How to improve communication skills in English

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COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH FIRST SEMESTER B.A/B.Sc/B.Com/B.B.A COMMON COURSE IN ENGLISH ( 2012 Admission Onwards) UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Calicut University, P.O. Malappuram, Kerala, India-673 635 101(A)School of Distance Education UNIT I BASICS OF PHONETICS Objectives This module will help a. To understand the basics of “Phonetics”. b. To familiarise the students with the sounds and symbols of English. c. To identify the various reasons for incorrect pronunciation. d. To understand the Syllable, Word stress and Intonation e. To help students learn to pronounce vowels, diphthongs and consonant sounds properly. f. To familiarize the students with transcription, strong forms and weak forms of words. Introduction The international language, English is a window to the outside world. As a global language it has a unique status . English has no one-to-one correspondence between the letters of the alphabets and the sounds they represent. For example, the letter /i/ is pronounced differently in “ink” and “ice”. The letter /K/ in “keep” and /C/ in “cat”is pronounced alike . In English, one letter of the alphabet stands for more than one sound. Thus there is no one to one relationship between spelling and pronunciation. It is a fact that some speakers of English attract us with their good command of language with correct pronunciation. English is a foreign language and we are not the native speakers of English. In India it is a second language and so there exists a serious problem with regard to the correct pronunciation of the English words. Since there are varieties of English spoken in different parts of the world, we often come across, incorrect pronunciation and mispronunciations. Some of the reasons for incorrect pronunciation are given below: 1. In countries where English is the native or first language, the children get enough exposure to English. They learn to respond to sounds and tones which their elders habitually use while talking to them. Later they imitate and learn to speak in the mother tongue accent. 2. In countries like India where English is a second or foreign language, children listen to wrong sounds and tones spoken by their teachers or grownups. Thus they tend to pick up faulty pronunciation. This happens mainly due to their lack of sufficient exposure to the right variety of the language. 3. Very often we tend to speak English as we speak our mother tongue. Thus due to the influence or interference of our mother tongue we make a number of mistakes. The Phonetic Alphabet The twenty six letters of English alphabet are used for writing English. There are differences between the writing and pronunciation of English. So we need more alphabets to represent all the speech sounds in English. The distinctive sound units that help to pronounce are the phonemes. Phoneme is the minimal sound unit. There are 44 phonemes in English. The study of phonemes is known as phonology. The 44 sound units in English contain 44 symbols. These symbols are classified as given below; Communication Skills in English Page 5School of Distance Education Total Sounds 44 ↓ Consonants 24 + Vowels 20 ↓ ( P ure Vowel 12 + Diphthongs 8) IPA ( In ternational Phonetic Alphabet) These are the alphabets accepted by the International phonetic Association to represent all the sounds that exist in all the languages of the world. These alphabets are based on the Roman alphabets. Received Pronunciation (R P) Since English is a world language, it is spoken in every parts of the world. In some countries like U.K, U.S.A, Canada and Australia, English is the native or first language. But in countries like China, Pakistan, India etc, English is the second language or non-native language. As there are variations in accent, tones and pronunciation, it is essential for us to follow a standard variety of English that is received or accepted by all people in the world. Such a native regional variety with an accepted accent that has gained a social prestige and status is known as the Received Pronunciation (R P) of English . It is the pronunciation of the people of South East England and is used by all educated English speakers all over the world. Misconception about sounds There are 26 letters in English and so most of us believe that there are only 26 sounds in English. Because of this misconception most of the Indian students fail to get acquainted with the right pronunciation and accent. Actually, though there are 26 letters, there are 44 different sounds in English. An alphabet is different from the sound. Look at the following words 1) cat, 2) keen, 3) oc casion, 4 ) Chemistry in these words c, k, cc and ch have /k/ sound. Sometimes same alphabets may have different sounds. 1) Chemist ‘Ch’ give /k/ sound 2) Character 3) Cheese 4 ) C hess ‘Ch’ give / tƒ/ sound Transcription To indicate standard sounds in English there are some standard symbols. These symbols that are accepted by the educated class of people are known as IPA ( International Phonetic Alphabet) . Using standard symbols for standard sounds is known as Transcription. There are two types of transcriptions (1 ) Broad Transcription and ( 2) Narrow Transcription or phonetic and phonemic transcription. Communication Skills in English Page 6School of Distance Education Vowels Vowels are pronounced with an open tract and so there is no formation of air pressure at any point above the glottis. A vowel is a sustainable vocal sound made without audible stopping of the breath or friction in its passage out through the mouth. A vowel sound, the quality of which does not changes over the duration of the vowel is called a pure vowel. There are 12 pure vowel sounds in English which are given below with examples. PURE VOWELS 1. /j /as in sit /sj t/ 2. /i:/as in beat /bi:t/ 3. /e/ as in bet /beg/ 4. /æ/as in sat /sæt/ 5. /Q :/as in farm /fQ :m/ 6. /R / as in got /got/ 7. /T :/ as in all /T :l / 8. /Š / as in put /pŠ t/ 9. /u:/ as in fool /fu:l/ 10. /Œ / as in but /bŒ t/ 11. /\ :/ as in bird /b\ :d/ 12. /ə/ as in ago /əgəŠ / Vowel sounds may appear in the initial, medial or final position. Examples are given below: Sound Position Examples i: Initial Eat, each Medial Piece, thief, seed, dream Final See, pea, key i or /I Initial It, in, ink Medial Silk, thick, slip, hit, city Final Duty, beauty, lonely, quickly e Initial Empire, enter, exist Medial Bed, dead, head, wet, red Final Doesn’t occur in the final position æ Initial Actor, axe, apple Medial Bank, man, sad, mango Final Doesn’t occur in the final position Initial Utter, uplift, understand Œ Medial Bus, dull, dust, gun, munch Final Doesn’t occur in the final position Communication Skills in English Page 7School of Distance Education α: Initial Aunt, art, answer Medial Car, hard, farm, march, fast Final Car, bar, jar Initial Office, oxygen, T Medial Hot, bottle, dog, lock Final Doesn’t occur in the final position T : Initial All, awkward, ought Medial Ball, call, morning Final Saw, raw, claw Š Initial Doesn’t occur in the initial position Medial Book, cook, look, wood Final Doesn’t occur in the final position u: Initial Doesn’t occur in the initial position Medial Rule, groove, suit, stupid Final New, shoe, two ə : or/3:/ Initial Early, earn Medial Third, murder, suffer, nurse, dirt Final Doesn’t occur in the final position ə Initial About, effort, ago, allow Medial Sentence, condition, factory Final Motor, colour, doctor, beggar Diphthongs These sounds indicate vowel quality beginning in one vowel sound and later gliding into another vowel. So they are gliding vowels. The eight diphthongs in English are given below: DIPHTHONGS 1. /ej /as in hay /hej / 2. /aj / as in life /laj f/ 3. /Tj /as in boy /bTj / 4. /əŠ /as in go /gəŠ / 5. /aŠ / as in cow /kaŠ / 6. /j ə/ as in hear /hj ə/ 7. /Š ə/ as in pure /pjŠ ə/ 8. /eə/ as in care /keə/ Communication Skills in English Page 8School of Distance Education CONSONANTS A consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples: p : pronounced with the lips t : pronounced with the front of the tongue k : pronounced with the back of the tongue h : pronounced from glottis f and v : pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel. m and n : While pronouncing the air flowing through the nose .