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167 PART III factors affecting employee behaviour Part III Contents 13 Motivation 14 Commitment 15 Employee engagement emotions and emotional intelligence. But they Introduction should also be aware of the following more specific factors that influence behaviour and therefore A preoccupation shared by all those involved in performance: managing people is how to get the best out of them. ● Motivation – the strength and direction of ‘The best’ may be difficult to define. It could be high behaviour and the factors that influence performance. Or it could be discretionary behaviour people to behave in certain ways. (the choice made by people to exercise additional effort, care, innovation and productive behaviour in ● Commitment – the strength of an individual’s their jobs). It could be doing more than is contracted identification with, and involvement in, an for so that the words ‘it’s not in my job description’ organization. or ‘this is above my pay grade’ are seldom if ever ● Engagement – a situation in which people heard. It could be cooperating fully with managers are committed to their work and the and colleagues or showing loyalty to the organization. organization and are motivated to achieve It could be any combination of these. high levels of performance. Getting the best out of people is primarily the These are examined in the three chapters of this responsibility of managers and team leaders by ex- ercising effective leadership. But it is also the concern part. Of the three constructs (a construct is a con- of HR specialists who can help to create a work environment conducive to high performance and ceptual framework that explains how people perceive can introduce policies and practices that encourage and react to their environment), motivation is a long- people to do everything expected of them if not more. standing one that has been extensively researched HR can also provide any advice and help managers and written about since the earlier part of the 20th to fulfil their people management responsibilities. century. Motivation theory has been used and is still To do this, managers and HR specialists need to used to inform decisions on how to get more effort take into account the general factors that affect how and better performance from employees, for example people behave at work, as described in Chapter 10 the use of performance-related pay. The importance – namely, ability, intelligence, personality, attitudes, of the construct of commitment emerged later, 168 Part 3 factors Affecting Employee Behaviour notably in the contribution of Richard Walton (1985) make a direct impact on individual performance. whose seminal article in the Harvard Business In contrast, both commitment and engagement are Review advocated the adoption of a commitment states of being that can be affected by managerial strategy rather than one based on control. The most actions. They are not so direct or immediate as the recent construct is that of engagement, which was direct instruments used in the motivation strategies first presented in a 1990 Academy of Management aimed at individuals. Engagement and commitment Journal article by William Kahn. He defined engage- strategies may be more about taking action that ment as ‘the harnessing of organization members’ affects employees collectively such as improvements selves to their work roles’ (1990: 694). in the work environment. The construct of engagement contains elements Three other aspects of the behaviour of people of motivation and commitment, as explained in at work are considered in this part. The first of these Chapter 14. It also embraces the notion of organ- is job satisfaction, ie the attitudes and feelings izational citizenship behaviour (OCB), which is that people have about their jobs. This is associated positive discretionary behaviour at work that goes with motivation and engagement but it could be beyond role requirements. The relationships between regarded as an outcome of engagement rather than engagement, motivation and OCB are considered in a constituent of it. Whether or not job satisfaction Chapter 15. improves performance is considered in Chapters 13 However, it is difficult to disentangle the con- and 15. Second, the relationship between money cepts of motivation, commitment and engagement, and motivation is examined in Chapter 13. This is although an attempt to do so is made in the three important because it affects policies and practices chapters of this part. Simplistically, it could be argued concerned with the use of pay as an incentive or that when motivation is extrinsic, ie when things reward. Third, reference is made in Chapter 15 to are done to or for people in order to motivate them, the dark side of engagement – burnout – how it such as through pay or recognition, the aim is to happens and what can be done about it. References Kahn, W A (1990) Psychological conditions of personal Walton, R E (1985) From control to commitment engagement and disengagement at work, Academy in the workplace, Harvard Business Review, of Management Journal, 33 (4), pp 692–724 March–April, pp 77–84169 13 Motivation Key Con Ce Pts and terms Cognitive evaluation Herzberg’s two-factor model of Content (needs) motivation motivation theory Intrinsic motivation Discretionary behaviour Instrumentality Discretionary effort Job characteristics model Equity theory Job satisfaction Expectancy theory Law of effect Extrinsic motivation Line of sight Goal theory Management by objectives Learn Ing out Comes On completing this chapter you should be able to define these key concepts. You should also understand: ● The meaning of motivation ● Motivation and job satisfaction ● Types of motivation ● Approaches to developing a motivation strategy ● The different motivation theories performance between ‘superior’ and ‘standard’ per - Introduction formers was 19 per cent. For highly complex jobs it was 48 per cent. The aims of this chapter are to Motivation is the force that energizes, directs and explore the meaning of motivation, define the two sustains behaviour. High performance is achieved by main types of motivation – intrinsic and extrinsic, well-motivated people who are prepared to exercise describe and critically evaluate the main theories of discretionary effort, ie independently do more than motivation, discuss two related aspects of motivation is expected of them. Even in fairly basic roles, – its relationship to job satisfaction and money, and Hunter et  al (1990) found through their research outline approaches to motivation strategy. that the difference in value-added discretionary 170 Part 3 factors Affecting Employee Behaviour motivation by the work itself. It is not created by The meaning of motivation external incentives. Deci and Ryan (1985) suggested that intrinsic motivation is based on the need to The term ‘motivation’ derives from the Latin word be competent and self-determining (that is, to have for movement (movere). A motive is a reason for a choice). Michael Sandel (2012: 122) remarked doing something. Motivation is the strength and that: ‘When people are engaged in an activity they direction of behaviour and the factors that influence consider intrinsically worthwhile, offering money people to behave in certain ways. People are moti- may weaken their motivation by “crowding out” vated when they expect that a course of action is their intrinsic interest or commitment’. likely to lead to the attainment of a goal and a valued Intrinsic motivation can be enhanced by job reward – one that satisfies their needs and wants. design. Katz (1964) suggested that jobs should in The term ‘motivation’ can refer variously to the goals themselves provide sufficient variety, complexity, that individuals have, the ways in which individuals challenge and skill to engage the abilities of the chose their goals and the ways in which others try to worker. Hackman and Oldham (1974) in their job change their behaviour. Locke and Latham (2004: characteristics model identified the five core charac- 388) observed that: ‘The concept of motivation refers teristics of jobs that result in intrinsic motivation, to internal factors that impel action and to external namely: skill variety, task identity, task significance, factors that can act as inducements to action.’ autonomy and feedback. Pink (2009) stated that As described by Arnold et  al (1991) the three there are three steps that managers can take to components of motivation are: improve motivation: 1 Direction – what a person is trying to do. 1 Autonomy – encourage people to set their 2 Effort – how hard a person is trying. own schedule and focus on getting work done not how it is done. 3 Persistence – how long a person keeps on trying. 2 Mastery – help people to identify the steps they can take to improve and ask them to identify Well-motivated people engage in positive discre- how they will know they are making progress. tionary behaviour – they decide to make an effort. 3 Purpose – when giving instructions explain Such people may be self-motivated, and as long as the why as well as the how. this means they are going in the right direction to attain what they are there to achieve, then this is the Intrinsic motivation is associated with the concept best form of motivation. But additional motivation of engagement, as explained in Chapter 15. provided by the work itself, the quality of leadership, and various forms of recognition and reward, builds on self-motivation and helps people to make the best Extrinsic motivation use of their abilities and to perform well. Extrinsic motivation occurs when things are done There are two types of motivation and a number to or for people in order to motivate them. These of theories explaining how it works, as discussed include rewards such as incentives, increased pay, below. praise or promotion; and punishments such as disciplinary action, withholding pay, or criticism. Extrinsic motivators can have an immediate and Types of motivation powerful effect, but it will not necessarily last long. The intrinsic motivators, which are concerned with the ‘quality of working life’ (a phrase and movement Intrinsic motivation that emerged from this concept), are likely to have Intrinsic motivation takes place when individuals a deeper and longer-term effect because they are feel that their work is important, interesting and cha-l inherent in individuals and the work – and are not lenging and that it provides them with a reasonable imposed from outside in such forms as incentive pay. degree of autonomy (freedom to act), opportunities Motivation theory as described below explains to achieve and advance, and scope to use and develop the ways in which intrinsic and extrinsic motivation their skills and abilities. It can be described as take place.Chapter 13 Motivation 171 be seriously affected by the informal relationship Motivation theory existing between workers. As mentioned by Steers et al (2004: 379) the earliest approaches to understanding human motivation Content theory date from the time of the Greek philosophers and The aim of the content or needs theories produced focus on the concept of hedonism as a principle by Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland, Herzberg, and driving force in behaviour. Individuals were seen as Deci and Ryan was to identify the factors associated directing their efforts to seeking pleasure and avoid- with motivation. The theory focuses on the content ing pain. This principle was later refined and further of motivation in the shape of needs. Its basis is the developed in the works of philosophers such as belief that an unsatisfied need creates tension and a John Locke and Jeremy Bentham in the 17th and state of disequilibrium. To restore the balance a goal 18th centuries. Motivation theory has moved on is identie fi d that will satisfy the need, and a behaviour from then. It started in the earlier part of the 20th pathway is selected that will lead to the achievement century with the contributions of the exponents of the goal and the satisfaction of the need. Behaviour of scientific management (instrumentality theory). is therefore motivated by unsatise fi d needs. A content In the middle years of that century the behavioural theory model is shown in Figure 13.1. Content the- scientists entered the field and began to develop the ory, as the term implies, indicates the components ‘content’ or ‘needs’ theory of motivation. The main of motivation but it does not explain how motiva- process theories such as expectancy theory emerged tion affects performance – a necessary requirement in the in the 1960s and 70s, although the first for - if the concept is to provide guidance on HR policy mulation of the process theory of reinforcement took and practice. This was the role of expectancy theory, place in 1911. The three main areas of motivation as will be discussed later. theory – instrumentality, content and process – are examined below. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs The most famous classification of needs is the one Instrumentality theory formulated by Maslow (1954). He suggested that Instrumentality theory states in effect that rewards there are five major need categories that apply to and punishments are the best instruments with people in general, starting from the fundamental which to shape behaviour. It assumes that people physiological needs and leading through a hierarchy will be motivated to work if rewards and penalties of safety, social and esteem needs to the need for are tied directly to their performance; thus the self-fulfilment, the highest need of all. When a lower awards are contingent upon effective performance. need is satisfied the next highest becomes dominant Instrumentality theory has its roots in the scientific and the individual’s attention is turned to satisfying management methods of Taylor (1911: 121) who this higher need. The need for self-fullfi ment, however, wrote: ‘It is impossible, through any long period of can never be satisfied. ‘Man is a wanting animal’; time, to get workmen to work much harder than only an unsatisfied need can motivate behaviour the average men around them unless they are assured and the dominant need is the prime motivator of a large and a permanent increase in their pay.’ behaviour. Psychological development takes place This theory provides a rationale for financial as people move up the hierarchy of needs, but this is incentives such as performance-related pay, albeit not