Lecture notes on Entrepreneurship Development

what is entrepreneurship development program. and how entrepreneurship contribute to economic development. and entrepreneurship development programme lecture notes pdf free download
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Published Date:12-07-2017
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? Entrepreneurship Development Concept Learning Objectives To define the entrepreneurship. To explain the significance of Entrepreneurship. To explain the Entrepreneurship Development. To describe the Dynamics of Entrepreneurship Development. 1.1 Need and significance of Entrepreneurship Development in Global contexts It is said that an economy is an effect for which entrepreneurship is the cause. Entrepreneurship development has therefore become a matter of great concern in all countries. But the real problem is how to develop entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship development programs, or EDPs in short, are deemed to offer the solution to this problem. Businessmen possess certain traits or competencies, which result in superior performance. The question that arises is whether these characteristics are inborn in the businessmen or whether they can be induced and developed. A well-known behavioral scientist David McClelland of Harvard University made an interesting investigation into why certain societies displayed great creative powers at particular periods of their history. He found that ‗the need for achievement‘ was the answer. The ‗need to achieve‘ motivated people to work hard and moneymaking was incidental. Money was only a measure of achievement, not its core motivation. In order to answer the next question, whether this need for achievement could be induced, McClelland conducted a five-year experimental study in one of the prosperous districts of Andhra Pradesh in India in collaboration with the Small Industries Extension and Training Institute (SIET) at Hyderabad. This experiment is popularly known as the ‗Kakinada Experiment‘. Under this experiment, young persons were selected and put through a three-month training program and motivated to see fresh goals. One of the significant conclusions of the experiment was that the traditional beliefs did not seem to inhibit a businessman and that suitable training can provide the necessary motivation to businessmen. It was the Kakinada Experiment that made people appreciate the need for entrepreneurial training (now popularly known as EDPs) to induce motivation and competence among young prospective businessmen. Based on this realization, India embarked in 1971 on a massive program of entrepreneurship development. At present, some 700 all India and state level institutions conduct EDPs. This model is followed in other countries too, such as the ‗Junior Achievement‘ program in USA and ‗Young Enterprises‘ in UK. The objectives of EDPs are to develop and strengthen the entrepreneurial quality, to motivate them for achievement and to enable participants to be independent, capable, promising businessmen. The objective is to make the trainees prepared to start their own enterprise after the completion of the training program. The course contents of an EDP are selected in line with its objectives. The training duration is about six weeks. The inputs are normally: a. Introduction to entrepreneurship – Factors affecting small-scale industry, role of businessmen in economic development, entrepreneurial behavior and the facilities available for establishing small-scale enterprise. b. Motivation training – Participants are induced and their need for achievement is increased which in turn helps in building confidence and positive attitude. Successful businessmen share their experiences. c. Management skills – Small businessmen cannot afford expert managers, therefore knowledge of finance, production, marketing and human resource is imparted to them. d. Support system and procedure – Support available from different institutions is informed and the procedure for approaching them, applying and obtaining support is explained. e. Fundamentals of project feasibility study – Participants are taught how to carry out the analysis and the feasibility of marketing, organization, technical, financial, and social aspects. f. Plant visits – Visits to various industrial plants are arranged which help participants know more about a businessman‘s behavior, personality, thoughts and aspirations. Although EDPs are well and thoughtfully arranged, there are some misconceptions about EDPs. Lack of proper understanding and clarity has limited the growth of EDPs. Chandramauli Pathak has listed some of the common misconceptions about EDPs which are as below: a. An end in itself – People think joining an EDP is a privilege, whereas it is indeed a valuable opportunity. An impression is created that joining an EDP means an assurance of finance, license, raw material, market and all other things. This is a wrong expectation on the part of the participants. b. EDPs are just another training – In addition to training, the whole process of EDP extends to personal counseling and support. Managerial and entrepreneurial capabilities are developed among the participant prospective businessmen. c. EDPs are measured quantitatively – In fact the success of any EDP is to be measured in terms of how many participants started their own enterprise after the program. Quality matters more than the number. d. The trainer is alone responsible – ‗Trainers are not effective‘ is the common response. In fact there are other environmental factors which play a critical role in the development of businesspersons. Other support institutions are also involved. The responsibility is composite and not that of the trainer alone. Various target groups are identified for EDPs because every target group has its own needs and constraints. The design for one group may be inappropriate for another group. The various groups usually targeted are : a. Technical and other qualified participants – The training can be directly related to their qualifications for example, graduates in electronics may be trained to start an enterprise in the electronics industry. b. Ex-servicemen – They are highly disciplined, hardworking and enterprising. They can be trained in the areas where these qualities are needed. c. Business executives – Some employed persons may want to start on their own. They may have some innovative ideas, which they are not able to implement where they are employed, either for lack of autonomy or lack of authority. They already possess knowledge of management. What they need is support for launching their own enterprises. Mr Kodolikar, who was the Training Manager in GKW had said, ‗‗if I can manage someone else‘s business successfully, then why should I not start my own business?‘‘ d. Underprivileged people – All persons from a disadvantaged background cannot be offered employment. Therefore, self-employment is the answer to their development and upliftment. 