( So nasal sounds) . There are 24 consonants in English. They are given below: No Sound Example 1. p pin, spill, keep 2. b bit, imbibe, jumble 3. t tin, after, what 4. d dog, order, lead 5. k cut, character, neck 6. g get, girl, eager 7. cheap, nature, watch tƒ 8. jeep, jealous, judge d’ 9. m map, man, remind, mine 10. n nap, near, line, Christian 11. ŋ sang, song, bring, singing 12. l leaf, relate, detail 13. f fat, feather, half 14. v van, wave, velvet 15. ө thin, thank, wrath 16. ð then, feather, breath 17. s Sap, sound, cross 18. z maze, gaze, zenith 19. she, nation, shout ƒ 20. measure, pleasure, treasure ’ 21. h harm, house, he 22. r run, ruin, ray 23. w we, wicked, watch 24. j yet, yesterday, you Communication Skills in English Page 9School of Distance Education Problems of Indian English 1 ) In Indian English S and z are not pronounced correctly in words and this leads to confusion between pairs. Examples are given below: z s Eyes Ice Falls False Fears Hiss His Niece Knees Fierce 2) Interchanging of the sounds ƒ and s s ƒ Shave Save She See Sheet Seat Shine Sign 3)C onfusion between the sounds v and w v w Very White Vest West Vine Why Voice Wear To understand the distinctions between sounds enough practice with tongue twisters is essential. Example : She sells sea shells on the sea shore. Practice Test ( A ). Identify the sounds of the underlined letters in the following words. 1. Curious 6. Trunk 2. Boat 7. Approve 3. My 8. Aware 4. Tragedy 9. Exploit 5. Birds 10. Death Communication Skills in English Page 10School of Distance Education Answers 1. T ə 2. əu 3./ ai/ 4. ə 5.z 6. ŋ 7. u: 8. eə 9. T i 10. θ Practice Test B. Write examples of words: 1. A word ending in d’ - Answer - judge 2. A word ending in g - Answer – pig 3. A word beginning with ð- Answer – that 4. A word beginning with ƒ - Answer – shy C. Identify the sounds in the underlined phonetic symbols from the following words. 1. fathom 2. Vocabulary 3.noises 4.valves 5. raised 6.diamond Answers 1. ð 2.u 3.iz 4.vz 5.zd 6. aj THE SYLLABLE It is the smallest convenient unit of speech. Syllables are formed by combining phonemes. All the words in English have one or more syllables. According to the number of syllables in a word, words may be classified into: mono-syllabic words, di-syllabic words, tri-syllabic words and poly- syllabic words. Usually syllable-division is marked with a hyphen. It is not always possible to mark the syllable division in the orthographic representation ( or dinary spelling) of English words. It is, therefore, better to write the phonetic transcription of words and mark syllable-division in the transcribed versions of words. A syllable will always have a vowel. There may or may not be consonants in a syllable. The number of syllables in a word can be understood by counting the number of vowels in them. The structure of a syllable is (c ) v ( c ) .C stands for consonant and V stands for a vowel. Consonants are optional and so they are placed between the bars. Mono-syllabic words Words which have only one syllable are known as mono-syllabic words. Some examples are given below: dip / dIp / , heat / hi:t / , kill / kil/ art / α:t / , feed / fi:d / , will / wil / keep / ki:p / , deed / di:d / , zoo / zu: / sin / sin / , cheap /tƒ i:p / , lip / lip / pin / pin / , each / i:tƒ/ , kin / kin / class / klα:s / , ill / il / , tin / tin / eat / i:t / , far / fα:/ , lid / lid / bat / bæt / , tip / tip / , sip / sip / kid /kid / , sad / sæd , mud / mŒ d / Communication Skills in English Page 11School of Distance Education Di- syllabic words Words with two syllables are known as di-syllabic words. Examples are given below: Syllable division is marked with a hyphen. apple æ p-l , college kT l-id’ intact in-t æ kt , battle b æ t-l retail ri-teil , glitter glit- ə intend in-tend , impart im-pα:t/ lonely lT un-li , ladder l æd-ə prepay pri-pei , rebound ri-baund , engage in-geid’ rebuid ri:-bild , relax ri-læks Tri- syllabic words Words having three syllables are called tri syllabic words. Examples are listed below: strategy stræt-ә-d’ i , Consider kәn – sid - ә imitate im -i-tei t , Intermit in - tə - mi t affection ә- fek - ∫n , Pedicure ped-i-kjuә minister min-i-stә , Promotive