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Lecture notes on Optics

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Physics 323 Lecture Notes Part I: Optics A. A. Louro2i Copyright c2002, Alfredo Louro, The University of Calgary; this information may be copied, distributedand/ormodifiedundercertainconditions,butitcomesWITHOUTANYWARRANTY; see the Design Science License (file dsl.txt included with the distribution of this work) for more details.iiContents 1 Nature of light 1 1.1 Light – Wave or stream of particles? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.1 What is a wave? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 Evidence for wave properties of light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.3 Evidence for light as a stream of particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Features of a wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 Propagation of light 9 2.1 Huygens’ Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2 Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 Total internal reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3 Images 13 3.1 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.1.1 Real images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.1.2 Virtual images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 iiiiv CONTENTS 3.2 Curved mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.3 Ray tracing with mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.4 The mirror equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4 Lenses 19 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.2 Refraction at a spherical interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.3 A lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3.1 Locating the image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3.2 The lensmaker’s equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3.3 The thin lens equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3.4 Converging and diverging lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3.5 Ray tracing with lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.3.6 Real and virtual images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.3.7 Lateral magnification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 Optical instruments using lenses 27 5.1 Single-lens systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.1.1 A magnifying glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.2 Compound optical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.3 The refracting telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6 Interference and diffraction 35 6.1 Wave phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36CONTENTS v 6.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.2 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.3 Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.4 Diffraction gratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6.2 Summary of formulas in this chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A Small angle approximation 45 A.1 Small angle approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 B Derivations for the exam 47 B.1 Derivations for the Module 7 exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48vi CONTENTSChapter 1 Nature of light 12 CHAPTER 1. NATURE OF LIGHT 1.1 Light – Wave or stream of particles? Answer: Yes As we’ll see below, there is experimental evidence for both interpretations, although they seem contradictory. 1.1.1 What is a wave? More familiar types of waves are sound, or waves on a surface of water. In both cases, there is a perturbation with a periodic spatial pattern which propagates, or travels in space. In the case of sound waves in air for example, the perturbed quantity is the pressure, which oscillates about the mean atmospheric pressure. In the case of waves on a water surface, the perturbed quantity is simply the height of the surface, which oscillates about its stationary level. Figure 1.1 shows an example of a wave, captured at a certain instant in time. It is simpler to visualize a wave by drawing the “wave fronts”, which are usually taken to be the crests of the wave. In the case of Figure 1.1 the wave fronts are circular, as shown below the wave plot. 1.1.2 Evidence for wave properties of light There are certain things that only waves can do, for example interfere. Ripples in a pond caused by two pebbles dropped at the same time exhibit this nicely: Where two crests overlap, the waves reinforce each other, but where a crest and a trough coincide, the two waves actually cancel. This 1 is illustrated in Figure 1.2. If light is a wave, two sources emitting waves in a synchronized fashion should produce a pattern of alternating bright and dark bands on a screen. Thomas Young tried the experiment in the early 1800’s, and found the expected pattern. The wave model of light has one serious drawback, though: Unlike other wave phenomena such as sound, or surface waves, it wasn’t clear what the medium was that supported light waves. Giving it a name – the “luminiferous aether” – didn’t help. James Clerk Maxwell’s (1831 - 1879) theory of electromagnetism, however, showed that light was a wave in combined electric and magnetic fields, which, being force fields, didn’t need a material medium. 