1.2 Entrepreneurs and economic development Global development is entering a phase where entrepreneurship will increasingly play a more important role. There are at least three reasons for this, each particular to certain types of countries. Firstly, in the West, the managed economy of the 1970s-2000s, characterized by reliance on big business and mass production, has given way to a so-called entrepreneurial economy. Here knowledge-driven goods and services are now more flexibly provided by smaller firms, and the emergence of a creative class requires a less interfering but more facilitating state. Secondly, in the emerging countries, most notably the BRICs – Brazil, Russia, India, China – impressive growth has been driven by a veritable entrepreneurial revolution. The need in these economies to sustain growth through sustainable access to resources, knowledge, markets, and low-carbon industrialization puts a premium on innovative entrepreneurship. Finally, in the least developed countries, where aid dependency is high, donors have been shifting the emphasis in development cooperation towards private sector development. In many of these countries, including resource-poor North African countries, populations consist of many young people who see little prospects of gaining employment with decent wages. Promoting youth entrepreneurship here has become a vital policy objective of many development organizations and donors. 1.2.1 Entrepreneurship and the state It is expected that entrepreneurship will, in light of the above, contribute to growth and employment creation in advanced, emerging and least developed economies alike. This is a reasonable expectation – one that is supported by recent findings of historians, economists and management scientists. ―With too many businessmen, levels of aspirations in a country may rise - it is well-known that with increasing material wealth (or pportunities) people‘s aspirations increase.‖ There are two major caveats however. The first is that for businessmen to play an appropriate role, the role of the state remains important, if not more so than before. Strong states, as regulators and gatekeepers, play a particularly vital role. In the absence of appropriate ‗rules of the game‘, entrepreneurship may result in undesirable social outcomes, including corruption, crime, speculation and financial crises, and may worsen the vulnerabilities of people during natural disasters, as we have argued elsewhere. The second is that while entrepreneurship may raise economic growth and material welfare, it may not always result in improvements in non-material welfare (or happiness). Promotion of happiness is increasingly seen as an essential goal. The recent Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress recommended that ―the time is ripe for our measurement system to shift emphasis from measuring economic production to measuring people‘s well-being‘‖. 1.2.2 Entrepreneurship and national happiness Do businessmen contribute to national happiness? The answer is both yes and no. We found that there exists an inverted U-shaped relationship between national happiness and entrepreneurship: up to a certain level an increase in entrepreneurship will be associated with an increase in national level happiness, after which it would be associated with a declining level of happiness. Why would an increase in entrepreneurship at first lead to an increase in national happiness? Businessmen create jobs – and we know that unemployment is a major and significant cause of unhappiness. We also know that the goods that businessmen provide, such as health and experiential activities, raise happiness levels. Moreover there is now a robust body of evidence that businessmen experience higher levels of job satisfaction than non-businessman and businessmen happiness can rub off on the happiness of non-businessmen. But more businessmen may also be associated with lower national happiness. This could be when most businessmen are not so by choice, but by necessity. When people turn to entrepreneurship by necessity, they essentially lose their ‗agency‘ or free will as far as their employment is concerned, and this is experienced as a loss of happiness. Evidence from the EU seems to support this: there is a robust negative relationship between the business ownership rate and businessmen‘ average job satisfaction across EU nations. This graph below illustrates how job satisfaction scores for businessmen and business ownership rates vary across the EU. Clearly, job satisfaction amongst businessemen is much higher when fewer of them need to be self-employed. There is a second way in which entrepreneurship may lower national happiness after some stage or level. This is when there is too many rather than too few businessmen in a country. With too many businessmen, levels of aspirations in a country may rise – it is well-known that with increasing material wealth (or opportunities) people‘s aspirations increase. When their performances fall short of these aspirations, their happiness will decrease. Hence from certain levels of entrepreneurship happiness may decline when businessmen and their society‘s material aspirations start to outstrip their achievements. This will lead to a feeling of dissatisfaction and frustration – they become ‗frustrated achievers‘. More competitive-minded businessmen may experience more negative states of mind than others and report lower levels of happiness. In highly competitive and materialistic societies with high aspirations we see ‖family solidarity and community integration‖ breaking down. Finally, in a very entrepreneurial society one may observe more income and wealth inequalities and more variability in entrepreneurial performance. People in more unequal societies tend to report lower levels of happiness than others. Thus, entrepreneurship may spur economic development if appropriately supported by the state. And entrepreneurship may make nations happier – but only up to a point. As nations become happier, their need for entrepreneurship seems to decline. Perhaps relational goods – family and friends – become more important, and too much of an entrepreneurial culture detracts from this. It is very much as Shakespeare put it: ‗If music be the food of love, play on; Give me excess of it, that, surfeiting, The appetite may sicken, and so die‘. 1.3 Entrepreneurship Development – Concepts, Process, Experiences and Strategies 1.3.1 Entrepreneur An entrepreneur is an individual who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on financial risk to do so. 1.3.1.1 Influences and characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior The businessperson is commonly seen as an innovator — a generator of new ideas, and business processes. Management skill and strong team building abilities are often perceived as an essential leadership attributes for successful businessman. Robert B. Reich considers leadership, management ability, and team-building to be essential qualities of an businessman. Psychological studies show that these essential qualities for male and female businessmen are more similar than different. A growing body of work shows that entrepreneurial behavior is dependent on social and economic factors. For example, countries with healthy and diversified labor markets or stronger safety nets show a more favorable ratio of opportunity-driven rather than necessity-driven women businessmen. Empirical studies suggest that male