necessarily a straightforward progression. The a dubious one. Motivation using this approach lower needs still exist, even if temporarily dormant has been and still is widely adopted. It may be suc- as motivators, and individuals constantly return to cessful in some circumstances, eg piece work, but – previously satisfied needs. for reasons explained in Chapter 27 – merit or Maslow’s needs hierarchy has an intuitive appeal performance pay is flawed. and has been very popular. But it has not been verie fi d Instrumentality theory relies exclusively on a by empirical research such as that conducted by system of external controls and does not recognize Wahba and Bridwell (1979), and it has been criticized a number of other human needs. It also fails to ap- for its apparent rigidity – different people may have preciate the fact that the formal control system can different priorities and the underpinning assumption 172 Part 3 factors Affecting Employee Behaviour FIgure 13.1 The process of motivation according to content theory Establish goal Identify Take need action Attain goal that everyone has the same needs is invalid. It is McClelland’s achievement difficult to accept that needs progress steadily up motivation the hierarchy and Maslow himself expressed doubts An alternative way of classifying needs was devel- about the validity of a strictly ordered hierarchy. oped by McClelland (1961), who based it mainly But he did emphasize that the higher-order needs on studies of managers. He identified three needs are more significant. of which the need for achievement was the most important: ERG theory (Alderfer) 1 The need for achievement, defined as the Alderfer (1972) produced a more convincing and need for competitive success measured simpler theory, which postulated three primary against a personal standard of excellence. categories of needs: 2 The need for affiliation, defined as the need 1 Existence needs such as hunger and thirst – for warm, friendly, compassionate pay, fringe benefits and working conditions relationships with others. are other types of existence needs. 3 The need for power, defined as the need to 2 Relatedness needs, which acknowledge that control or influence others. people are not self-contained units but must engage in transactions with their human Herzberg’s two-factor model environment – acceptance, understanding, confirmation and influence are elements of The two-factor model of motivation developed by the relatedness process. Herzberg (1957, 1966) was based on an investigation into the sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction 3 Growth needs, which involve people in of accountants and engineers who were asked what finding the opportunities to be what they are made them feel exceptionally good or exceptionally most fully and to become what they can. bad about their jobs. According to Herzberg, this This is the most significant need.Chapter 13 Motivation 173 research established that there were two factors that meant that he had considerable influence on the job affected feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. enrichment movement, which sought to design jobs Motivating factors or ‘satisfiers’ relate to the job in a way that would maximize the opportunities content and consist of the need for achievement, the to obtain intrinsic satisfaction from work and interest of the work, responsibility and opportunities thus improve the quality of working life. Herzberg for advancement. These needs are the intrinsic famously remarked that if you want people to do motivators. He summed this up in the phrase ‘moti- a good job then give them a good job to do (quoted vation by the work itself’. by Dowling, 1971). Hygiene factors relate to the job context, includ- ing such things as pay and working conditions. Self-determination theory ‘Hygiene’ is used in the medical use of the term, As formulated by Deci and Ryan (2000) this theory meaning preventative and environmental. In them- states that individuals are motivated by the need selves hygiene factors neither satisfy nor motivate to achieve three fundamental goals: striving for and they serve primarily to prevent job dissatis - competence, autonomy and relatedness. faction, while having little effect on positive job attitudes. Pay is not a satisfier but if it is inadequate Comment on content theories or inequitable it can cause dissatisfaction. However, Shields (2007: 74) observed that content theories its provision does not provide lasting satisfaction. share some common shortcomings. His criticisms Herzberg’s two-factor theory in effect identifies were that they incorrectly assume: needs but it has been attacked by, for example, Opsahl and Dunnette (1966). The research method ● the existence of a universally applicable set has been criticized because no attempt was made to of human needs; measure the relationship between satisfaction and ● that according to Maslow (1954), needs performance. It has been claimed that the two-factor conform to a simple ordered hierarchy of nature of the theory is an inevitable result of the need importance, when in reality, needs seem questioning method used by the interviewers. It has to operate in a more flexible, less ordered also been suggested that wide and unwarranted in- and predictable way; ferences have been drawn from small and specialized ● that the link between needs and behaviours samples and that there is no evidence to suggest that is direct and automatic, rather than mediated the satisfiers do improve productivity. The under- by human consciousness, values and choice. pinning assumption that everyone has the same needs is invalid. Denise Rousseau (2006: 263) in her pres- In addition, he pointed out that content theories idential address to the US Academy of Management ‘underestimate the motivational potency of extrinsic summed up these views as follows: ‘Herzberg’s long rewards, including financial rewards’. discredited two-factor theory is typically included in the motivation section of management textbooks, Process theory despite the fact that it was discredited as an artefact In process theory, the emphasis is on the psycho- of method bias over thirty years ago.’ logical or mental processes and forces that affect In spite of these objections, the Herzberg two- motivation, as well as on basic needs. It is also factor theory continues to thrive; partly because known as cognitive theory because it refers to it is easy to understand and seems to be based on people’s perceptions of their working environment real-life rather than academic abstractions, and and the ways in which they interpret and under - partly because it convincingly emphasizes the stand it. The main process theories are concerned positive value of the intrinsic motivating factors with reinforcement, expectancy, goals, equity, and and highlights the need to consider both financial cognitive evaluation. and non-financial factors when developing reward systems. It is also in accord with a fundamental Reinforcement theory belief in the dignity of labour and the Protestant ethic – that work is good in itself. Herzberg’s This is the oldest and least complex of the process strength as a proselytizer rather than a researcher theories. It is based on ‘the law of effect’ as