prә-mәu-tiv algebra ael-d3i-brə , Radio rei-di-әu predicate pred-i-kət , Satisfy s æ t-i s-fai saturday s æ t-ə-dei , Prepayment pri:-pei-mənt Poly-syllabic words Words having more than three syllables are known as poly-syllabic words. Examples are given below: propaganda prT p-ə-gæn-də pronunciation prə-nŒ n-si-ei-ƒ әn pulsatory pŒ l-sə -tər-i probability prT b-ә-bil-ə-ti understandably Œ n-də-stænd-ə-bli exploitation ek-splT i-tei-ƒ ən exterior ik-stiə-ri-ə temporary tem-pə r- ər-i pronunciation pr ə -nŒ n-si -ei-ƒ әn ә ә commercialization k -m3:-∫ -lai-zei-ƒ әn communion kә-mju:-ni-әn complimentary kT m-pli-men-tər-i Communication Skills in English Page 12School of Distance Education Dividing words in to syllables SL.No Word Transcription Syllabic Structure 1 Clap klæ p c c v c 2 Hope həup c v c 3 Late leit c v-c 4 Fauna fT :nә c v-c v 5 Scream skri:m c c c v c 6 Remember ri m em bә c v-c v c-c v әun 7 Telephone te-li-f c v- c v-c v c ə ə 8 Apologize -pT -l -d’ aiz v-c v-c v-c v c 9 Listlessness list-lis-nis c v c c-c v c-c v c 10 Potato pә-tei-təu c v- c v- c v ən 11 Policeman pə-li:s m c v-c v-c v 12 College kT -lid’ c v-c v c 13. manner /mænə/ cv-cv 14 Considering kәn-si-də-ring c v c-c v-c v-c v cc 15 Ability ə-bi-lə-ti v-c v-c v-c v 16 Passenger pæ-sin-d’ ə c v-c v c-c v 17 Imagine i-m æ-d’ in v-c v-c v c 18 Languages læŋg-wi-d’ iz c v c c-c v-c v c 19 Atlantic ət-læ-ntik v c-c v c-c v c Practice Test Mark the division of syllables in the following words (1 ) of fer ( 11 ) w indow (2 ) sudde n ( 12 ) s ympathy (3 ) di fferent (13 ) pe rhaps (4 ) S eptember ( 14 ) i nformation (5 ) J anuary ( 15 ) a ctivity ( 6 ) c hildren ( 16 ) t elephone ( 7 ) c ollege ( 17 ) m anagement ( 8 ) di sappear ( 18 ) e lectrician ( 9 ) a ccident ( 19 ) di sappearance (10 ) pr oper ( 20 ) c oncentrate Answers 1 of-fer 11 win-dow 2 sud-den 12 sym-pa-thy 3 dif-fer-ent 13 per-haps 4 sep-tem-ber 14 in-for-ma-tion 5 jan-u-ary 15 ac-ti-vity 6 chil-dren 16 te-le-phone 7 col-lege 17 ma-nage-ment 8 dis-ap-pear 18 e-lec-tri-cian 9 ac-ci-dent 19 dis-ap-pear-ance 10 pro-per 20 con-cen-trate Communication Skills in English Page 13School of Distance Education Word Stress English is an stress based language. In a word all the syllables are not pronounced with equal emphasis . For example in the word ‘ability’ it is ‘b ‘ and not /ə/ that is heard prominently. It can be transcribed as │ə’biliti│. This is Known as word stress. In the word ‘ father ‘ there are two syllables , fa-ther ( di syllabic word). T he first syllable ‘fa’ is more prominent. Sometimes the position of the stress may change in the same word when there is a change in the parts of speech.. Examples are given below : Noun/adjective verb 'export ex′port ′digest di′gest ′desert de′sert ′record re′cord ′subject su′bject ′import im′port ′permit per′mit ′present pre′sent ′produce pro′duce ′perfect per′fect Rules for marking the Stress ( 1 ) Words with weak prefixes are accented on the root. Eg: a′go , be′low, re′duce, a′bove, re′vise (2 ) Verbs of two syllables beginning with prefix ‘dis’ are stressed on the last syllable. Eg: , dis′guise, dis′mis, dis′close, dis′tress ( 3 ) Verbs with two syllables and end in —ate, —ise, —ize, —ct are stressed on the last syllable eg: at′tract , cre′mate, nar′rate, de′bate, bap′tize , in′ject (4 ) Words ending in ‘ —ion’ are stressed on the last but one syllable eg: appli′cation, intro′duction, assimi′lation, exami′nation, expla′nation, pro′duction , simplifi′cation ( 5 ) Words ending in ‘ —ic’, —ical, —ically —ial, —ially and —i’an are stressed on the syllable before the suffix. Eg: me′morial, ′special, sub′stantial, li′brarian, e′ssential (6 ) Words ending in —ions, and—eous are stressed on the last but one syllable or on penultimate syllable. Eg; ′curious, la′borious, re′bellious , spon′taneous, courageous, ′serious ( 7 ) Words ending in —ate, —ise, —ize, —fy are stressed on the third syllable from the end. Eg: ′duplicate, ′modernize, ′cultivate, ′beautify , ′educate, ′criticize, ′satisfy (8 ) Words end in —ity ,—cracy and —crat are stressed on the third syllable from the end. Eg: a′bility, de′mocracy, au′tocracy, curi′osity, crea′tivity, ′autocrat, magna′nimity, bu′reaucracy ( 