businessmen possess strong negotiating skills and consensus-forming abilities. Research studies that explore the characteristics and personality traits of, and influences on, the businessman have come to differing conclusions. Most, however, agree on certain consistent entrepreneurial traits and environmental influences. Although certain entrepreneurial traits are required, entrepreneurial behavior of contemporary entrepreneurship research paper, Shane and Venkataraman (2000) argue that the businessman is solely concerned with opportunity recognition and exploitation, although the opportunity that is recognized depends on the type of businessman; while Ucbasaran et al. (2001) argue there are many different types contingent upon environmental and personal circumstances. Jesper Sørensen has argued that some of the most significant influences on an individual's decision to become an entrepreneur are workplace peers and the social composition of the workplace. In researching the likelihood of becoming a businessman based upon working with former businessmen, Sørensen discovered a correlation between working with former businessmen and how often these individuals become businessmen themselves, compared to those who did not work with businessmen. The social composition of the workplace can influence Entrepreneurism in workplace peers by proving a possibility for success, causing a ―He can do it, why can‘t I?‖ attitude. As Sørensen stated, ―When you meet others who have gone out on their own, it doesn‘t seem that crazy.‖ 1.3.1.2 Perception of entrepreneurs The ability of businessmen to innovate is thought to relate to innate traits such as extroversion and a proclivity for risk-taking. According to Schumpeter, the capabilities of innovating, introducing new technologies, increasing efficiency and productivity, or generating new products or services, are characteristic qualities of businessmen. Businessmen are catalysts for economic change, and researchers argue that businessmen are highly creative individuals with a tendency to imagine new solutions by finding opportunities for profit or reward. Largely due to the influence of Schumpeter's heroic conceptions of businessmen, it is widely maintained that businessmen are unusual individuals. In line with this view, there is an emerging research tradition investigating the genetic factors that are perceived to make businessmen so distinctive (Shane and Nicolaou, 2013). However, there are also critical perspectives that attribute these research attitudes to oversimplified methodological and/or philosophical assumptions (Gartner, 2001). For example, it has been argued that businessmen are not that distinctive, but that it is in essence unrealistic preconceptions about "non- entrepreneurs" that maintain laudatory portraits of "businessmen". 1.3.1.3 Theory-based typologies Recent advances indicate that the differences in businessmen and the heterogeneity in their behaviors and actions can be traced back to their founder's identity. For instance, Fauchart and Gruber (2011) have recently utilized social identity theory to illustrate that businessmen can be distinguished in three main types: Darwinians, Communitarians and Missionaries. These types of founders not only diverge in fundamental ways in terms of their self-views and their social motivations in entrepreneurship, but also engage fairly differently in new firm creation. 1.3.1.4 History The term was first defined by the Irish-French economist Richard Cantillon as the person who pays a certain price for a merchandise to resell it at an uncertain price, thereby making decisions about obtaining and using the resources while consequently admitting the risk of the enterprise. It first appeared in the French Dictionary "Dictionnaire Universel de Commerce" of Jacques des Bruslons published in 1723. Here is a chronological list of definitions: 1734: Richard Cantillon: Businessmen are non-fixed income earners who pay known costs of production but earn uncertain incomes, 1803: Jean-Baptiste Say: An businessman is an economic agent who unites all means of production- land of one, the labour of another and the capital of yet another and thus produces a merchandise . By selling the merchandise in the market he pays rent of land, wages to labour, interest on capital and what remains is his profit. He shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield. 1934: Schumpeter: Businessmen are innovators who use a process of shattering the status quo of the existing merchandise s and services, to set up new merchandise s, new services. 1961: David McClelland: An businessman is a person with a high need for achievement N-Ach. He is energetic and a moderate risk taker. 1964: Peter Drucker: An businessman searches for change, responds to it and exploits opportunities. Innovation is a specific tool of an businessman hence an effective businessman converts a source into a resource. 1971: Kilby: Emphasizes the role of an imitator businessmen who does not innovate but imitates technologies innovated by others. Are very important in developing economies. 1975: Albert Shapero: Entrepreneurs take initiative, accept risk of failure and have an internal locus of control. 1.3.2 Entrepreneurship In political economics, entrepreneurship is the quality of being an businessman, i.e. one who "undertakes an enterprise". The term puts emphasis on the risk and effort taken by individuals who both own and manage a business, and on the innovations resulting from their pursuit of economic success. "Entrepreneurship" in this sense may result in new organizations or may be part of revitalizing mature organizations in response to a perceived opportunity. The most obvious form of entrepreneurship is that of starting new businesses (referred as startup company); in recent years, the term has been extended to include social and political forms of entrepreneurial activity". When entrepreneurship is describing activities within a firm or large organization it is referred to as intra-preneurship and may include corporate venturing, when large entities spin-off organizations. According to Paul Reynolds, an "entrepreneurship scholar" and creator of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, "by the time they reach their retirement years, half of all working men in the United States probably have a period of self-employment of one or more years; one in four may have engaged in self- employment for six or more years. Participating in a new business creation is a common activity among U.S. workers over the course of their careers." And in recent years has been documented by scholars such as David Audretsch to be a major driver of economic growth in both the United States and Western Europe. "As well, entrepreneurship may be defined as the pursuit of opportunity without regard to resources currently controlled (Stevenson,1983)" Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization and creativity involved. Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo projects (even involving the businessman only part- time) to major undertakings creating many job opportunities. Many "high value" entrepreneurial ventures seek venture capital or angel funding order to raise capital to build the business. Angel investors generally seek annualized returns of 20–30% and more, as well as extensive involvement in the business. Many kinds of organizations now exist to support would-be entrepreneurs including specialized government agencies, business incubators, science parks, and some NGOs. In more recent times, the term entrepreneurship has been extended to include elements not related necessarily to business formation activity such as conceptualizations of entrepreneurship as a specific mindset resulting in entrepreneurial initiatives e.g. in the form of social entrepreneurship, political entrepreneurship, or knowledge entrepreneurship have emerged. Since 2008, an annual "Global Entrepreneurship Week" has been announced, with the aim of "exposing people to the benefits of entrepreneurship" and getting them to "participate in entrepreneurial-related activities". 1.3.2.1 History The businessman is a factor in microeconomics, and the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work of Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, foundational to classical economics. In the 20th century, entrepreneurship was studied Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s and other Austrian economists such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek. The term "entrepreneurship" was coined around the 1920s (while the loan of French entrepreneur itself dates to the 1850s). It became something as a buzzword from about 2010, in the context of the disputes which have erupted surrounding the consensus of mainstream economics in the wake of the Great Recession. 1.3.2.2 Schumpeter on Entrepreneurship According to Schumpeter, an businessman is a person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation. Entrepreneurship employs what Schumpeter called "the gale of creative destruction" to replace in whole or in part inferior innovations across markets and industries, simultaneously creating new merchandise s including new business models. In this way, creative destruction is largely responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth. The supposition that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory and as such is hotly debated in academic economics. An alternate description posited by Israel Kirzner suggests that the majority of innovations may be much more incremental improvements such as the replacement of paper with plastic in the construction of a drinking straw. For Schumpeter, entrepreneurship resulted in new industries but also in new combinations of currently existing inputs. Schumpeter's initial example of this was the combination of a steam engine and then current wagon making technologies to produce the horseless carriage. In this case the innovation, the car, was transformational but did not require the development of a new technology, merely the application of existing technologies in a novel manner. It did not immediately replace the horsedrawn carriage, but in time, incremental improvements which reduced the cost and improved the technology led to the complete practical replacement of beast drawn vehicles in modern transportation. Despite Schumpeter's early 20th- century contributions, traditional microeconomic theory did not formally consider the businessmen in its theoretical frameworks (instead assuming that resources would find each other through a price system). In this treatment the businessman was an implied but unspecified actor, but it is consistent with the concept of the businessman being the agent of x-efficiency. Different scholars have described businessmen as, among other things, bearing risk. For Schumpeter, the businessman did not bear risk: the capitalist did. 1.3.2.3 Knight and Drucker For Frank H. Knight (1921) and Peter Drucker (1970) entrepreneurship is about taking risk. The behavior of the businessmen reflects a kind of person willing to put his or her career and financial security on the line and take risks in the name of an idea, spending much time as well as capital on an uncertain venture. Knight classified three types of uncertainty. Risk, which is measurable statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red color ball from a jar containing 5 red balls and 5 white balls). Ambiguity, which is hard to measure statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red ball from a jar containing 5 red balls but with an unknown number of white balls). True Uncertainty or Knightian Uncertainty, which is impossible to estimate or predict statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red ball from a jar whose number of red balls is unknown as well as the number of other colored balls. The acts of entrepreneurship are often associated with true uncertainty, particularly when it involves bringing something really novel to the world, whose market never exists. However, even if a market already exists, there is no guarantee that a market exists for a particular new player in the cola category. The place of the disharmony-creating and idiosyncratic businessman in traditional economic theory (which describes many efficiency-based ratios assuming uniform outputs) presents theoretic quandaries. William Baumol has added greatly to this area of economic theory and was recently honored for it at the 2006 annual meeting of the American Economic Association. 1.3.2.4 Financial Bootstrapping Financial bootstrapping is a term used to cover different methods for avoiding using the financial resources of external investors. Bootstrapping can be defined as ―a collection of methods used to minimize the amount of outside debt and equity financing needed from banks and investors‖. The use of private credit card debt is the most known form of bootstrapping, but a wide variety of methods are available for businessmen. While bootstrapping involves a risk for the founders, the absence of any other stakeholder gives the founders more freedom to develop the company. Many successful companies including Dell Computers and Facebook were founded this way. 1.3.3 Corporate social entrepreneurship A corporate social entrepreneur (CSE) is defined as "an employee of the firm who operates in a socially entrepreneurial manner; identifying opportunities for and/ or championing socially responsible activity; in addition to helping the firm achieve its business targets. The CSE operates regardless of an organisational context that is pre-disposed towards corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is because the CSE is driven by their dominant self-transcendent (concerned with the welfare of others) as opposed to their self- enhancement personal values. Consequently, the CSE does not necessarily have a formal socially responsible job role, nor do they necessarily have to be in a senior management position to progress their socially responsible agenda." The notion of the CSE primarily relates to the field of corporate social responsibility. It is thus relevant to both practitioners and scholars of business and management and more specifically to the fields of business ethics; organisational behaviour; entrepreneurship; human resource management and business strategy. Moreover, the concept is inherently linked with the notion of personal values: in itself, a field of study from sociology; anthropology and social psychology. Furthermore, due to the concept's associations with ideas about agency, this also means that this topic connects with moral philosophy. Such complexity reflects the inter-disciplinary nature of the field of corporate social responsibility. 