formulated 174 Part 3 factors Affecting Employee Behaviour by Thorndike (1911), which states that over time frequently presented with new situations – a change people learn about the relationships between their in job, payment system, or working conditions actions and the consequences of them and this imposed by management – where past experience understanding guides their future behaviour. In is an inadequate guide to the implications of the other words, if they believe that something has change. In these circumstances, motivation may be worked previously then they will do it again. It was reduced. later developed by Hull (1943, 1951). Motivation is only likely when a clearly perceived Skinner (1953) and others later built on these and usable relationship exists between performance principles with the notion of ‘operant conditioning’, and outcome, and the outcome is seen as a means which was influenced by the work of Pavlov and his of satisfying needs. This explains why extrinsic salivating dogs. As Shields (2007: 76) put it: ‘Positive financial motivation – for example, an incentive or reinforcement of desired behaviour elicits more of bonus scheme – works only if the link (line of sight) the same; punishment of undesired behaviour between effort and reward is clear and the value of (negative reinforcement) elicits less of the same.’ the reward is worth the effort. It also explains why Reinforcement models continue to thrive today as intrinsic motivation arising from the work itself explanatory vehicles for understanding work moti- can be more powerful than extrinsic motivation. vation and job performance, and as a justification Intrinsic motivation outcomes are more under the of performance pay. control of individuals, who can place greater reliance But reinforcement theory can be criticized for on their past experiences to indicate the extent to taking an unduly mechanistic view of human nature. which positive and advantageous results are likely It implies that people can be motivated by treating to be obtained by their behaviour. them as machines – by pulling levers. In assuming This theory was developed by Porter and Lawler that the present choices of individuals are based on (1968) into a model shown in Figure 13.2, which an understanding of the outcomes of their past follows Vroom’s ideas by suggesting that there are choices, reinforcement theory ignores the existing two factors determining the effort that people put context in which choices are made. In addition, into their jobs: r fi st, the value of the rewards to indi - motivational theories based on the principle of rein- viduals in so far as they satisfy their needs for security, forcement pay insufficient attention to the influence social esteem, autonomy and self-actualization; of expectations – no indication is given of how to second, the probability that rewards depend on distinguish in advance which outcomes would effort, as perceived by individuals – in other words, strengthen responses and which would weaken their expectations about the relationships between them. Above all, they are limited because they imply, effort and reward. Thus, the greater the value of a in Allport’s (1954) vivid phrase, a hedonism of the set of awards and the higher the probability that past. receiving each of these rewards depends upon effort, the greater the effort that will be put forth in a given situation. Expectancy theory But, as Porter and Lawler emphasized, mere effort Expectancy theory states that motivation will be is not enough. It has to be effective effort if it is to high when people know what they have to do in produce the desired performance. The two variables order to get a reward, expect that they will be able additional to effort that affect task achievement are: to get the reward and expect that the reward will be 1) ability – individual characteristics such as intel- worthwhile. ligence, knowledge, skills; 2) role perceptions – The concept of expectancy was originally con- what the individual wants to do or thinks they are tained in the valency-instrumentality-expectancy required to do. These are good from the viewpoint (VIE) theory that was formulated by Vroom (1964). of the organization if they correspond with what Valency stands for value; instrumentality is the it thinks the individual ought to be doing. They are belief that if we do one thing it will lead to another; poor if the views of the individual and the organiza- and expectancy is the probability that action or tion do not coincide. effort will lead to an outcome. Alongside goal theory (see below), expectancy The strength of expectations may be based on past theory has become the most influential motivation experiences (reinforcement), but individuals are theory, particularly as it affects performance and Chapter 13 Motivation 175 FIgure 13.2 Motivation model (Porter and Lawler, 1968) Value of rewards Abilities Effort Performance Probability that Role reward depend expectations upon effort reward management. But reservations have been ● may be able to evaluate the extrinsic rewards expressed about it. House et  al (1974) remarked they expect but may find it difficult to that: ‘Evidence for the validity of the theory is evaluate the possibility of achieving intrinsic very mixed.’ They also established that there were rewards; a number of variables affecting expectations that ● may find it difficult to distinguish the benefits make it difficult to predict how they function. of one possible outcome from another. These are: They concluded that: ‘Expectancy theory can account ● Leadership behaviour – the function of the for some of the variations in work effort but far less leader in clarifying expectations, guiding, than normally attributed to it’ (ibid 386). supporting and rewarding subordinates. Shields (2007: 80) commented that a problem with expectancy theory is that it assumes that ● Individual characteristics – the subjects’ ‘behaviour is rational and premeditated when we perception of their ability to perform the know that much workplace behaviour is impulsive required task. and emotional’. ● Nature of the task – whether accomplishing However, in spite of these objections, the simple the task provides the necessary message of expectancy theory – that people will be reinforcements and rewards. motivated if they expect that their behaviour will ● The practices of the organization – its produce a worthwhile reward – is compelling. And reward and control systems and how it it provides a useful tool to assess the effectiveness of functions. motivating devices such as performance-related pay. Research conducted by Behling and Starke (1973) Goal theory established that individuals: Goal theory as developed by Latham and Locke ● make crucial personal decisions without (1979) following their research states that motivation clearly understanding the consequences; and performance are higher when individuals are ● do not in practice consistently evaluate their set specific goals, when goals are demanding but order of preference for alternative actions; accepted, and when there is feedback on performance. ● have to assign two values when making a Goals must be clearly defined. Participation in goal decision – its desirability and its achievability setting is important as a means of getting agreement – but they tend to be influenced mainly by to the setting of demanding goals. Feedback is vital desirability – they let their tastes influence in maintaining motivation, particularly towards the their beliefs; achievement of even higher goals.176 Part 3 factors Affecting Employee Behaviour However, the universality of goal theory has feedback, when used to convey to people a sense been questioned. For example, Pintrich (2000) noted of appreciation for work well done, will tend to be that people have different goals in different circum- experienced informationally and will maintain or stances and that it is hard to justify the assumption enhance intrinsic motivation. But when they are used that goals are always accessible and conscious. And to motivate people, they will be experienced con- Harackiewicz et  al (2002) warned that goals are trollingly and will undermine intrinsic motivation.’ only effective when they are consistent with and Deci et  al (1999) followed up this research by match the general context in which they are pursued. carrying out a meta-analysis of 128 experiments on But support for goal theory was provided by rewards and intrinsic motivation to establish the Bandura and Cervone (1983) who emphasized the extent to which intrinsic motivation was under - importance of self-efficacy (a belief in one’s ability mined by rewards. The results of the study indicated to accomplish goals). that for high-interest tasks, rewards had significant negative effects on what the researchers called ‘free- choice measures’, which included the time spent on Equity theory the task after the reward was removed. Equity theory, as defined by Adams (1965), is con- But as noted by Gerhart and Rynes (2003: 52): cerned with the perceptions people have about ‘The vast majority of research on this theory has how they are being treated as compared with others. been performed in school rather than work settings, He proposed that employees assess the fairness or often with elementary school-aged children.’ But otherwise of their rewards (outcomes) in relation to that did not stop other commentators assuming their effort or qualifications (inputs) and that they that the results were equally significant for working do this by comparing their own input/output ratio adults. It is interesting to note that research in in- against that of other individuals. If the input/output dustry conducted by Deci and Ryan (1985), while it ratio is perceived to be unfavourable, they will feel found that financial incentives did decrease intrinsic that there is reward inequity. motivation in high-control organizational cultures, Equity theory explains only one aspect of the pro- also established that in organizations with the cesses of motivation and job satisfaction, although opposite high-involvement culture, intrinsic and ex- it may be signic fi ant in terms of morale and, possibly, trinsic motivation were both increased by monetary of performance. incentives. Context is all important. Moreover, a meta-analysis of 145 studies conducted by Cameron Social learning theory et al (2001) led to the conclusion that rewards do not inevitably have negative effects on intrinsic Social learning theory as developed by Bandura motivation. (1977) combines aspects of both reinforcement and expectancy theory. It recognizes the significance of Purposeful work behaviour the basic behavioural concept of reinforcement as a determinant of future behaviour but also A more recent integrated motivation theory formu- emphasizes the importance of internal psychological lated by Barrick and Mount (2013) focused on the factors, especially expectancies about the value of impact on motivation of individual factors, such as goals and the individual’s ability to reach them. personality and ability, and situational factors, such The term ‘reciprocal determinism’ is used to denote as job characteristics. The motivation to engage in the concept that while the situation will affect purposeful work behaviour depends on both these individual behaviour individuals will simultaneously factors. influence the situation. Comment on process theories Cognitive evaluation theory Process theories are not based on suspect assump- Cognitive evaluation theory contends that the use tions about the universality of needs, as are content of extrinsic rewards may destroy the intrinsic moti- theories. Process theories emphasize the importance vation that flows from inherent job interest. It was of individual decision-making on work behaviour. formulated by Deci and Ryan (1985). Referring As pointed out by Shields (2007: 85) They ‘ac- to their research, they stated that: ‘Rewards, like knowledge the importance of social and job context Chapter 13 Motivation 177 as co-determinants of motivational strength while Motivation and job those other than reinforcement theory also high- light the importance of self-efficacy, task or goal satisfaction clarity and motivational learning’. Job satisfaction can be defined as the attitudes and feelings people have about their work. Positive and Summary of motivation theories favourable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction. Negative and unfavourable attitudes A summary of motivation theories is set out in towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction. It can Table 13.1. be distinguished from morale, which is a group rather than individual variable, related to the degree to which group members feel attracted to their Conclusions on motivation theory group and want to remain a member of it. All the theories referred to above make some contri- bution to an understanding of the processes that affect motivation. But instrumentality theory provides The factors that affect job only a simplistic explanation of how motivation satisfaction works. Needs and content theories are more sophis- ticated but have their limitations. As Gerhart and Levels of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction are in- Rynes (2003: 53) commented: fluenced by: Although the ideas developed by Maslow, ● The intrinsic motivating factors. These relate Herzberg and Deci have had considerable appeal to job content, especially the five dimensions to many people, the prevailing view in the of jobs identified by Hackman and Oldham academic literature is that the specific predictions (1974): skill variety, task identity, task of these theories is not supported by empirical significance, autonomy and feedback (the job evidence. On the other hand it would be a mistake characteristics model). to underestimate the influence that these theories have had on research and practice. Pfeffer, Kohn ● The quality of supervision. The Hawthorne and others continue to base their argument studies (Roethlisberger and Dixon, 1939) regarding the ineffectiveness of money as a resulted in the claim that supervision is the motivator on such theories. most important determinant of worker attitudes. Elton Mayo (1933) believed that But, bearing in mind the reservations set out earlier, a man’s desire to be continuously associated needs theory still offers an indication of the factors in work with his fellows is a strong, if not that motivate people and content theory provides the strongest human