting the role systems engineering plays in complex projects. Operations research, briefly, is concerned with the optimization of a process under multiple constraints. Performance engineering Performance engineering is the discipline of ensuring a system will meet the customer's expectations for performance throughout its life. Performance is usually defined as the speed with which a certain operation is executed or the capability of executing a number of such operations in a unit of time. Performance may be degraded when an operations queue to be executed is throttled when the capacity is of the system is limited. For example, the performance of a packet-switched network would be characterised by the end-to-end packet transit delay or the number of packets switched within an hour. The design of high-performance systems makes use of analytical or simulation modeling, whereas the delivery of high-performance implementation involves thorough performance testing. Performance engineering relies heavily on statistics, queuing theory and probability theory for its tools and processes. Program management and project management. Program management (or programme management) has many similarities with systems engineering, but has broader-based origins than the engineering ones of systems engineering. Project management is also closely related to both program management and systems engineering. Proposal engineering Proposal engineering is the application of scientific and mathematical principles to design, construct, and operate a cost-effective proposal development system. Basically, proposal engineering uses the "systems engineering process" to create a cost effective proposal and increase the odds of a successful proposal. Reliability engineering Reliability engineering is the discipline of ensuring a system will meet the customer's expectations for reliability throughout its life; i.e. it will not fail more frequently than expected. Reliability engineering applies to all aspects of the system. It is closely associated with maintainability, availability and logistics engineering. Reliability engineering is always a critical component of safety engineering, as in failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and hazard fault tree analysis, and of security engineering. Reliability engineering relies heavily on statistics, probability theory and reliability theory for its tools and processes. Safety engineering The techniques of safety engineering may be applied by non-specialist engineers in designing complex systems to minimize the probability of safety-critical failures. The "System Safety Engineering" function helps to identify "safety hazards" in emerging designs, and may assist with techniques to "mitigate" the effects of (potentially) hazardous conditions that cannot be designed out of systems. Security engineering Security engineering can be viewed as an interdisciplinary field that integrates the community of practice for control systems design, reliability, safety and systems engineering. It may involve such sub-specialties as authentication of system users, system targets and others: people, objects and processes. Software engineering From its beginnings, software engineering has helped shape modern systems engineering practice. The techniques used in the handling of complexes of large software-intensive systems has had a major effect on the shaping and reshaping of the tools, methods and processes of SE. PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL PLANNING Planning from the managerial point of view can be defined as the determination of what to do and how to do it. It can therefore, be said that planning is making decisions from among many alternatives. • Planning includes all activities that establish a course of action to guide future decision making. It is part of the work of Operation Manager to know and define the objective of the organization, and policies, programs, and procedures for achieving the objectives. It involves overall strategy of achieving the organization objectives. • Planning is a process of thinking ahead. • Planning bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to be. • Planning is the mental and intellectual work required before a physical effort take place. • Planning is considered a manager’s first responsibilities to the business and is a process whereby a future state is compared with the present and specific steps are formulated to achieve the goal. • Planning is setting of business an objective which implies at least forecasting analyzing problems and making decision. • Planning is the practical thinking, dreaming and scheming that it takes to isolate, determine and schedule the actions and the achievement required in order to attain our objectives. It is the formulation and development of the ‘blue-print’ we expect to follow. • Planning is plotting the use of our time, resources and effort towards the realization of what we want to accomplish, and it is also the beginning of reality. • Planning is investigating, forecasting, foreseeing, projecting, foretelling and endeavouring to penetrate tomorrow’s invisible curtain. Planning As a Measurement Function Planning is the function/activities of a manager in which helps the firm to: • Determine the objective of the firm; • Decides in advance what the manager wants to do. • Explore the environment and forecast for changes. • Making