1.3.3.1 Background The notion of the CSE first emerged in 2002 from a conceptual working paper which was published in the Hull University Business School Research Memoranda Series. In that paper, it was argued that CSR can also be motivated by an altruistic impulse driven by managers‘ personal values, in addition to the more obvious economic and macro political drivers for CSR. This reflected the traditional philosophical and business ethics debate regarding moral agency. This paper was followed by a U.K. conference paper which highlighted the importance of managerial discretion in CSR and was published the next year in the Journal of Business Ethics. In this latter paper, the concept of ―entrepreneurial discretion‖ as an overlooked antecedent of CSR was mooted. Consequently, the term corporate social entrepreneur was first coined in a paper that was presented at the 17th Annual European Business Ethics Network Conference, in June 2004. Here, the term Corporate Social Entrepreneur was first defined and differentiated from the different types of businessmen: the ‗regular‘ executive businessman; the intrapreneur; the policy businessman and the public or social businessman.. Initially, the concept was discussed in relation to managers. However, it was soon widened to include employees at any level of the firm, regardless of their formally appointed status. To be a CSE you do not necessarily have to be a manager. Seniority is not necessary, but, of course, it helps. Hemingway‘s concept of the CSE emerged as a result of her own personal experience working as a marketing executive in the corporate world and it has also been the subject of some exploratory empirical investigation. It was also inspired by Wood, who had previously referred to ―Ethical training, cultural background, preferences…and life experiences…that motivate human behavior‖; thereby supporting Trevino‘s conceptual ―Interactionist‖ model of ethical decision making in organizations. Trevino's model included both individual and situational moderators, to combine with the individual‘s stage of cognitive moral development, to produce either ethical or unethical behaviour. And whilst studies existed regarding the activities of environmental champions at work or other change leaders, none of these studies specifically examined the role of employees' personal values in entrepreneurial discretion with regard to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Thus, the connection between philosophical ideas of moral character as an influence for corporate social responsibility (CSR) and linked to the psychological notion of prosocial behavior, provides a different focus from the more commonly discussed structural drivers for CSR, i.e., business strategy in the form of public relations activity; encouragement from government or organisational context. 1.3.3.2 Business ethics perspective Significantly, whilst the social businessman and corporate social businessman are united in their quest to create social value: a business ethics perspective encourages us to ask the question ‗For what end?‘ Here business ethics is useful, as it uses intellectual frameworks to encourage us to think deeply about means and ends. For example, the idea of the CSE creating social value which benefits both the corporation and society is known as ‗enlightened self-interest‘. Alternatively, a deontological viewpoint frames acts of socially responsible behaviour as driven by the individual's sense of duty to society, which may be viewed in terms of altruism. Altruism is of course very difficult to support empirically, although there have been many studies of prosocial behaviour and support for the notion of self-transcendent (other-oriented) personal values in social psychology. 1.3.3.3 Threat or opportunity? All this leads us to the inherent complexity surrounding the subject of CSR, regarding its connection to stakeholder theory and its ―essentially contested‖ nature. So, whilst some studies have shown a positive relationship between CSR and financial performance, others are currently investigating the notion of non- market performance.Consequently, the notion of the Corporate Social Businessmen is equally controversial: not solely due to the arguments about the role of business and whether or not CSR helps financial performance; but also because the concept of employee discretion has been identified as a key factor regarding a social orientation at work, or, a moral character (in the ancient philosophical sense). And whilst the possibility of unethical behaviour is also acknowledged as an outcome of discretion and agency: corporate irresponsibility which has been the traditional focus in the study of business ethics, is regarded as insufficient and only the starting point, if the quest is for organisations to develop a socially responsible organisational context. This is of particular relevance in the wake of the global financial crisis caused by financial irregularities and lapses in corporate governance and personal integrity. 1.3.4 Entrepreneurship ecosystem The Entrepreneurship Ecosystem refers to the elements – individuals, organizations or institutions – outside the individual businessman that are conducive to, or inhibitive of, the choice of a person to become an businessman, or the probabilities of his or her success following launch. Organizations and individuals representing these elements are referred to as entrepreneurship stakeholders. Stakeholders are any entity that has an interest, actually or potentially, in there being more entrepreneurship in the region. Entrepreneurship stakeholders may include government, schools, universities, private sector, family businesses, investors, banks, entrepreneurs, social leaders, research centers, military, labor representatives, students, lawyers, cooperatives, communes, multinationals, private foundations, and international aid agencies. In order to explain or create sustainable entrepreneurship, one isolated element in the ecosystem is rarely sufficient. In regions which have extensive amounts of entrepreneurship (e.g., Ireland, RNIS, Silicon Valley, Route 128, Iceland, etc.) many of the ecosystem elements are strong and typically have evolved more or less simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of these ecosystems suggests that governments or societal leaders who want to foster more entrepreneurship as part of economic policy must strengthen several such elements simultaneously. In July 2010, the Harvard Business Review published an article by Babson Global Professor Daniel Isenberg entitled, ―How to Start an Entrepreneurial Revolution.