characteristic. useful explanations of how motivation takes place. And while instrumentality and reinforcement theo- ● Success or failure. Success obviously ries may be simplistic they still explain some aspects creates satisfaction, especially if it enables of how rewards affect motivation and performance individuals to prove to themselves that they and they continue to exert influence on the beliefs are using their abilities to the full. And it is of some people about the power of incentives to equally obvious that the reverse is true of motivate people. Herzberg’s research may be flawed failure. but he still contributed to the recognition of the importance of job design. Motivation theory can explain what makes peo- Job satisfaction and performance ple tick at work but it is also necessary to consider two other aspects of the impact of motivation – its It is a commonly held and not unreasonable belief relationship with job satisfaction and the effect of that an increase in job satisfaction results in im- money on motivation. Strategies for motivation proved performance. The whole human relations based on the lessons learnt from motivation theory movement led by Mayo (1933) and supported by are considered at the end of this chapter. the Roethlisberger and Dixon (1939) research was 178 Part 3 factors Affecting Employee Behaviour t ab Le 13.1 Summary of motivation theories Category Theory Summary of theory Implications Instrumentality Taylorism If we do one thing it leads to Basis of crude attempts to Taylor (1911) another. People will be motivate people by incentives. motivated to work if rewards Often used as the implied and punishments are directly rationale for performance-related related to their performance. pay although this is seldom an effective motivator. Content or Hierarchy of A hierarchy of needs exists: Focuses attention on the various needs needs physiological, safety, social, needs that motivate people and Maslow (1954) esteem, self-fulfilment. Needs the notion that a satisfied need is at a higher level only emerge no longer a motivator. The concept when a lower need is satisfied. of a hierarchy has no practical significance. ERG A non-hierarchical theory A simpler and more convincing Alderfer (1972) identifying three basic needs: categorization of needs. existence, relatedness and growth. Achievement Identified three needs for Emphasized the importance to motivation managers: achievement, managers of achievement as a McClelland affiliation and power. Of these, motivating factor. (1961) achievement is the most important. Two-factor model Two groups of factors affect job The research methodology has Herzberg (1957, satisfaction: 1) those intrinsic been strongly criticized (it does 1966) to the work itself; 2) those not support the existence of two extrinsic to the job such as pay factors) and the underpinning and working conditions. The assumption that everyone has factors that affect positive the same needs is invalid. But it feelings (the motivating factors) has influenced approaches to job are quite different from those design (job enrichment) and it that affect negative feelings supports the proposition that (the hygiene factors). reward systems should provide for both financial and non-financial rewards. Self- Individuals are motivated to Provides an alternative and determination achieve three fundamental simpler classification of needs. Deci and Ryan goals: striving for competence, (2000) autonomy, and relatedness.Chapter 13 Motivation 179 t ab Le 13.1 Continued Category Theory Summary of theory Implications Process Reinforcement As experience is gained in Provide feedback that positively Thorndike (1911) satisfying needs, people reinforces effective behaviour. Skinner (1953) perceive that certain actions help to achieve goals while others are unsuccessful. The successful actions are repeated when a similar need arises. Expectancy Effort (motivation) depends on The key theory informing Vroom (1964) the likelihood that rewards will approaches to rewards, ie that Porter and follow effort and that the they must be a link between effort Lawler (1968) reward is worthwhile. and reward (line of sight), the reward should be achievable and it should be worthwhile. Goal Motivation will improve if Influences performance Lathom and people have demanding but management and learning and Locke (1979) agreed goals and receive development practices. feedback Equity People are better motivated Need to have equitable reward and employment practices. Adams (1966) if treated equitably, ie treated fairly in comparison with another group of people (a reference group) or a relevant other person. The emphasis is on expectancies, Social learning Recognizes the significance of Bandura (1977) reinforcement as a determinant individual goals and values and of future behaviour but also the influence of both person and emphasizes the importance of situational factors as well as expectancies about the value reinforcement. of goals and the individual’s ability to reach them. Cognitive The use of extrinsic rewards Emphasizes the importance of evaluation may destroy the intrinsic non-financial rewards. The Deci and Ryan motivation that flows from conclusions reached from Deci (1985) inherent job interest. and Ryan’s research have been questioned.180 Part 3 factors Affecting Employee Behaviour based on the belief that productivity could be in- the work itself. However, it must be re-emphasized creased by making workers more satise fi d, primarily that different people have different needs and through pleasant and supportive supervision and by wants. Some will be much more motivated by meeting their social needs. But research by Katz money than others. What cannot be assumed is that et al (1950) and Katz et al (1951) found that the money motivates everyone in the same way and to levels of satisfaction with pay, job status or fellow the same extent. Thus it is naive to think that the workers in high productivity units were no different introduction of a performance-related pay scheme to those in low productivity units. will miraculously transform everyone overnight Meta-analysis by Braye fi ld and Crocket (1955) of into well-motivated, high-performing individuals. a number of studies concluded that there was little Nevertheless, money is a powerful force because evidence of any simple or appreciable relationship it is linked directly or indirectly to the satisfaction of between satisfaction and performance. A later review many needs. Money may in itself have no intrinsic of research by Vroom (1964) found that the median meaning, but it acquires significant motivating correlation between job satisfaction and job per - power because it comes to symbolize so many intan- formance for all these studies was only 0.14, which gible goals. It acts as a symbol in different ways for is not high enough to suggest any marked relation - different people, and for the same person at different ship between them. Spector (1997) came to the times. same conclusion. Indeed, it can be argued that it is But do financial incentives motivate people? The not increases in satisfaction that produce improved answer is yes, for those people who are strongly performance but improved performance that in- motivated by money