9 ) Words end in —graph, —graphy —meter and —logy are stressed on The third syllable from the end. Eg: zo′ology crimi′nology , ′paragraph, pa′rameter, so′ciology, anthro′pology. Communication Skills in English Page 14School of Distance Education ( 10 ) words ending with the suffix —aire, —eer, —ental, —entail, —ese, —esce,— escence,—escent, —esque, —ique, —ee, —ette, —ete and—ade are stressed on the suffix. Eg: pio′neer, car′eer, millio′naire pay′ee , barri′cade, de′lete com′plete, re′plete, gro′tes que pictu′res que, exi′stential ga′zette, , ado′lescent ( 11 ) In compound words the stress is generally placed on the first element. Eg: ′blacksmith , ′dining roo ′tea party ′blackbird But in compound words with ‘’ —ever,’’ and —self, the stress is usually on the second element. Eg; how′ever , when′ever, him′self, her′self . Sometimes both the elements are stressed, but the primary stress remains on the second element. Eg; After′noon , old′fashioned, absent′minded Note The inflectional suffixes like —es, —ing and ed and the derivational Suffixes like —age, — ance,—en ,—er, —ess, —ful,—hood,—ice,—ive,—ish,—less, —ly,—ment,—ness,—or,—ship,— ter, —are ,and —zen do not affect the stress. Eg; ′match — ′matches , ′box — ′boxes , ′write — ′writer ′play — ′player ′city — ′citizen ′fine — ′finely ′laugh — ′laughter ′home — ′homeless ′care — ′careful ′bad — ′badly ′god — ′goddess ′want — ′wanted ′wait — ′waitress ′child — ′childish Transcription Transcription is writing words in phonetic symbols. The guidelines for transcribing words are given below: step (1 ) D ivide the word into parts eg : daughter → ‘daugh’and ‘ter’ explain → ‘ex’ and ‘plain’ dominate → ‘do’-‘mi’ and ‘nate’ This division is based on the two distinct vowel sounds in the words ‘daughter and ‘explain.’ But in ‘dominate’ there are three vowel sounds. The number of vowel sounds determine the number of syllables in a word. Divide the word in to syllables and mark the stress eg : daughter — ′dT :tә explain — ik′splein dominate — ′domineit guide — ′gaid dictionary — ′dik∫nrI arrange — ә′reind’ picture — ′piktƒ ә Communication Skills in English Page 15School of Distance Education Words and their divisions in to syllables image — i-mage society — so-ci-e-ty observe — ob-serve development — de-ve-lop-ment breakfast — break-fast famous — fa-mous creature — crea-ture sure — sure nuisance — nui-sance heard — heard morning — mor -ning master — mas-ter enough — e-nough force — force serious — se-rious human — hu-man because — be-cause surface — sur-face hunger — hun-ger measure — mea-sure island — is-land Exercise ( 1 ) Refer to a standard dictionary and practise transcribing English words. Mark the stress. Exercise ( 2 ) Keeping in mind the rules of the word stress and recalling the 44 sounds in English , transcribe the following words, marking the stress on the right place. Computer envelop (v ) Justify terminate suicide regularize army women yellow skirt win approach beautiful obtain dictation bird reality possibility war frustration dictionary tour statement flight freedom pencil firm item Communication Skills in English Page 16School of Distance Education Model questions Divide the following words into syllables 1. selfish 6. advancement 11. mid point 2. telephone 7. appointment 12. invisibility 3. expand 8. subtract 13. beautiful 4. repentant 9. September 14. persuasive 5. rationality 10. felicitate 15. believe Divide the following words into syllables. 1. interlock 6.extinguish 11.demonstrate 2. satisfaction 7.delete 12.fashionable 3.employment 8.creative 13.impossible 4.industrial 9.communication 14.destructive 5.overprint 10.terrorism 15.oxygen Disyllabic words with stress on the first syllable Father / ′fa:ðә / . Enter / ′entә / fellow / ′felәu / Laughter / ′la:ftә / teacher / ′ti:tƒ ә / letter / ′lәtә / robber / ′rT bә / magnet / ′mægnәt / headset / ′hedset / garden / ′ga:dn / Disyllabic words with stress on the second syllable About / ә′bәut / asleep / ә′sli:p / career / kә′riә / propose / prә′pәuz / Endear / in′diә / advise / әd′vaiz / beside / bi′said / dismiss / dis′mis / Mundane / mŒ n′dein / july / d’ u′lai /. again / ә′gen / Tri-syllable words with stress on the first syllable Calculate / k′ælkjәleit / , replicate / ′replikeit / Demarcate / ′di:ma:keit / isolate / ′aisәleit / instrument / ′instrәmәnt / pulsative / ′pŒ lsәtiv / demonstrate / ′demәnstreit / consecrate / ′kT nsikereit / barrister / ′bæristә / polyglot / ′pT liglT t / Laminate / ′læmineit / Communication Skills in English Page 17School of Distance Education Tri-syllabic words with stress on the second syllable prevenetive / pri′ventiv / Magnetic / mæg′netik / revist / ri:′vizit / prophetic / prәu′fetik / Instructor / in′strT ktә / fallacious / fә′lei∫әs / ә / Presenter / pri′zent refusal / ri′fju:zәl / developed / di′velәpt / Tri-syllable words with stress on the third syllable Entertain / entә′tein / ә Prepossess / pri:p ′zes / recommend / rekә′mend / Inhumane / inhju:′mein / afternoon / a:ftә′nu:n / intercept / Intә′sept / ә interlink / Int ′liŋk / Poly syllabic words with different stress patterns Examination / Igzæmi′neiƒ en / wonderful / ′wŒ ndәfәl / Fascinating / ′fæsineitiŋ / obligatory / ә′bligәtәri / Fragility / frә′d’ ilәti / invitation / invi′teiƒ әn / Establishment / i′sæbliƒ mәnt / psychology / sai′kTlәd’ i / Community / kә′mju:nәti / psychological / sәikәl′T d’ ikәl / redeemable / ri′di:mәbl / politician / pT li′tiƒ әn / believable / bi′li:vәbl Model questions Mark the primary stress in the following words: 1. peculiar 6. satisfactory 11. compulsory 2. eradicate 7. fundamental 12. comparative 3. introduction 8. experimental 13. essential 4. betray 9. arrangement 14. respectful 5. education 10. confidential 15. Adverb Mark the primary stress in the following words 1. unbearable 6. majority 11. fingerprint 2. generate 7. opportunity 12. significant 3. de active 8. administration 13. stipend 4. fascinating 9. impolite 14. testify 5. glamorous 10. heartless 15. uniformity Communication Skills in English Page 18School of Distance Education STRESS IN COMPOUND WORDS There are many compound words in English like bookshop, bed room, post tman, blackboard,lighthouse etc. They are formed by putting together two or more words.The two words when they are separate ,they are both stressed. But when they are joined together to form compound words,only one word is stressed. Some examples are given below:- bed+room → bedroom / ′bedru:m / break+fast → breakfast / ′brekfәst / air+craft → aircraft / ′eәkra:ft / anything / ′eniӨiŋ / churchyard / ′t∫3:t∫ja:d / hairstyle / ′heәstail / grandmaster / ′grændma:stә / lighthouse / ′laithaus / In the above compound words the stress is on the first part. But it is not the case with all the compound words. There are compound words in which the stress is on the second part. Some examples are given below. bad –tempered / bæd′tempәd / man –made / mæn′meid / half –baked / ha:f′beikt / The first part of all the above compound words are adjectivals. If the first part of a compound word is adjectival, the word is normally stressed on the second part. A few compound words with ever,-self and –selves have the primary accent on the second syllable. Eg: what′ever / wT t′evә / who′ever / hu:′evә / when′ever / wen′evә / her′self / hә′self / himself / him′self / them′selves / ðәm′selvz / itself / it′self / Model questions Mark the primary stress in the following compound words. 1. postman 6. team work 11. hand kerchief 2. lifeboat 7. hair style 12. prime minister 3. school bag 8. foot print 13. gold smith 4. pick pocket 9. suit case 14. book shelf 5. air raid 10. sea shore 15. super market Mark the primary stress in the following compound words. 1.afternoon 5. Vice Chancellor 9. north-east 2.middle aged 6. home made 10. long-lived 7. tooth brush 4. under-graduate 8. country house Communication Skills in English Page 19School of Distance Education Strong and Weak forms Prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliaries and articles are known as structural words eg. prepositions — to, from, on, at, etc conjunctions — and, but, yet, since, etc auxiliaries — must, will, shall, can, do, etc articles — a, an, the. The structural words are often pronounced in their weak forms because they do not carry the main content/ meaning. So these words are normally unstressed. Eg: What do you want to do this morning? ( In this sentence the first ‘do’ is a weak form while the second ‘do’ is stressed). Examples of weak forms and strong forms are given below: orthography strong form weak form his hiz iz him him im her hә: ә you ju: ju, jə your ju: jə she ƒ i: ƒ i was wT :z wәz Read the following sentences. Make sure you use the weak forms of articles, prepositions and conjunctions. 