‖ In this article, Isenberg describes the environment in which entrepreneurship tends to thrive. Drawing from examples from around the world, the article proposes that businessmen are most successful when they have access to the human, financial and professional resources they need, and operate in an environment in which government policies encourage and safeguard businessmen. This network is described as the entrepreneurship ecosystem. There are several key conditions that typically define a healthy ecosystem. The ecosystem: Is tailored around its own unique environment – it does not seek to be something it isn‘t, like the ―next Silicon Valley‖ Operates in an environment with reduced bureaucratic obstacles in which government policies support the unique needs of businessmen and tolerate failed ventures Actively encourages and invites financiers to participate in new ventures, but access to money isn‘t without barriers for those planning new business ventures Is reinforced, not created from scratch, by government, academic or commercial organizations Is relatively free from, or is able to change, cultural biases against failure or operating a business Promotes successes, which in turn attract new ventures Often is supported by dialogue among various of the entrepreneurship stakeholders To help global leaders understand and apply the benefits of entrepreneurship ecosystems, Babson College, ranked 1 for the best entrepreneurship program founded the Babson Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Project (BEEP) in 2009, through its subsidiary Babson Global. 1.3.4.1 Related Content University-based Entrepreneurship Ecosystem – In academic settings, entrepreneurship ecosystems commonly refer to programs within a university that focus on the development of entrepreneurs and/or the commercialization of technology or intellectual property developed at the university level. Business cluster – A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field. Governments often look to clusters to stimulate innovation and entrepreneurship in their region. When clusters are applied to entrepreneurship, experts agree governments should not seek to create new clusters, but rather reinforce existing ones. 1.4 Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Development? Businessmen often begin a career by launching a small business. In major and developed economies, small business is a significant driver of economic activity. Subsequently, entrepreneurship and economic development go hand-in-hand in many ways. Economic development is somewhat reliant on businessmen because any lack of development for small business has the potential to slow an economy. Meanwhile, new business owners depend on a growing and stable economy to provide employment and generate sales. Local and national governments devote large sums of money to the expansion of small businesses in a region. Government agencies extend loans and sometimes grants to qualifying businessmen and possibly specific minority groups, including women. This is because of the heightened awareness that government officials share surrounding the fact that entrepreneurship and economic development are linked. A government may be needed to set the stage for new business by first creating a community that is favorable to commerce. This could be through infrastructure development in addition to any financial incentives or motivations that might be provided. In doing this, policymakers are making it possible for entrepreneurship and economic development to occur. Once the conditions are ripe, new business owners can begin hiring employees, conducting commerce in an area, and supporting the development of a local or national economy. Private corporations also become involved with supporting entrepreneurship and economic development. Large investment banks maintain lending divisions that are meant to suit the financing needs of businessmen. In addition to financing, lending institutions may also provide some level of training or support to new business owners to increase the chances for success. The role of venture capitalists is to provide equity to new businesses in exchange for a share of the eventual profits. As a result of private funding, businessmen can develop new technologies and contribute to productivity, which can benefit local, national, or global economies. Developed countries are not the only nations in which entrepreneurship and economic development are needed. In third-world countries where poverty has taken a hold on communities, the extension of small amounts of funding can help businessmen to begin new businesses. The ramifications of this process, an activity known as microlending, are significant. Not only does facilitating new business in poor parts of the world help the businessman to explore new opportunities, but it also gives poverty-stricken citizens greater access to goods and services. Subsequently, an entrepreneurship inspires economic development and creates better standards of living throughout the region. 1.5 Different Types of Entrepreneur Opportunities? There are many ways in which a person might exercise his or her entrepreneurial skills. The three main types of businessman opportunities include franchises, developing new operations within an existing organization, and forming a completely new one. Businessman opportunities can mean anything from working on small projects or the development of massive new enterprises. It is possible to find businessman opportunities within an already established organization. People who do so are sometimes called intrepreneurs, or inside businessmen. An intrapeneur takes initiative to identify and develop projects that help an organization meet its objectives or grow in new directions. Corporate social businessman opportunities relate specifically to leading projects that enhance a company's performance in terms of social development and responsibility. Many companies today encourage different kinds of intrapreneurialship across all of their departments by offering training, advertising businessman opportunities, and providing incentives. Within a company, entrepreneurial activities — though appreciated — might not always translate into as much monetary reward as the contribution would have if it had been to one's own enterprise. On the other hand, the vast majority of new businesses fail, so the risk of starting one is quite high. For some businessmen, franchise opportunities can help strike a balance. Large franchises can provide businessman opportunities that come with support, such as proven brand awareness, a large network of allies, marketing teams, industry-specific consultation, and many other benefits that would normally cost a great deal. In order to maintain its corporate image and to regulate merchandise or service quality, the franchiser will normally require the maintenance of certain set standards. These restrictions may be seen by some businessmen as too inhibiting while others might appreciate the guidance and sense of belonging. There are different kinds of businessmen. While all successful businessmen are innovators and change- makers, and generally possess strong leadership qualities, there are very different ways to promote change and there are also different kinds of leaders. There are people who prefer to set out alone in establishing brand new ventures, who enjoy taking chances as well as the creative freedom of doing things their own way. There are others who prefer to lead within a partnership or a team, or within a large, stable organization. In deciding which type of businessman opportunities to seek out, aspiring businessmen should consider their personal tastes and whether or not the risk involved in starting one's own business is appealing. 