and whose expectations are creases satisfaction. This was confirmed by data on that they will receive a worthwhile financial reward. the link between job satisfaction and performance But less confident employees may not respond to for 177 store managers, analysed by Christen et al incentives that they do not expect to achieve. It can (2006). It was established that store managers’ per - also be argued that extrinsic rewards may erode formance increased their job satisfaction but that intrinsic interest – people who work just for money job satisfaction had no impact on job performance. could find their tasks less pleasurable and may not, therefore, do them so well. What we do know is that a multiplicity of factors is involved in perform- ance improvements and many of those factors are Motivation and money interdependent. Money can therefore provide positive motivation Money, in the form of pay or some other sort of in the right circumstances not only because people remuneration, is regarded by many people as the need and want money but also because it serves as most obvious extrinsic reward. Money seems to a highly tangible means of recognition. But badly provide the carrot that most people want. designed and managed pay systems can demotivate. Doubts were cast on the effectiveness of money Another researcher in this area was Jaques (1961), by Herzberg (1968), which although unsupported who emphasized the need for such systems to be by his research have some degree of face validity. perceived as being fair and equitable. In other words, He claimed that while the lack of money can cause the reward should be clearly related to effort or level dissatisfaction, its provision does not result in lasting of responsibility and people should not receive less satisfaction. There is something in this, especially money than they deserve compared with their fellow for people on fixed salaries or rates of pay who do workers. Jaques called this the ‘felt-fair’ principle. not benefit directly from an incentive scheme. They may feel good when they get an increase; apart from the extra money, it is a highly tangible form of recognition and an effective means of helping Motivation strategies people to feel that they are valued. But this feeling Motivation strategies aim to create a working envir - of euphoria can rapidly die away. Other causes of dissatisfaction from Herzberg’s list of hygiene factors, onment and to develop policies and practices that will provide for higher levels of performance from such as working conditions or the quality of man- agement, can loom larger in some people’s minds employees. The factors affecting them and the HR contribution are summarized in Table 13.2. when they fail to get the satisfaction they need from Chapter 13 Motivation 181 t ab Le 13.2 Factors affecting motivation strategies and the HR contribution Factors affecting motivation The HR contribution strategies The complexity of the process of motivation Avoid the trap of developing or supporting strategies means that simplistic approaches based on that offer prescriptions for motivation based on a instrumentality or needs theory are unlikely simplistic view of the process or fail to recognize to be successful. individual differences. People are more likely to be motivated if Encourage the development of performance they work in an environment in which they management processes that provide opportunities are valued for what they are and what they to agree expectations and to recognize do. accomplishments. This means paying attention to the basic need for recognition. Extrinsic motivators such as incentive pay Develop total reward systems that provide can have an immediate and powerful effect, opportunities for both financial and non-financial but it will not necessarily last long. The rewards to recognize achievements. Bear in mind, intrinsic motivators, which are concerned however, that financial rewards systems are not with the ‘quality of working life’ (a phrase necessarily appropriate and the lessons of and movement that emerged from this expectancy, goal and equity theory need to be taken concept), are likely to have a deeper and into account in designing and operating them. longer-term effect because they are inherent Pay particular attention to recognition as a means of in individuals and the work they do and not motivation. imposed from outside in such forms as Develop intrinsic motivation by paying attention to performance-related pay. job design, ensuring that managers are aware of its importance and their role in designing intrinsically motivating jobs. Some people will be much more motivated Avoid the introduction of a performance-related by money than others. It cannot be assumed pay scheme in the belief that it will miraculously that money motivates everyone in the same transform everyone overnight into well-motivated, way and to the same extent. high-performing individuals. The need for work that provides people with Advise on processes for the design of jobs that take the means to achieve their goals, a account of the factors affecting the motivation to reasonable degree of autonomy, and scope work, providing for job enrichment in the shape of for the use of skills and competences. variety, decision-making responsibility and as much control as possible in carrying out the work. The need for the opportunity to grow by Provide facilities and opportunities for learning developing abilities and careers. through such means as personal development planning processes as well as more formal training. Develop career planning processes.182 Part 3 factors Affecting Employee Behaviour tab Le 13.2 Continued Factors affecting motivation The HR contribution strategies The cultural environment of the organization Advise on the development of a culture that in the shape of its values and norms will supports processes of valuing and rewarding influence the impact of any attempts to employees. motivate people by direct or indirect means. Motivation will be enhanced by leadership, Devise competency frameworks that focus on which sets the direction, encourages and leadership qualities and the behaviours expected of stimulates achievement and provides managers and team leaders. support to employees in their efforts to Ensure that leadership potential is identified through reach goals and improve their performance performance management and assessment centres. generally. Conduct leadership development programmes. Achievement motivation is important for Pay attention to job design to ensure that people are managers and those who aspire to greater given the scope to achieve. responsibility. Develop talent management processes to provide people with opportunities to achieve and performance management processes to provide them with feedback on how well they are achieving and what they must do to achieve more. Key learning points: Motivation most significant theories are those concerned with The process of motivation expectancy, goal setting, equity and cognitive Motivation is goal-directed behaviour. People are evaluation, which are classified as process or motivated when they expect that a course of action cognitive theories. is likely to lead to the attainment of a goal and a valued reward – one that satisfies their needs and wants. Motivation strategies Types of motivation Motivation strategies aim to create a working environment and to develop policies and practices The two basic types are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. that will provide for higher levels of performance from employees. They include the design of intrinsically Motivation theories motivating jobs and leadership development There are a number of motivation theories that, in programmes and the development of total reward the main, are complementary to one another. The systems and performance management processes.Chapter 13 Motivation 183 Questions 1 What is motivation? 