1. ′Shut the ′door. 2. ′Have ′rice and ′curry. 3. ′Take the ′last ′bus. 4. ′Eat an ′apple 5. ′Better ′late than ′never. 6. ′Come and ′see me in the ′evening. 7. ′See you at ′lunch. 8. ′I can ′wait. 9. ′That′s very ′nice of you. 10.′Thank you for ′coming 11′Here′s a ′letter from the ′office. INTONATION When we hear someone speak, we realize that he/she doesn’t always speak on the same note. We hear constant variations in the level at which his voice is pitched. That is to say, sometimes the pitch rises and sometimes it falls. When the pitch of the voice falls we call it the falling tone. When the pitch of the voice rises we call it the rising tone. The falling tone is marked with a downward arrow ↓ before the syllable on which the pitch of the voice falls, and the rising tone is marked with an upward arrow ↑ before the syllable on which the pitch of the voice rises. Communication Skills in English Page 20School of Distance Education Functions of Intonation The falling Tone The falling tone is used: 1) In ordinary statements made without emotional implication. e.g : It’s t ' wo o clock. I 'have a 'lot of friends. It’s raining. 2. In wh – questions e.g. 'Who’s crying? 'When are we leaving? W ' hat’s the hurry? 3. In commands. e.g. 'Do as I say. 'Open your books. 'Get me some water. 4. In exclamations. e.g. 'What a pleasant surprise 'How beautiful How wonderful The Rising Tone The rising tone is used: 1) In yes/no questions e.g. Are you happy? 'Have you 'read the book? 'Can you sing? 2) In polite requests. e.g. 'Will you 'help me? 'Please sit down. 'Would you 'open the window? 3) In questions showing concern, apologies, etc. e.g. 'How’s your mother? 'Why are you crying? 'What is your problem? Read the following sentences 1. Who’s shouting? 2. The 'girls have left. 3. The 'box was empty. 4. 'Report immediately. 5. 'When are they coming? Communication Skills in English Page 21School of Distance Education 6. 'When did they leave. 7. 'What a tragedy 8. He had gone. 9. I have done it. 10. 'Which of these is your book? Read the following sentences 1. 'Are they coming? 2. 'Is he studying? 3. 'Please let me know. 4. 'Don’t be angry with me. 5. 'Everything’s going to be fine. 6. 'Shall we start now? 7. 'Is father at home. 8. 'Can you do it? 9. 'Is today Thursday? 10. 'Have you seen the film? Communication Skills in English Page 22School of Distance Education UNIT II ENGLISH LANGUAGE ESSENTIALS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Objectives This Chapter will help the students understand the following:  Parts of speech ( N ouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Articles, and Prepositions)  Degrees of Comparison  Functions of verbs and adverbs  Auxiliary verbs  Types of sentences in English Introduction While speaking and writing in English, we should follow the rules of the language. These set of rules that we apply for the correct use of language are the grammatical rules. In English there are certain elements like noun, pronoun, adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions, conjunctions, articles etc., which are considered as parts of speech. Nouns A noun is a word indicating a person, place, thing or material and emotional state, etc. Classification of Nouns:  Common nouns Eg: pen, lover, tree, water, boy  Proper nouns: Eg: Socrates, Lincoln, Calicut, Edapal Proper nouns begin with Capital letters  Collective Nouns Eg: family, nation, Committee, army, police, bunch, mob, team, parliament, jury  Material nouns: eg: Steel, silver, gold, brass, copper  Abstract nouns: 1. Quality: - Honesty, bravery, wisdom, innocence 2. Action:- Judgement, theft, laughter 3. State:- Sleep, youth, slavery, childhood Formation of abstract nouns from verbs Verb Abstract noun Laugh laughter die death Communication Skills in English Page 23

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