decisions from among any alternatives; • Develop policies, procedures and plan to help achieve the objectives in view of the changing environment. • Establish a course of action, thus guiding future decision making. Planning essence is futurity which is an intellectual process of creative thinking and imagination which is very essential for the growth of an organization. The nature of importance of planning can be looked at from the four major aspects of planning thus; • Contribution to purpose and Objectives: It is used to facilitate the accomplishment of the purpose and objective in the enterprise. • Primary of Planning: this is the first among function, since managerial operations are organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. These are used to support the enterprise objectives. Planning precedes the execution of all other managerial functions. • Pervasiveness of planning: this is the effect of planning which is important for all other management function viz organizing, directing and control. Pervasiveness is to distinguish between policy making (the setting or guides for thinking in decision making) and administration, or between the “Manager” and the “Administrator” or “Superior”. • Efficiency of Plans: The efficiency is measured by the amount it contributes to purpose and objectives as offset by the cost and other unsought consequences which is required to formulate and operate it. Types of Plans The types of plan can be classified into 3 main Categories thus: CLASSIFICATION BY TIME AND DURATION There are three (3) major types of classification by time o duration thus; i. Long-Range Planning: This is between 5 to 10 years. It can also be refer to as capacity planning which can be sub-divided into two: Facility Planning and Equipment Planning. This can be in form of plant construction and location with product line design and development. ii. Medium or Intermediate Range Planning: This is between 2 to 5 years. It can also be referred to as Aggregate Planning, which can be sub-divided into three: ƒ Use of facility; ƒ Personnel needs; and ƒ Sub-contracting It can also be refer to as master schedule which can be subdivided two: ƒ Material Requirement planning (MRP) ƒ Disaggregation of Master Plan. iii. Short-Range Planning: This is between several months to year. Examples are inventory, goals, labour budget, job scheduling, production levels and purchasing. CLASSIFICATION BY BUSINESS FUNCTION OR USE Classification by business functions or use can be plans concerning the ; • Sales Function; • Production Function; • Personnel Function; • Finance Function and • Carry other major Function CLASSIFICATION IN RESPECT TO BREADTH OR SCOPE The Classification in respect to breadth scope can be from the three types enumerated below thus; i. Policies – the policy decisions adopted can be in form of i. Whether to make or buy the product: If the company cannot make a particular product or item they can decide to buy, which will be a short-run decision. It should be reviewed from time-to- time. ii. Whether Manufacturing will be intermittent or continuous: the decision whether a product production will be intermittent or continuous depends on the characteristics of the products. Usually most production lie between continuous and intermittent. iii. Whether Manufacturing will be for stock or for order: it depends on the key factor of firm’s policy regarding the time that can be allowed to elapse between receiving a customer’s order and filling his order. Other factors can be; the value of product, the service expectation of the customer, the practices of competitions firms and the custom of the industry. Making to order means each order must be processed individually through production system. iv. Whether size the production order will be? The determination of production size orders influences the choice of a production planning and control system in the same way as for sock or for order. v. Where the repair work will be done: It is necessary to determine where the repair work will be done during manufacturing process. The repair of products are of three(3) types: • Product found defective during the manufacturing cycle. • Products that develop defects during the warranty period. • Products that have developed defects because of normal wear and tear by the customer. All the above problems should be taken care of, and that they are mutually independent. ii. Procedure Procedure to be followed can be informed of: • Standard operating procedure; and • Dialing operation of company. iii. Methods Methods to be followed can be informed of: • Name and sequence of performing individual tasks(intra-dependent) STEPS IN PLANNING The following are the steps which can be followed in planning process; i. There should be awareness that there is an opportunity: The awareness of opportunity to invest in a business must be known. This can be in relation to: the market, competition available; what customers want; the strength of the business and the weakness of the business. ii. Identification of the goal and objectives of the organization to build a solid foundation: Where we want to be and what we want to accomplish and when. iii. Considering Planning Premises: Looking at what environment – internal or external – will the plan operate? iv. Identify the alternative changing situation that may arise: Identify the alternatives and what are the most