1.6 Entrepreneurship Concepts 1.6.1 Who is an entrepreneur? Basically an entrepreneur is an innovator, job and wealth generator. In addition to the above he is also Change agent Problem solver Pacesetter Excellence seeker Marketing executive Concept promoter 1.6.2 Why is an entrepreneur called a change agent? Whenever and wherever problems occur, the individual seeks to eliminate the problems so that the world could be a better place to live in, a life worth living. In order to make it happen, one has to think of such processes that would yield merchandise and services that would enable and bring happiness, joy, comfort and peace. Therefore, he seeks such ventures that would bring about this change. He looks for opportunities for converting the challenges into comforts. So, he is called as change agents 1.6.3 What are the important features of entrepreneurship? Entrepreneurship is an activity that helps in sensing the opportunities, resourcing ―innovation‖ and realizing the ―payoff‖ through the actions performed by him or her. During this process the individual scans an environment for opportunities, identifies them, examines the feasibility of converting (or changing) that opportunity into a possible enterprise for production, draft plan of action and then engages oneself in such activities that would cause the merchandise. Thus they change the opportunities into an merchandise or services. 1.6.4 How does Entrepreneurship help in building up the professional profile of an individual? The spirit of Entrepreneurship helps the individuals to grow. It brings out the multi-faceted talent in him. The businessperson has to face many challenges in setting up and running of the enterprise. To be successful Businessman has to plan, communicate, and manage various aspects of the market. In doing so, he becomes a complete professional. 1.6.5 How can we say that an entrepreneur contributes to social development? Businessmen contribute to social development through the following activities. For Individual 1. They provide new employment opportunities 2. They improve the standard of living of the people. For Investors 1. They provide investment opportunities for the investors and generate the wealth and distribute it to the investors. Thus helping the investors to grow their wealth. For the nation 1. They contribute to the GDP of the nation directly. 2. They contribute to the area development by re-investing in projects. 3. They will be responsible for industrial and technical developments. 1.6.6 How does the entrepreneur contribute to the growth of the Gross National Product? Businessmen make the society sensitive to the productivity. The increase in the productivity, cost effectiveness and the pursuit of excellence increases the Gross National Product. 1.6.7 “An Entrepreneur converts the demand into supply”. 1. Entrepreneur identifies demand of a merchandise in the changing needs or traditions or customs or lifestyles of people in the society. 2. He meets the demand by producing goods or services. 3. This results in more Businessmen entering into the market and producing similar merchandise or services to meet the same need. Hence, there will be many options for a customer in the market. 4. This results in demand getting converted to supply. 1.6.8. Identify businessmen who have influenced the society with their ideas Dhirajlal Hirachand Ambani : He was working with Arab merchandise as a normal worker. He left his job and moved to Mumbai (in 1958) to start his own business spices. He later started the textile business and opened his own mill. He started Reliance Industries, which were contributing to around 5% of the central government‘s tax revenue. Phanindra Sama : When he was unable to get a bus ticket when he wanted to travel from Bangalore to his home town, during a festive season, he sensed the problem of ticket information not reaching the passengers. Later on, he learned that though the tickets were available, due to the lack of availability of information, with the agents, many passengers are not getting the tickets. He converted this challenge into an opportunity and started his website Redubs. in, the setting the pace for selling the bus tickets online. 1.6.9 How does an entrepreneur differ from an inventor. An entrepreneur is an innovator and is different from an inventor in the following ways. Inventor Entrepreneur (Innovator) Combines new methods/services and applies innovation to Invents new methods and new services. produce better products/services. He is largely concerned with the technical He is largely concerned with the economic, social and aspects of the matter he deals with. marketing dimensions of the subject matter. He keeps the commercial prospects of his He examines the commercial and economic viability of his innovation as the last preference. product in the market. 1.6.10 „An entrepreneur converts a source into a resource‟ – Exemplify. A source becomes a resource only when it acquires a utilitarian dimension bestowing it with an economic value. For instance, air, water, land and minerals are present in abundance in the form of sources. They become a resource only when they acquire a utilitarian dimension and are used in creating new utilities. The businessmen‘s have the capacity to create new utilities and values for them, or in increasing their existing economic value. They also have the capacity to convert them into new product configurations. 1.6.11 How does Peter Drucker envisage the role of the entrepreneur? Peter Drucker describes the businessperson in a befitting manner as “one who is involved in gathering and using resources to opportunities to produce results”. According to him, the following should be the qualities of a businessperson. 1. Searches for a change 2. Respond to change 3. Exploits the change as an opportunity. Peter Drucker argues that the innovation is a specific instrument of a businessperson. Hence, an effective businessperson converts a source into a resource. 1.6.12 „Entrepreneurship is essential for the economic growth of a country‟ 1. The increase in the number of entrepreneurs is indicative of the increasing sensitivity of the nation to be productive and generative. This will slowly increase the Gross National Product of the country through increased productivity and the pursuit of excellence and cost effectiveness. 2. The prosperity of the nation is driven by a remarkable increase in the foreign exchange of the country due to increase in the number of businessmen in the field of Information technology and other sectors. 3. Employment opportunities are increased and the standard of living of the citizens of a country is raised. This catalyses the regional development of a country. These factors are indicative of the fact that the Entrepreneurship is essential for the growth of a country. 