11 What is cognitive evaluation theory? 2 What is the difference between extrinsic and 12 Which motivation theory provides the best intrinsic motivation? guide on the principles of performance-related pay and why? 3 What is instrumentality? 13 What message for HR policy is provided by 4 What is reinforcement? the belief that motivation is a highly complex 5 What is content or needs theory? process? 6 How valid is Maslow’s concept of the 14 Why is recognition so important as a means hierarchy of human needs? of motivation? 7 How valid is Herzberg’s two-factor theory of 15 Why are there limitations in the power of motivation? money to motivate? 8 What is expectancy theory? 16 Why is intrinsic motivation through the work 9 What is goal theory? itself likely to be more effective in the longer 10 What is equity theory? term than extrinsic motivation? 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Six recommendations Wahba, M A and Bridwell, L G (1979) Maslow for the twenty-first century, Academy of reconsidered: a review of research on the need Management Review, 29 (3), pp 398–403 hierarchy theory, in (eds) R M Sters and L W Porter, Maslow, A (1954) Motivation and Personality, New Motivation and Work Behaviour, New York, York, Harper & Row McGraw-Hill185 14 Commitment Key Con Ce Pts and terms Commitment Pluralist High commitment model Psychological contract Mutuality Unitarist Organizational engagement Learn Ing out Comes On completing this chapter you should be able to define these key concepts. You should also understand: ● The meaning of organizational ● The impact of high commitment commitment ● Factors affecting commitment ● The importance of commitment ● Developing a commitment strategy ● Commitment and engagement ● Problems with the concept of commitment psychological involvement, and identity for the Introduction individual’. Commitment represents the strength of an indi- vidual’s identification with, and involvement in, an organization. It is a concept that has played The meaning of an important part in HRM philosophy. As Guest (1987: 503) suggested, HRM policies are designed organizational commitment to ‘maximize organizational integration, employee commitment, flexibility and quality of work’. Commitment refers to attachment and loyalty. It is Beer et al (1984: 20) identified commitment in their associated with the feelings of individuals about concept of HRM as a key dimension because it ‘can their organization. Mowday (1998) stated that it is result not only in more loyalty and better performance characterized by an emotional attachment to one’s for the organization, but also in self-worth, dignity, organization that results from shared values and 186 Part 3 factors Affecting Employee Behaviour interests. The three characteristics of commitment identified by Mowday et al (1982) are: Source review 1 A strong desire to remain a member of the organization. Richard Walton on commitment – 2 A strong belief in and acceptance of the Walton (1985a: 79) values and goals of the organization. Jobs are designed to be broader than before, 3 A readiness to exert considerable effort on to combine planning and implementation, and to behalf of the organization. include efforts to upgrade operations, not just to Appelbaum et al (2000: 183) rephrased this den fi ition maintain them. Individual responsibilities are as: ‘Organizational commitment is a multidimen- expected to change as conditions change, and sional construct that ree fl cts a worker’s: identic fi ation teams, not individuals, often are the organizational with the organization (loyalty), attachment to the units accountable for performance. With organization (intention to stay), and willingness to management hierarchies relatively flat and expend effort on the organization’s behalf (discre- differences in status minimized, control and lateral tionary effort).’ An alternative, although closely coordination depend on shared goals. And related definition of commitment emphasizes the expertise rather than formal position determines importance of behaviour in creating commitment. influence. Three features of behaviour are important in binding individuals to their acts: the visibility of the acts, the extent to which the outcomes are irrevocable, and the degree to which the person undertakes the action voluntarily. Commitment, according to Expressed like this, a commitment strategy sounds Salancik (1977) can be increased and harnessed to idealistic (‘the American dream’ as Guest (1990) obtain support for organizational ends and interests put it) but it does not appear to be a crude attempt through such ploys as participation in decisions to manipulate people to accept management’s about actions. values and goals, as some have suggested. In fact, Walton did not describe it as being instrumental in this manner. His prescription was for a broad HRM The importance of approach to the ways in which people are treated, jobs are designed and organizations are managed. commitment He believed that the aim should be to develop ‘mutuality’, a state that exists when management The importance of commitment was highlighted and employees are interdependent and both benefit by Walton (1985a). His theme was that improved from this interdependency. The importance of mu- performance would result if the organization tuality and its relationship to commitment was spelt moved away from the traditional control-oriented out by Walton (1985b: 64) as follows: approach to workforce management, which relies The new HRM model is composed of policies upon establishing order, exercising control and that promote mutuality – mutual goals, mutual achieving efficiency. He proposed that this approach influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards, mutual should be replaced by a commitment strategy that responsibility. The theory is that policies of would enable workers ‘to respond best – and most mutuality will elicit commitment which in turn creatively – not when they are tightly controlled will yield both better economic performance and by management, placed in narrowly defined jobs, greater human development. and treated like an unwelcome necessity, but, in- stead, when they are given broader responsibilities, But a review by Guest (1991) of the mainly North American literature, reinforced by the limited UK encouraged to contribute and helped to achieve satisfaction in their work’ (ibid: 77). He described research available, led him to the conclusion that: ‘High organizational commitment is associated the commitment-based approach as follows.

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