promising alternatives to accomplishing the objective of the firm. v. Compare alternatives in light of goal sought: is necessary to know which alternative will give us the best chance of meeting the firm goals at the lowest cost and highest profit. vi. Translate the opportunities into selected course of action: Selecting the course of action to pursue by the firm. This is the point where a plan is adopted – the real point of decision making. vii. Formulate Supporting Plans: In formulating the supporting plans this can be inform of looking at buying equipment. Buying materials, hire and train workers, develop a new product. viii. Revision of the initial plan to update the current experience: This is where one can numeric plans by making budgets. The overall budget of a firm represent the total of income and expenses, to obtain if the firm will break even and get profit or surplus or it will be run at a loss. PRODUCTION CONTROL The basic concept of production control can be obtained by the review of some other people’s work who has contributed to the growth of production control. It is however to be noted that “planning and control are inseparable” – the Siamese twins of management. Any attempt to control without planning is meaningless since there is no way for people to tell whether they are going where they want to go(the result of task control) unless they first know where they want to go (part of the task of planning). Plans thus furnish the standard of control. Therefore, control has attracted so many definitions; some are reviewed below thus; • Control is the checking of performance against plan. • It is the power of authority to direct, order, or retrain. • Management controls are ratios, standards, statistics and other basic facts needed by the Boards of Directors, the president and various members of staff in order to determine major decisions governing the administration of the organization’s affairs. • Control processes include all activities that try to match performance with established objectives. Control Engineers control machines, industrial and economic processes for the benefit of the society. It is applicable to aeronautical, chemical, mechanical, production environmental, civil, and electrical and control engineering, rooted in feedback theory and linear system analysis and integrates networks a communication theories. The decisions on whether or not to invest capital to reduce production cost or increase capacity are one of the most challenging problems that management has to face. A large investment may indicate a high associated risk. This risk may be minimized if more is known about effects of many factors and if one has the ability to manipulate these factors to evaluate different courses of action. Production Control is the process of; • Determining a manufacturing plan; • Issuing information for its execution; • Collecting data which will enable the plan to be controlled through all stages. A major purpose of managerial control is to ensure that programs are carried out in such a way that objectives will be wet successfully. Control is needed to achieve the following; i. Dispatching: It is the process of actually ordering works to be done. ii. Expediting: It is the follow-up of the following activity that checks whether plans are actually being executed. In each aspect of production planning and control, we see some or all of the following. • Key Issues; what are the key problem areas? • Frame Work: How do these problems relate to other parts of production planning and control system? • Technical consideration; what techniques or systems are useful in solving the problems? • Managerial considerations; what organizational, managerial or technical changes are necessary to create an effectives systems? • Data Base: What is the underlying data base to support the system? • Examples: How has effective systems been implemented in leading edge firm. Production Planning and Control A production (or manufacturing) planning and control (MPC) system is concerned with planning and controlling all aspects of manufacturing, including materials, scheduling machines and people, and coordinating suppliers and customers. An effective MPC system is critical to the success of any company. An MPC system's design is not a one-off undertaking; it should be adaptive to respond to changes in the competitive arena, customer requirements, strategy, supply chain and other possible problems Production planning and control are usually used together. Planning the manufacture of products in the desired quantity and quality is a crucial issue in production management. However, even the best-conceived plans can go haywire because of delays, low inventories and machinery breakdowns. Consequently, there is a need for control over the operations to signal deviations from plans and trigger corrective measures. There are three areas of influence on the production planning and control; 1. Internationalization: Growth in international markets has had a crucial impact on the MPC context. Global customer base and international suppliers have become a reality. The composition of supply chains change based on opportunities. This requires international, transparent and effective MPC systems. 2. The role of the customer: Meeting customer requirements and service demands is crucial. Hence, both product and process flexibility is needed to produce customized products at variable volume. 