1 When two sources of waves oscillate in step with each other, they are said to be coherent. We will return to this when we study interference phenomena in greater detail.1.2. FEATURES OF A WAVE 3 1.1.3 Evidence for light as a stream of particles One of the earliest proponents of the idea that light was a stream of particles was Isaac Newton himself. AlthoughYoung’s findings and others seemedto disprove that theoryentirely, surprisingly otherexperimentalevidenceappearedattheturnofthe20th. centurywhichcouldonlybeexplained by the particle model of light The photoelectric effect, where light striking a metal dislodges electrons from the metal atoms which can then flow as a current earned Einstein the Nobel prize for his explanation in terms of photons. We are forced to accept that both interpretations of the phenomenon of light are true, although they appear to be contradictory. One interpretation or the other will serve better in a particular context. Forourpurposes, inunderstandinghowopticalinstrumentswork, thewavetheoryoflight is entirely adequate. 1.2 Features of a wave We’ll consider the simple case of asine wave in 1 dimension, as shown in Figure 1.3. The distance between successive wave fronts is the wavelength. As the wave propagates, let us assume in the positive x direction, any point on the wave pattern is displaced by dx in a time dt (see Figure 1.4). We can speak of the propagation speed of the wave dx v = (1.1) dt As the wave propagates, so do the wavefronts. A stationary observer in the path of the wave would see the perturbation oscillate in time, periodically in “cycles”. The duration of each cycle is the period of the wave, and the number of cycles measured by the observer each second is the 2 frequency . There is a simple relation between the wavelength λ, frequency f, and propagation speed v of a wave: v =fλ (1.2) 8 Electromagnetic waves in vacuum always propagate with speed c = 3.0×10 m/s. In principle, electromagnetic waves may have any wavelength, from zero to arbitrarily long. Only a very narrow range of wavelengths, approximately 400 - 700 nm, are visible to the human eye. We perceive wavelength as colour; the longest visible wavelengths are red, and the shortest are violet. Longer 2 −1 The SI unit of frequency is the Hertz (Hz), equivalent to s .4 CHAPTER 1. NATURE OF LIGHT than visible wavelengths are infrared, microwave, and radio. Shorter than visible wavelengths are ultraviolet, X rays, and gamma rays.1.2. FEATURES OF A WAVE 5 Figure 1.1: A wave6 CHAPTER 1. NATURE OF LIGHT Figure 1.2: Interference1.2. FEATURES OF A WAVE 7 Figure 1.3: A sine wave Perturbation Wavelength λ x8 CHAPTER 1. NATURE OF LIGHT Figure 1.4: Wave propagation Perturbation dx xChapter 2 Propagation of light 910 CHAPTER 2. PROPAGATION OF LIGHT 2.1 Huygens’ Principle In the 1670’s Christian Huygens proposed a mechanism for the propagation of light, nowadays known as Huygens’ Principle: All points on a wavefront act as sources of new waves, and the envelope of these sec- ondary waves constitutes the new wavefront. Huygens’ Principle states a very fundamental property of waves, which will be a useful tool to explain certain wave phenomena, like refraction below. 2.2 Refraction When light propagates in a transparent material medium, its speed is in general less than the speed in vacuumc. An interesting consequence of this is that a light ray will change direction when passing from one medium to another. Since the light ray appears to be “broken”, the phenomenon is known as refraction. Huygens’Principleexplainsthisnicely. SeeFigure2.1. Aplanewavefront(dashedline)approaches the interface between two media. At one end, a new wavefront propagates outwards reaching the interface in a time t according to Huygens’ principle, so its radius is v t. At the other end a new 1 wavefront is propagating into medium 2 more slowly, so that in the same time t it has reached a radius v t. Now consider the angle of incidence θ and the angle of refraction θ between the 2 i r incident wavefront and the interface, and between the refracted wavefront and the interface. From the figure we see that v t v t sinθ v 1 2 i 1 sinθ = and sinθ = ⇒ = (2.1) i r x x sinθ v r 2 Thisresultisusuallywrittenintermsoftheindex of refractionofeachmedium, whichisdefined as c n= (2.2) v so that n sinθ =n sinθ (2.3) 1 i 2 r a result which is known as Snell’s law. Refractive indices are greater than 1 (only vacuum has an index of 1). Water has an index of refraction of 1.33; diamond’s index of refraction is high, about 1.5. It is tempting to think that the2.2. REFRACTION 11 medium 1 (e.g. air) v_1 t θ_i x θ _r v_2 t medium 2 (e.g. glass) Figure 2.1: Refraction12 CHAPTER 2. PROPAGATION OF LIGHT index of refraction might be associated with the density of the material, but that is not the case. The idea lingers in the termoptical density, a property of a material that the index of refraction measures. 2.3 Total internal reflection OneimportantconsequenceofSnell’slawofrefractionisthephenomenonoftotalinternalreflection. Iflightispropagatingfromamoredensetoalessdensemedium(intheopticalsense), i.e. n n , 1 2 thensinθ sinθ . Sincesinθ≤1,thelargestangleofincidenceforwhichrefractionisstillpossible r i is given by n 2 sinθ ≤ (2.4) i n 1 For larger angles of incidence, the incident ray does not cross the interface, but is reflected back instead. This is what makes optical fibres possible. Light propagates inside the fibre, which is made of glass which has a higher refractive index than the air outside. Since the fibre is very thin, the light beam inside strikes the interface at a large angle of incidence, large enough that it is reflected back into the glass and is not lost outside. Thus fibres can guide light beams in any desired direction with relatively low losses of radiant energy.