1.7 Entrepreneurship Development in Transitional Economics 1.7.1 Introduction th One of the great social transformations of the 20 century is now well underway, the transformation of the formerly communist economies into various forms of private enterprise market economies. The success of this massive transformation will depend in large part on the success in freeing and developing entrepreneurship in the transitional economies. One of the few success stories in many of the Central European economies has been the explosive growth of the new private sector. The transformation of the privatized enterprises is proceeding much more slowly than was originally expected. Its success will require finding ways to combine the entrepreneurial energy of the new private sector with the restructuring needs of the privatized or to-be-privatized enterprises (e.g., through spinoffs including split- ups). We will discuss here, and address some of the entrepreneurial response problems in the slow-reforming transitional economies such as: the socialist culture of risk-avoidance, the absence of entrepreneurial finance mechanism, and the predator problem (e.g., bureaucrats and bandits). 1.7.2 Entrepreneurship Education 1.7.2.1 Entrepreneurship Culture In a developed market economy, substantial entrepreneurial knowledge is transmitted as a part of the ambient culture. Successful businessmen are praised in the mass media. Some ethnic subcultures are particularly rich with examples and role models so that children easily come to have entrepreneurial hopes and expectations. But in socialist societies, neither the system nor peer pressure/values supported enterpreneurship so anything resembling entrepreneurship was usually limited to handicrafts, the service sector, or agriculture. Thus entrepreneurship education in a transitional economy needs to be seen as a very broad social effort advancing on many fronts: primary and secondary schools, adult education institutions, universities, and colleges as well as in the vast domain of public education through the electronic and print media. 1.7.2.2 New Adult Education Institutions GEA College in Slovenia is an example of a relatively new organization (five years old) focusing initially on entrepreneurship education for adults. In addition to a broad array of day courses, GEA College also teaches night courses in many smaller cities and towns of Slovenia for adults with day jobs. Many of the adult students can then start up small businesses (sometimes before fully leaving their regular job) and become independent self-employed people. This facilitates the transfer of jobs from the state sector or the privatized sector into the new private sector. Many of these new businesses will remain small to fill out the fine structure of a normal market economy. Others will take advantage of the many unfilled niches in a transitional economy to become fast-moving and fast-growing "gazelles." The Morozov Project in Russia is an example of a new organization that combines adult entrepreneurship education with a broad range of other consulting and training functions. It uses a subtle blend of central organization and decentralized franchised business training centers across Russia to deliver entrepreneurship and business training programs over the country with the biggest land mass in the world. While new entrepreneurship educational organizations such as GEA College and the Morozov Project have greater freedom to respond quickly and to avoid the old education bureaucracies, they must also secure a sound financial basis. Often entrepreneurship education is too narrow a basis to make the organization self-sustaining. Without other financial support, the organization might also have to address the needs of companies, social sector organizations, and government units for mid-career retraining and skills upgrading. This could involve everything from introducing executives and engineers to the quality revolution (e.g., international quality standards and Japanese management methods) to training secretaries to use Windows. 1.7.2.3 Adult Education and Labor Unions In the West, some adult education institutions started as a labor-oriented organizations designed to assist workers to escape the "wage system" and to run businesses themselves. In the United Kingdom in the th early 19 century, there were Mechanics' Institutes in London and Glasgow with that goal. The Mechanics Institute in London eventually became the present Birkbeck College of the University of London. In today's transitional economies, there is a large amount of employee ownership in the privatized sector. The previous socialist economy has not prepared most managers, not to mention workers, to think as owners in a market economy. In a substantially employee owned business, there is no need for a labor union organized around the collective bargaining function. Labor organizations need to change to support the new ownership role of laboras did the Mechanics Institutes over a century and a half before. For example, in Slovenia where there has been substantial employee ownership in the privatization program, the major labor unions are sponsoring training programs on interpreting financial statements, the rights and responsibilities of ownership, and on the experiences with employee ownership elsewhere (e.g., the Employee Stock Ownership Plans or ESOPs in the United States and United Kingdom, or the Mondragon cooperatives in the Basque region of Spain). 1.7.2.4 Adult Education and Veterans' Associations In the FSU, the relaxation of the Cold War has led to substantial demobilization or "downsizing" of the armed forces. Many of the people who are to be reintegrated into the civilian economy have considerable leadership experience (e.g., the officers) and might, with some training, harbor entrepreneurial ambitions. Veterans' associations and organizations of reserve and retired officers can help the process by sponsoring entrepreneurship education programs. Franchising, as a form of partly pre-packaged entrepreneurship, might be a particularly effective way of getting ex-military officers started in business. Lump-sum separation benefits could provide part of the initial financing. 1.7.2.5 Secondary Schools Business literacy education need not wait for college or be restricted to college students. It should start in the secondary schools. High school students are not adverse to dreamingso with a little knowledge of how business works, these dreams can take a more practical entrepreneurial form. Colleges and Universities In the western market economies, most all universities have a graduate business education program or a business school offering an MBA-like degree. Many undergraduate colleges also offer a business major. The colleges and universities in the transitional economies will sooner or later follow a similar path. Since this is obviously a positive development, only a few caveats might be in order. Not only business majors but all students should have some basic business literacy education to help compensate for both the negative propaganda of the past and the unrealistic Hollywood-image propaganda of the present. The get-rich-quick expectations of many young people will lead them to make long-term career choices in favor of the currently flashy financial services sector as opposed to the scientific and engineering sectors.

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