3. Information technology: Responding to global coordination and communication requirements calls for the deployment of information systems to link functionally disparate, geographically dispersed and culturally diverse organizational units. Scope There are two interpretations regarding the scope of production planning and control: 1. According to the first approach, the planning of all materials, processes and operations ending with the finished product fall under the purview of production planning and control. Inventory control, scheduling of operations and the planning of required equipment are also included. 2. The second approach views planning as an aggregate overall concept. The starting point is the sales forecast or sales orders, then production capacity assessment is done and scheduling of operations is completed. Characteristics A production planning and control system should match the needs of the firm. In designing the MPC system, the nature of the production process, the degree of supply chain integration, customer expectations and needs of the management should be taken into account. The MPC system should smoothly integrate with other company functions as well as the operations of other companies in the supply chain. Costs and Benefits Initial costs of establishing a production planning and control system can be high. Ongoing operational costs can also be high given the number of professionals and resources such as computers, training and space needed. Moreover, an ineffective MPC system can even lead to the collapse of the whole business because of poor customer service, excessive inventory and misallocation of material, workers and equipment. On the other hand, successful implementation of a production planning and control system can have crosscutting benefits such as appropriate level of work-in-process, smooth production, rapid delivery times, economic production lot sizes and improved labor productivity. PURCHASING PROCESS Purchasing is the formal process of buying goods and services. The Purchasing Process can vary from one organization to another, but there are some common key elements. The process usually starts with a 'Demand' or requirements – this could be for a physical part (inventory) or a service. A requisition is generated, which details the requirements (in some cases providing a requirements speciation) which actions the procurement department. A Request for Proposal (RFP) or Request for Quotation (RFQ) is then raised. Suppliers send their quotations in response to the RFQ, and a review is undertaken where the best offer (typically based on price, availability and quality) is given the purchase order. Purchase orders (PO) can be of various types, including: • Standard - a onetime buy; • Planned - an agreement on a specific item at an approximate date; and • Blanket - an agreement on specific terms and conditions: date and quantity and amount are not specified. Purchase Orders are normally accompanied by Terms and Conditions which form the contractual agreement of the Transaction. The Supplier then delivers the products/service and the customer records the delivery (in some cases this goes through a Goods Inspection Process). An invoice is sent by the supplier which is cross-checked with the Purchase Order and Document which specifying that the goods received. The activity of acquiring goods or services to accomplish the goals of an organization. The major objectives of purchasing are to; (1) maintain the quality and value of a company's products, (2) minimize cash tied-up in inventory, (3) maintain the flow of inputs to maintain the flow of outputs, and (4) strengthen the organization's competitive position. Purchasing may also involve; (a) development and review of the product specifications, (b) receipt and processing of requisitions, (c) advertising for bids, (d) bid evaluation, (e) award of supply contracts, (f) inspection of good received, and (g) their appropriate storage and release. DESIGN OF METHODS/WORK/TIME STUDY AND WORK MEASUREMENT Design Methods Methods in engineering can be defined as a body of knowledge that deals with the analysis of the methods and equipment used in performing a job. It can also be referred to as the design of the optimum methods, and standardisation of the proposed method of performing a job. This can also be referred to as motion study, operation analysis, work study, or job design. This can also be closely related to work measurement The application of methods engineering are: • The design of a new plant • The design of a new process • To improve an existing process, and • To improve an existing work place Work methods is the critical study or ways of doing work and method usually arise where there are • Bottlenecks – which generates high work in progress, long delivery times or unbalanced work flow: • Idle plant/people – which usually give rise to underutilization of the resources; • Poor morale – this is evident by petty or trivial complaints; and inconsistent earning. Methods engineering historical perspective can be traced to Frank B and his wife Lilvan M. Gibreth who developed the tool known as “motion study”. In searching for the best ways he made use of: • The process chart; • The right – and left hand operation chart • Micromotion study • Therblings; and the choronocylegraph

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